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Chlorhexidine for COVID-19
3 studies from 13 scientists
509 patients in 3 countries
Statistically significant lower risk for progression, cases, and viral clearance.
3 studies from 3 independent teams in 3 countries show statistically significant improvements.
COVID-19 Chlorhexidine studies. Apr 2024. c19early.org
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 79% Cases 57% Viral clearance 85% RCTs 79% Prophylaxis 61% Early 79% Late 85% Favorschlorhexidine Favorscontrol
Apr 23
Covid Analysis Chlorhexidine for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 3 studies
Statistically significant lower risk is seen for progression, cases, and viral clearance. 3 studies from 3 independent teams in 3 countries show statistically significant improvements. Meta analysis using the most serious outcome reported..
Feb 16
Rius-Salvador et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0297291 Cetylpyridinium chloride and chlorhexidine show antiviral activity against Influenza A virus and Respiratory Syncytial virus in vitro
In Vitro study showing antiviral activity against influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Authors found CPC and CHX decreased infectivity of both viruses by 90-99.9% d..
Jan 9
Karami et al., Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, doi:10.4103/ijnmr.ijnmr_38_23 A Comparison of the Effects of Chlorhexidine and Sodium Bicarbonate Mouthwashes on COVID-19–Related Symptoms
61% lower progression (p=0.04) and 57% fewer cases (p=0.03). RCT 116 healthcare workers comparing 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash (n=36), 7.5% sodium bicarbonate mouthwash (n=40), and placebo (n=40) twice daily for 2 weeks, with symptoms followed for 4 weeks. There were lower symtoms and cases in both..
Dec 31
2023
Nazrine et al., Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, doi:10.4103/jisp.jisp_469_22 In vivo efficacy of 2% povidone iodine, chlorhexidine gluconate, and herbal extract mouthwash on SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva: A randomized clinical trial
Randomized trial of 30 COVID-19 patients in India, comparing povidone-iodine (PVP-I), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and herbal extract mouthwash for reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva after a 30 second rinse. All treatments showed ..
Dec 7
2023
Giulia et al., Journal of Clinical Periodontology, doi:10.1111/jcpe.13905 Eligibility and efficacy of a CPC‐ and CHX‐based antiviral mouthwash for the elimination of SARS‐CoV‐2 from the saliva: A randomized, double‐blind, controlled clinical trial
RCT 20 patients rinsing with CPC-CHX compared with 20 patients rinsing with water, showing no significant difference in short-term viral load via PCR and ELISA. Results are not clear. Figure 3 shows an increase in ELISA I/T between all ti..
Nov 30
2023
Brookes et al., International Dental Journal, doi:10.1016/j.identj.2023.08.010 Mouthwash Effects on the Oral Microbiome: Are They Good, Bad, or Balanced?
Review of the effects of commonly used mouthwashes on the oral microbiome, which includes bacteria, viruses, bacteriophages, and fungi. While certain mouthwashes have proven antimicrobial actions and clinical effectiveness, more recent me..
Nov 21
2023
Jing et al., QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcad262 Effective early strategy to prevent olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19: a randomized controlled trial
79% lower progression (p<0.0001) and 97% lower severe cases (p<0.0001). RCT 379 mild COVID-19 cases showing significantly lower prevalence and severity of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction with budesonide nasal spray, chlorhexidine mouthwash, and saline nasal irrigation. The control group received no interv..
Oct 11
2023
Sbricoli et al., Japanese Dental Science Review, doi:10.1016/j.jdsr.2023.09.003 Efficacy of different mouthwashes against COVID-19: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Systematic review and network meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of antiseptic mouthwashes in reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva based on data from 14 randomized clinical trials and 21 in vitro studies. The study found that ..
Oct 11
2023
Zhang et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-023-08669-z Efficacy of mouthwash on reducing salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load and clinical symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Systematic review and meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials with a total of 832 participants analyzing the efficacy of mouthwash on reducing salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load and clinical symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Authors fou..
Jun 12
2023
Ting et al., Biomedicines, doi:10.3390/biomedicines11061694 Preprocedural Viral Load Effects of Oral Antiseptics on SARS-CoV-2 in Patients with COVID-19: A Systematic Review
Systematic review of 14 RCTs, showing significant reductions in short-term viral load with mouth rinses cetylpyridinium chloride, β-cyclodextrin and citrox, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, povidone-iodine, hypochlorous acid, saline, and..
Sep 8
2022
Hasan et al., European Journal of Dentistry, doi:10.1055/s-0042-1753470 Effects of Chlorhexidine and Povidone-Iodine on the SARS-CoV-2 Load: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Systematic review and meta analysis showing significantly improved viral clearance with both povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine.
