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Indomethacin for COVID-19
4 studies from 222 scientists
605 patients in 3 countries
Statistically significant lower risk for recovery.
2 studies (both from the same team) show statistically significant improvements.
COVID-19 Indomethacin studies. Apr 2024.
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 74% Hospitalization 67% Recovery 34% Viral clearance 17% RCTs 30% Late 74% Favorsindomethacin Favorscontrol
Concerns have been raised over potential harm with the use of NSAIDs for COVID-19 due to the suppression of beneficial immune and inflammatory responses during early infection, and delaying further care. There are currently no early treatment studies for indomethacin. Early treatment results for NSAID ibuprofen suggest higher risk. Indomethacin may be beneficial for cough Alkotaji, which may not respond to other treatments. Recent:
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Apr 21
Covid Analysis Indomethacin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 4 studies
Statistically significant lower risk is seen for recovery. 2 studies (both from the same team) show statistically significant improvements. Meta analysis using the most serious outcome reported shows 74% [-20‑94%] lower risk, w..
Feb 2
Moshawih et al., Heliyon, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e25734 Evaluating NSAIDs in SARS-CoV-2: Immunomodulatory mechanisms and future therapeutic strategies
Review of NSAIDs and their complex immunomodulatory roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Authors discuss the mechanisms by which NSAIDs impact viral replication, immune responses, and inflammation. They note NSAIDs can reduce neutrophil recruit..
Jan 3
Stuart et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2023-077365 NSAID prescribing and adverse outcomes in common infections: a population-based cohort study
219% higher combined mortality/hospitalization (p<0.0001). Retrospective 142,925 outpatients in the UK showing significantly higher risk of hospitalization or death with prescription of NSAIDs for respiratory tract infections (RTI) or urinary tract infections (UTI). Practice-level analysis also f..
Oct 18
Marjaneh et al., Journal of Infection, doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2023.10.009 Analysis of blood and nasal epithelial transcriptomes to identify mechanisms associated with control of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the upper respiratory tract
Blood and nasal epithelial transcriptomic analysis suggesting potential benefits of several treatments including: Vitamin E: transcriptomic analysis revealed that the AIPL1 module, which contains genes connected to vitamin E (α-tocopherol..
Aug 15
Wang et al., iScience, doi:10.1016/j.isci.2023.107631 Combating pan-coronavirus infection by indomethacin through simultaneously inhibiting viral replication and inflammatory response
In Vitro analysis of indomethacin for multiple human coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2. Indomethacin exhibited antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection in human cell lines and lung airway organoid models. Treatment with indomethac..
Mar 31
Souza et al., Master's Dissertation Analysis of the effects of indomethacin on SARS-CoV-2 infection and the inflammatory response associated with the purinergic system
Vero E6 and Calu-3 In Vitro study showing that indomethacin protects against SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effects and suppresses ATP-associated inflammatory responses.
Jun 30
Chakraborty et al., Computers in Biology and Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105788 In-silico screening and in-vitro assay show the antiviral effect of Indomethacin against SARS-CoV-2
In Silico study predicting indomethacin and vitamin A can bind critical host and viral proteins for SARS-CoV-2 interaction, and may be able to compensate for gene expressions changes related to SARS-CoV-2.
Apr 19
Ravichandran et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-10370-1 An open label randomized clinical trial of Indomethacin for mild and moderate hospitalised Covid-19 patients
30% improved recovery (p=0.002), 98% lower progression (p<0.0001), and 17% improved viral clearance (p=0.19). RCT with 103 indomethacin and 107 paracetamol patients, showing lower progression and improved recovery with indomethacin. Notably, improvements include faster resolution of cough. [Alkotaji] previously hypothesised the benefit of indomet..
Jan 13
Salmasi et al., Immunopathologia Persa, doi:10.34172/ipp.2022.xx Efficacy of oral indomethacin in the treatment of COVID-19 infection; a randomized clinical trial
66% lower ventilation (p=1) and 40% slower recovery (p=0.52). Very small RCT with 22 indomethacin and 23 control patients, showing no significant difference in outcomes. All patients were treated with HCQ.
Dec 8
Fazio et al., Medical Science Monitor, doi:10.12659/MSM.935379 Retrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis of Early COVID-19 and Treated at Home Within 3 Days or After 3 Days of Symptom Onset with Prescribed and Non-Prescribed Treatments Between November 2020 and August 2021
Retrospective 158 COVID-19 patients in Italy treated with hesperidin, quercetin, indomethacin, aspirin, omeprazole, azithromycin, LMWH, and betamethasone (treatment specific for each patient), showing significantly lower hospitalization a..
Jul 31
Ravichandran et al., J. Indian Med. Assoc., 119:7 Use of indomethacin in COVID-19 patients: experience from two medical centres
96% lower need for oxygen therapy (p<0.0001) and 43% faster recovery (p<0.0001). PSM retrospective 72 indomethacin and 72 paracetamol patients in India, showing lower progression and improved recovery with indomethacin.
Apr 22
Alkotaji et al., Current Pharmacology Reports, doi:10.1007/s40495-021-00257-6 Indomethacin: Can It Counteract Bradykinin Effects in COVID-19 Patients?
Hypothesis that indomethacin will be beneficial for COVID-19 induced dry cough, via inhibition of the cyclooxygenase enzyme and reducing the level of inflammatory mediator bradykinin.
Dec 4
Gordon et al., Science, doi:10.1126/science.abe9403 Comparative host-coronavirus protein interaction networks reveal pan-viral disease mechanisms
67% lower hospitalization (p=0.34) and 57% lower progression (p=0.21). Analysis of interactions between viral and human proteins for SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and MERS-CoV and genetic screening to identify host factors that enhance or inhibit viral infection. Authors predict indomethacin will have antiviral ac..
Nov 23
Wrotek et al., Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, doi:10.1093/emph/eoaa044 Let fever do its job
Review of fever focusing on COVID-19. Authors note that fever is a key component of the acute phase response to infection. Fever enhances immune cell performance, induces cellular stress on pathogens, and acts synergistically with other s..
Apr 30
Downing et al., Journal of Interferon Research, doi:10.1089/jir.1988.8.143 Hyperthermia in Humans Enhances Interferon-γ Synthesis and Alters the Peripheral Lymphocyte Population
Analysis of induced hyperthermia (high body temperature) showing 10 times greater interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production and increased natural killer cells. This response was observed at a core body temperature of ~39°C, highlighting its pot..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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