Analgesics..
Antiandrogens..
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Cannabidiol
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Ensovibep
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Iota-carragee..
Ivermectin
Lactoferrin
Lifestyle..
Melatonin
Metformin
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Nitric Oxide
Paxlovid
Peg.. Lambda
Povidone-Iod..
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Vitamins..
Zinc

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Summary
All studies
Exclusions
Mortality
Ventilation
ICU
Hospitalization
Serious outcomes
Recovery
Viral clearance
RCTs
RCT mortality
Peer-reviewed
All outcomes

Feedback
Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Remdesivir  COVID-19 treatment studies for Remdesivir  C19 studies: Remdesivir  Remdesivir   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Cannabidiol Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitric Oxide Meta
Ensovibep Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Favipiravir Meta Povidone-Iod.. Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Iota-carragee.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta Zinc Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

Other Treatments Global Adoption
Outcomes in COVID-19 remdesivir studies
Outcomes in remdesivir studies. Studies show significantly increased risk of acute kidney injury [Gérard, Zhou].
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 15% 44 133,239 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk Mortality 16% 40 131,840 Ventilation -10% 8 33,882 ICU admission -34% 2 2,163 Hospitalization -19% 4 3,939 Progression 47% 2 12,659 Recovery 21% 3 2,469 Viral clearance 0% 1 142 RCTs 12% 9 10,168 RCT mortality 9% 8 9,606 Peer-reviewed 9% 36 122,239 Early 61% 4 1,324 Late 14% 41 132,287 Remdesivir for COVID-19 c19early.org/s Dec 2022 Favorsremdesivir Favorscontrol after exclusions
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Madan (ES) 66% 0.34 [0.12-0.96] death 4/112 27/260 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gottlieb (DB RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] death/hosp. 2/279 15/283 Piccicacco 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.32] death 0/82 1/90 Kneidinger 20% 0.80 [0.35-1.82] severe case 6/46 28/172 Tau​2 = 0.27, I​2 = 39.4%, p = 0.026 Early treatment 61% 0.39 [0.17-0.89] 12/519 71/805 61% improvement Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] death 22/158 10/78 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Olender 59% 0.41 [0.24-0.71] death 24/312 102/818 Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] death 5/384 4/200 Pasquini (ICU) 16% 0.84 [0.69-0.94] death 14/25 24/26 ICU patients Fried 61% 0.39 [0.15-0.99] death 4/48 2,510/11,673 Beigel (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.52-1.03] death 541 (n) 521 (n) SOLIDARITY (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.81-1.11] death 301/2,743 303/2,708 Solh 47% 0.53 [0.39-0.70] death 63/219 202/424 Flisiak 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.30] death 5/122 17/211 Garibaldi 20% 0.80 [0.46-1.41] death 23/303 45/303 Ullah -100% 2.00 [0.67-5.94] death 8/30 4/30 Yeramaneni -24% 1.24 [0.11-14.2] death 32 (n) 7,126 (n) Goldberg 9% 0.91 [0.50-1.67] hosp. time 29 (n) 113 (n) Tsuzuki -4% 1.04 [0.98-1.09] death 69/824 285/11,663 Mahajan (RCT) -76% 1.76 [0.46-6.82] death 5/34 3/36 Mulhem -86% 1.86 [0.21-5.24] death 1/8 515/3,211 Aghajani 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.46] death 46 (n) 945 (n) Elhadi (ICU) -11% 1.11 [0.81-1.51] death 14/21 267/444 ICU patients Pourhoseingholi -2% 1.02 [0.72-1.44] death 42/123 297/2,345 Arch (PSM) 20% 0.80 [0.64-0.98] death 203/1,491 777/4,676 Barrat-Due (DB RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.20-4.60] death 3/37 4/53 Ohl (PSM) -6% 1.06 [0.83-1.36] death 143/1,172 124/1,172 Madan 44% 0.56 [0.33-0.95] death 23/398 27/260 Kuno (PSM) 1% 0.99 [0.84-1.17] death 214/999 216/999 Diaz 35% 0.65 [0.46-0.92] death 33/286 173/852 Ader (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.59-1.45] death 34/414 37/418 Mozaffari 12% 0.88 [0.81-0.96] death 4,441/28,855 5,499/28,855 Schmidt (PSM) -509% 6.09 [2.71-13.7] severe case 43 (n) 434 (n) Jamir (ICU) 8% 0.92 [0.55-1.55] death 60/181 41/85 ICU patients Mustafa 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.20] death 16/200 29/244 Ali (RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.72-1.07] death 127/634 152/647 Kurniyanto -460% 5.60 [2.32-13.5] death 7/45 12/432 Siraj 53% 0.47 [0.35-0.62] death 108/413 197/587 Salehi (ICU) 37% 0.63 [0.43-0.94] death 17/40 57/85 ICU patients Elec 19% 0.81 [0.38-1.69] death 7/38 29/127 Zangeneh (ICU) 32% 0.68 [0.45-1.01] death n/a n/a ICU patients Malundo -17% 1.17 [0.80-1.70] death 24/115 197/1,100 Bowen -57% 1.57 [1.25-1.97] death 817 (n) 3,814 (n) Raad 42% 0.58 [0.39-0.88] death n/a n/a Oku -40% 1.40 [0.41-4.36] death 3/46 8/172 Behboodikhah 38% 0.62 [0.30-1.30] death 1,214 (n) 960 (n) Tau​2 = 0.06, I​2 = 76.9%, p = 0.0042 Late treatment 14% 0.86 [0.78-0.95] 6,063/43,440 12,167/88,847 14% improvement All studies 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.94] 6,075/43,959 12,238/89,652 15% improvement Remdesivir COVID-19 studies c19early.org/s Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.06, I​2 = 76.1%, p = 0.0023 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gottlieb (DB RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] death/hosp. 2/279 15/283 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Piccicacco 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.32] death 0/82 1/90 Kneidinger 20% 0.80 [0.35-1.82] severe case 6/46 28/172 Tau​2 = 0.77, I​2 = 56.2%, p = 0.15 Early treatment 63% 0.37 [0.10-1.44] 8/407 44/545 63% improvement Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] death 22/158 10/78 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Olender 59% 0.41 [0.24-0.71] death 24/312 102/818 Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] death 5/384 4/200 Pasquini (ICU) 16% 0.84 [0.69-0.94] death 14/25 24/26 ICU patients Beigel (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.52-1.03] death 541 (n) 521 (n) SOLIDARITY (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.81-1.11] death 301/2,743 303/2,708 Flisiak 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.30] death 5/122 17/211 Garibaldi 20% 0.80 [0.46-1.41] death 23/303 45/303 Ullah -100% 2.00 [0.67-5.94] death 8/30 4/30 Yeramaneni -24% 1.24 [0.11-14.2] death 32 (n) 7,126 (n) Goldberg 9% 0.91 [0.50-1.67] hosp. time 29 (n) 113 (n) Tsuzuki -4% 1.04 [0.98-1.09] death 69/824 285/11,663 Mahajan (RCT) -76% 1.76 [0.46-6.82] death 5/34 3/36 Aghajani 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.46] death 46 (n) 945 (n) Pourhoseingholi -2% 1.02 [0.72-1.44] death 42/123 297/2,345 Arch (PSM) 20% 0.80 [0.64-0.98] death 203/1,491 777/4,676 Barrat-Due (DB RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.20-4.60] death 3/37 4/53 Ohl (PSM) -6% 1.06 [0.83-1.36] death 143/1,172 124/1,172 Kuno (PSM) 1% 0.99 [0.84-1.17] death 214/999 216/999 Diaz 35% 0.65 [0.46-0.92] death 33/286 173/852 Ader (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.59-1.45] death 34/414 37/418 Mozaffari 12% 0.88 [0.81-0.96] death 4,441/28,855 5,499/28,855 Jamir (ICU) 8% 0.92 [0.55-1.55] death 60/181 41/85 ICU patients Ali (RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.72-1.07] death 127/634 152/647 Siraj 53% 0.47 [0.35-0.62] death 108/413 197/587 Zangeneh (ICU) 32% 0.68 [0.45-1.01] death n/a n/a ICU patients Bowen -57% 1.57 [1.25-1.97] death 817 (n) 3,814 (n) Raad 42% 0.58 [0.39-0.88] death n/a n/a Behboodikhah 38% 0.62 [0.30-1.30] death 1,214 (n) 960 (n) Tau​2 = 0.04, I​2 = 72.4%, p = 0.0012 Late treatment 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.94] 5,884/42,219 8,314/70,241 15% improvement All studies 16% 0.84 [0.76-0.93] 5,892/42,626 8,358/70,786 16% improvement Remdesivir COVID-19 studies after exclusions