Jul 31
2022
Ting et al., International Journal of Translational Medicine, doi:10.3390/ijtm2030030 The In Vitro Virucidal Effects of Mouthwashes on SARS-CoV-2
Review of In Vitro studies of mouthwashes, showing antiviral activity for SARS-CoV-2 with many compounds including PVP-I, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorohexidine gluconate, dequalinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, and anionic phthalo..
Jul 29
2022
Natto et al., Medicine, doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000028925 The short-term effect of different chlorhexidine forms versus povidone iodine mouth rinse in minimizing the oral SARS-CoV-2 viral load: An open label randomized controlled clinical trial study
60 patient RCT comparing chlorhexidine, PVP-I, and saline in Saudi Arabia with a single mouth rinse treatment and PCR testing 5 minutes later, showing statistically significant improvement in Ct value for PVP-I. PVP-I showed greater impro..
Jul 28
2022
Fantozzi et al., American Journal of Otolaryngology, doi:10.1016/j.amjoto.2022.103549 Efficacy of antiseptic mouthrinses against SARS-CoV-2: A prospective randomized placebo-controlled pilot study
Mouthrinse RCT in Italy comparing short-term viral load after a single 60 second treatment with povidone-iodine, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, and saline. The greatest efficacy was seen with povidone-iodine, especially for patients wi..
Jul 21
2022
Ghasemi et al., Eur. J. Gen. Dent., doi:10.1055/s-0042-1747958 Reduction in SARS-CoV-2 Oral Viral Load with Prophylactic Mouth Rinse
RCT 116 patients in Iran, showing lower short term viral load with mouth rinses chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, and povidone-iodine. Chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide were the most effective.
Jun 30
2022
Keating et al., NCT04478019 SHIELD Study: Using Naso-oropharyngeal Antiseptic Decolonization to Reduce COVID-19 Viral Shedding (SHIELD)
245 participant chlorhexidine + PVP-I prophylaxis RCT with results not reported over 1.5 years after completion.
Feb 28
2022
Xie et al., NCT04931004 Oral Rinse to Reduced Expelled Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) During COVID-19 Infection
Estimated 90 patient chlorhexidine early treatment RCT with results not reported over 2 years after estimated completion.
Jan 8
2022
Mira et al., NCT05543603 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Mouth Rinses With Commercial Mouthwashes to Decrease Viral Load in Saliva in COVID-19 Patients
48 patient chlorhexidine early treatment RCT with results not reported over 2 years after completion.
Dec 11
2021
Costa et al., Oral Diseases, doi:10.1111/odi.14086 Chlorhexidine mouthwash reduces the salivary viral load of SARS‐CoV‐2: A randomized clinical trial
69% improved viral clearance (p=0.04). RCT 100 outpatients in Brazil showing a reduction in salivary viral load with 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash. The test group gargled and rinsed with 15ml of the mouthwash for 1 minute, while the control group used a placebo. Sali..
Oct 20
2021
Jacox et al., NCT04584684 Mouth Rinses for Inactivation of COVID-19 (MOR)
129 patient chlorhexidine early treatment RCT with results not reported over 2 years after completion.
Apr 30
2021
Huang et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26954 Use of chlorhexidine to eradicate oropharyngeal SARS‐CoV‐2 in COVID‐19 patients
85% improved viral clearance (p<0.0001). RCT 294 hospitalized patients in the USA, showing faster oropharyngeal viral clearance with chlorhexidine. Results were better with a combination of oropharyngeal rinse and posterior oropharyngeal spray compared with the rinse alone.
Mar 17
2021
Elzein et al., Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice, doi:10.1016/j.jebdp.2021.101584 (date from preprint) In vivo evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine mouthwashes against salivary SARS-CoV-2. A randomized-controlled clinical trial
Small RCT comparing mouthwashing with PVP-I, chlorhexidine, and water, showing significant efficacy for both PVP-I and chlorhexidine, with PVP-I increasing Ct by a mean of 4.45 (p < 0.0001) and chlorhexidine by a mean of 5.69 (p < 0.0001)..
Mar 1
2021
Jayaraman et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.02.25.21252488 Povidone iodine, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine mouthwashes reduce SARS-CoV2 burden in whole mouth fluid and respiratory droplets
Study of SARS-CoV-2 burden in whole mouth fluid and respiratory droplets with povidone iodine, hydrogen peroxide, and chlorhexidine mouthwashes in 36 hospitalized COVID-19 patients using PCR and rapid antigen testing. There were significa..
Dec 14
2020
Seneviratne et al., Infection, doi:10.1007/s15010-020-01563-9 Efficacy of commercial mouth-rinses on SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva: randomized control trial in Singapore
Small mouthwash RCT with 4 PVP-I patients and 2 water patients concluding that PVP-I may have a sustained effect on reducing the salivary SARS-CoV-2 level in COVID-19 patients. ISRCTN95933274.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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