c19early.org/s Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.04, I​2 = 71.3%, p = 0.00063 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Madan (ES) 66% 0.34 [0.12-0.96] 4/112 27/260 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Piccicacco 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.32] 0/82 1/90 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.032 Early treatment 66% 0.34 [0.13-0.91] 4/194 28/350 66% improvement Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] 22/158 10/78 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Olender 59% 0.41 [0.24-0.71] 24/312 102/818 Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] 5/384 4/200 Pasquini (ICU) 16% 0.84 [0.69-0.94] 14/25 24/26 ICU patients Fried 61% 0.39 [0.15-0.99] 4/48 2,510/11,673 Beigel (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.52-1.03] 541 (n) 521 (n) SOLIDARITY (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.81-1.11] 301/2,743 303/2,708 Solh 47% 0.53 [0.39-0.70] 63/219 202/424 Flisiak 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.30] 5/122 17/211 Garibaldi 20% 0.80 [0.46-1.41] 23/303 45/303 Ullah -100% 2.00 [0.67-5.94] 8/30 4/30 Yeramaneni -24% 1.24 [0.11-14.2] 32 (n) 7,126 (n) Tsuzuki -4% 1.04 [0.98-1.09] 69/824 285/11,663 Mahajan (RCT) -76% 1.76 [0.46-6.82] 5/34 3/36 Mulhem -86% 1.86 [0.21-5.24] 1/8 515/3,211 Aghajani 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.46] 46 (n) 945 (n) Elhadi (ICU) -11% 1.11 [0.81-1.51] 14/21 267/444 ICU patients Pourhoseingholi -2% 1.02 [0.72-1.44] 42/123 297/2,345 Arch (PSM) 20% 0.80 [0.64-0.98] 203/1,491 777/4,676 Barrat-Due (DB RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.20-4.60] 3/37 4/53 Ohl (PSM) -6% 1.06 [0.83-1.36] 143/1,172 124/1,172 Madan 44% 0.56 [0.33-0.95] 23/398 27/260 Kuno (PSM) 1% 0.99 [0.84-1.17] 214/999 216/999 Diaz 35% 0.65 [0.46-0.92] 33/286 173/852 Ader (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.59-1.45] 34/414 37/418 Mozaffari 12% 0.88 [0.81-0.96] 4,441/28,855 5,499/28,855 Jamir (ICU) 8% 0.92 [0.55-1.55] 60/181 41/85 ICU patients Mustafa 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.20] 16/200 29/244 Ali (RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.72-1.07] 127/634 152/647 Kurniyanto -460% 5.60 [2.32-13.5] 7/45 12/432 Siraj 53% 0.47 [0.35-0.62] 108/413 197/587 Salehi (ICU) 37% 0.63 [0.43-0.94] 17/40 57/85 ICU patients Elec 19% 0.81 [0.38-1.69] 7/38 29/127 Zangeneh (ICU) 32% 0.68 [0.45-1.01] n/a n/a ICU patients Malundo -17% 1.17 [0.80-1.70] 24/115 197/1,100 Bowen -57% 1.57 [1.25-1.97] 817 (n) 3,814 (n) Raad 42% 0.58 [0.39-0.88] n/a n/a Oku -40% 1.40 [0.41-4.36] 3/46 8/172 Behboodikhah 38% 0.62 [0.30-1.30] 1,214 (n) 960 (n) Tau​2 = 0.05, I​2 = 74.8%, p = 0.00055 Late treatment 16% 0.84 [0.76-0.93] 6,063/43,368 12,167/88,300 16% improvement All studies 16% 0.84 [0.76-0.93] 6,067/43,562 12,195/88,650 16% improvement 41 remdesivir COVID-19 mortality results c19early.org/s Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.05, I​2 = 74.2%, p = 0.0005 Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Fried -37% 1.37 [0.81-2.30] 11/48 1,956/11,673 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ullah -250% 3.50 [0.79-15.5] 7/30 2/30 Tsuzuki 2% 0.98 [0.91-1.07] 48/824 98/11,663 Mahajan (RCT) -112% 2.12 [0.41-10.8] 4/34 2/36 Arch (PSM) -68% 1.68 [1.19-2.34] 106/1,498 153/4,602 Kuno (PSM) 0% 1.00 [0.80-1.24] 140/999 140/999 Ali (RCT) 47% 0.53 [0.38-0.75] 46/634 89/647 Elec 11% 0.89 [0.45-1.78] 8/38 30/127 Tau​2 = 0.15, I​2 = 79.9%, p = 0.6 Late treatment -10% 1.10 [0.78-1.54] 370/4,105 2,470/29,777 -10% improvement All studies -10% 1.10 [0.78-1.54] 370/4,105 2,470/29,777 -10% improvement 8 remdesivir COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19early.org/s Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.15, I​2 = 79.9%, p = 0.6 Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Kuno (PSM) -17% 1.17 [1.00-1.37] 260/999 222/999 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Elec -72% 1.72 [1.11-2.66] 18/38 35/127 Tau​2 = 0.05, I​2 = 61.8%, p = 0.11 Late treatment -34% 1.34 [0.94-1.92] 278/1,037 257/1,126 -34% improvement All studies -34% 1.34 [0.94-1.92] 278/1,037 257/1,126 -34% improvement 2 remdesivir COVID-19 ICU results c19early.org/s Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.05, I​2 = 61.8%, p = 0.11 Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Piccicacco 30% 0.70 [0.28-1.72] hosp. 7/82 11/90 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.44 Early treatment 30% 0.70 [0.28-1.72] 7/82 11/90 30% improvement Goldberg 9% 0.91 [0.50-1.67] hosp. time 29 (n) 113 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ohl (PSM) -100% 2.00 [1.33-3.02] hosp. time 1,172 (n) 1,172 (n) Ali (RCT) -11% 1.11 [1.01-1.23] hosp. time 634 (n) 647 (n) Tau​2 = 0.10, I​2 = 74.9%, p = 0.25 Late treatment -28% 1.28 [0.85-1.93] 0/1,835 0/1,932 -28% improvement All studies -19% 1.19 [0.82-1.72] 7/1,917 11/2,022 -19% improvement 4 remdesivir COVID-19 hospitalization results c19early.org/s Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.09, I​2 = 67.1%, p = 0.37 Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Madan (ES) 66% 0.34 [0.12-0.96] death 4/112 27/260 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gottlieb (DB RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] death/hosp. 2/279 15/283 Piccicacco 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.32] death 0/82 1/90 Kneidinger 20% 0.80 [0.35-1.82] severe case 6/46 28/172 Tau​2 = 0.27, I​2 = 39.4%, p = 0.026 Early treatment 61% 0.39 [0.17-0.89] 12/519 71/805 61% improvement Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] death 22/158 10/78 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Olender 59% 0.41 [0.24-0.71] death 24/312 102/818 Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] death 5/384 4/200 Pasquini (ICU) 16% 0.84 [0.69-0.94] death 14/25 24/26 ICU patients Fried 61% 0.39 [0.15-0.99] death 4/48 2,510/11,673 Beigel (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.52-1.03] death 541 (n) 521 (n) SOLIDARITY (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.81-1.11] death 301/2,743 303/2,708 Solh 47% 0.53 [0.39-0.70] death 63/219 202/424 Flisiak 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.30] death 5/122 17/211 Garibaldi 20% 0.80 [0.46-1.41] death 23/303 45/303 Ullah -100% 2.00 [0.67-5.94] death 8/30 4/30 Yeramaneni -24% 1.24 [0.11-14.2] death 32 (n) 7,126 (n) Tsuzuki -4% 1.04 [0.98-1.09] death 69/824 285/11,663 Mahajan (RCT) -76% 1.76 [0.46-6.82] death 5/34 3/36 Mulhem -86% 1.86 [0.21-5.24] death 1/8 515/3,211 Aghajani 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.46] death 46 (n) 945 (n) Elhadi (ICU) -11% 1.11 [0.81-1.51] death 14/21 267/444 ICU patients Pourhoseingholi -2% 1.02 [0.72-1.44] death 42/123 297/2,345 Arch (PSM) 20% 0.80 [0.64-0.98] death 203/1,491 777/4,676 Barrat-Due (DB RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.20-4.60] death 3/37 4/53 Ohl (PSM) -6% 1.06 [0.83-1.36] death 143/1,172 124/1,172 Madan 44% 0.56 [0.33-0.95] death 23/398 27/260 Kuno (PSM) 1% 0.99 [0.84-1.17] death 214/999 216/999 Diaz 35% 0.65 [0.46-0.92] death 33/286 173/852 Ader (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.59-1.45] death 34/414 37/418 Mozaffari 12% 0.88 [0.81-0.96] death 4,441/28,855 5,499/28,855 Schmidt (PSM) -509% 6.09 [2.71-13.7] severe case 43 (n) 434 (n) Jamir (ICU) 8% 0.92 [0.55-1.55] death 60/181 41/85 ICU patients Mustafa 33% 0.67 [0.38-1.20] death 16/200 29/244 Ali (RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.72-1.07] death 127/634 152/647 Kurniyanto -460% 5.60 [2.32-13.5] death 7/45 12/432 Siraj 53% 0.47 [0.35-0.62] death 108/413 197/587 Salehi (ICU) 37% 0.63 [0.43-0.94] death 17/40 57/85 ICU patients Elec 19% 0.81 [0.38-1.69] death 7/38 29/127 Zangeneh (ICU) 32% 0.68 [0.45-1.01] death n/a n/a ICU patients Malundo -17% 1.17 [0.80-1.70] death 24/115 197/1,100 Bowen -57% 1.57 [1.25-1.97] death 817 (n) 3,814 (n) Raad 42% 0.58 [0.39-0.88] death n/a n/a Oku -40% 1.40 [0.41-4.36] death 3/46 8/172 Behboodikhah 38% 0.62 [0.30-1.30] death 1,214 (n) 960 (n) Tau​2 = 0.06, I​2 = 77.5%, p = 0.0045 Late treatment 14% 0.86 [0.78-0.95] 6,063/43,411 12,167/88,734 14% improvement All studies 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.94] 6,075/43,930 12,238/89,539 15% improvement 44 remdesivir COVID-19 serious outcomes c19early.org/s Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.06, I​2 = 76.7%, p = 0.0024 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gottlieb (DB RCT) 29% 0.71 [0.37-1.37] no recov. 43/66 45/60 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0033 Early treatment 29% 0.71 [0.37-1.37] 43/66 45/60 29% improvement Beigel (RCT) 22% 0.78 [0.67-0.89] no recov. 541 (n) 521 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ali (RCT) 9% 0.91 [0.73-1.14] no recov. 634 (n) 647 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 29.1%, p = 0.0096 Late treatment 18% 0.82 [0.71-0.95] 0/1,175 0/1,168 18% improvement All studies 21% 0.79 [0.70-0.89] 43/1,241 45/1,228 21% improvement 3 remdesivir COVID-19 recovery results c19early.org/s Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 18.9%, p = 0.00016 Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Goldberg 0% 1.00 [0.92-1.09] viral+ 29 (n) 113 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.98 Late treatment 0% 1.00 [0.92-1.09] 0/29 0/113 0% improvement All studies 0% 1.00 [0.92-1.09] 0/29 0/113 0% improvement 1 remdesivir COVID-19 viral clearance result c19early.org/s Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.98 Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Gottlieb (DB RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] death/hosp. 2/279 15/283 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0064 Early treatment 87% 0.13 [0.03-0.59] 2/279 15/283 87% improvement Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] death 22/158 10/78 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] death 5/384 4/200 Beigel (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.52-1.03] death 541 (n) 521 (n) SOLIDARITY (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.81-1.11] death 301/2,743 303/2,708 Mahajan (RCT) -76% 1.76 [0.46-6.82] death 5/34 3/36 Barrat-Due (DB RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.20-4.60] death 3/37 4/53 Ader (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.59-1.45] death 34/414 37/418 Ali (RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.72-1.07] death 127/634 152/647 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.087 Late treatment 9% 0.91 [0.82-1.01] 497/4,945 513/4,661 9% improvement All studies 12% 0.88 [0.76-1.03] 499/5,224 528/4,944 12% improvement 9 remdesivir COVID-19 Randomized Controlled Trials c19early.org/s Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 21.5%, p = 0.11 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) Favors remdesivir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Wang (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.54-2.18] 22/158 10/78 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Spinner (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.18-2.40] 5/384 4/200 Beigel (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.52-1.03] 541 (n) 521 (n) SOLIDARITY (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.81-1.11] 301/2,743 303/2,708 Mahajan (RCT) -76% 1.76 [0.46-6.82] 5/34 3/36 Barrat-Due (DB RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.20-4.60] 3/37 4/53 Ader (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.59-1.45] 34/414 37/418 Ali (RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.72-1.07] 127/634 152/647 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.087 Late treatment 9% 0.91 [0.82-1.01] 497/4,945 513/4,661 9% improvement All studies 9% 0.91 [0.82-1.01] 497/4,945 513/4,661 9% improvement 8 remdesivir COVID-19 RCT mortality results c19early.org/s Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.087 Favors remdesivir Favors control