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Vitamin D for COVID-19
101 treatment studies from 1,013 scientists
181,970 treatment patients in 29 countries
139 sufficiency studies with 166,860 patients in 32 countries
Statistically significant improvement for mortality, ICU, hospitalization, recovery, cases, and viral clearance.
65%, 47%, 29% improvement for early, late, and prophylactic treatment CI [43-79%], [34-58%], [21-36%]
36% improvement in 24 RCTs CI [17-50%]
37% lower mortality in 59 studies CI [28-44%]
COVID-19 Vitamin D studies. Nov 2022. c19early.org/d
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 36% With exclusions 38% Mortality 37% Hospitalization 18% Cases 12% RCTs 36% Sufficiency 54% Cholecalciferol 35% Calcifediol 52% Prophylaxis 29% Early 65% Late 47% Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol
Vitamin D COVID-19 studies. Sufficiency studies analyze outcomes based on vitamin D levels, confounding factors may be significant. Treatment studies directly analyze the effect of vitamin D treatment. vitamind4all.org provides treatment recommendations. Acute treatment shows greater efficacy than chronic prophylaxis, long-term supplementation may not be ideal. Recent:
Guldemir
Sharif
Nicoll
Gibbons
Said
Bychinin
Álvarez.
Vitamin D has been officially adopted for early treatment in all or part of 3 countries. Submit updates/corrections.
Nov 26
Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis) Vitamin D for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 101 treatment and 139 sufficiency studies
Statistically significant improvements are seen in treatment studies for mortality, ICU admission, hospitalization, and cases. 50 studies from 47 independent teams in 20 different countries show statistically significant improvements in..
Nov 26
Sharif et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14235029 Impact of Zinc, Vitamins C and D on Disease Prognosis among Patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study
28% lower severe cases [p=0.001]. Retrospective 962 COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh, showing significantly lower severity with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation, and improved results from the combination of all three.
Nov 16
Guldemir et al., Work, doi:10.3233/wor-220292 Clinical characteristics of bus drivers and field officers infected with COVID-19: A cross-sectional study from Istanbul
5% lower hospitalization [p=0.89]. Retrospective 477 COVID+ public transportation workers in Turkey, showing no significant difference in hospitalization with vitamin D use in unadjusted results.
Nov 12
Gibbons et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-24053-4 Association between vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19 infection and mortality
33% lower mortality [p<0.0001] and 20% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. PSM retrospective in the USA, showing lower COVID-19 mortality and cases with vitamin D prophylaxis.
Nov 18
Nicoll et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm11226818 (Review) COVID-19 Prevention: Vitamin D Is Still a Valid Remedy
Discussion of limitations and concerns for [Jolliffe].
Nov 8
Said et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2022.1011522 The effect of Nigella sativa and vitamin D3 supplementation on the clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients: A randomized controlled clinical trial
42% improved recovery [p=0.57] and 49% improved viral clearance [p=0.2]. 120 patient RCT comparing vitamin D, nigella sativa, and combined vitamin D+nigella sativa, showing improved symptom recovery and viral clearance with both vitamin D and nigella sativa, and further improvements with the combination of bot..
Nov 3
Bychinin et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-22045-y Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on cellular immunity and inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU
27% lower mortality [p=0.18], 7% lower ventilation [p=0.68], 94% longer ICU admission [p=0.001], and 41% longer hospitalization [p=0.007]. RCT ICU patients in Russia, showing significantly increased lymphocyte counts with treatment. Mortality was lower but without statistical significance. 40% of patients were on mechanical ventilation at baseline in the treatment group, co..
Oct 28
Álvarez et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.10.27.514012 (Preprint) Vitamin D deficiency and SARS-CoV-2 infection: Big-data analysis from March 2020 to March 2021. D-COVID study
39% lower mortality [p<0.0001], 55% lower ICU admission [p<0.0001], and 43% lower hospitalization [p<0.0001]. Retrospective free-text analysis of 143,157 COVID-19 patients, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with mortality, ICU admission, and hospitalization in unadjusted results.
Oct 22
Hafezi et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-22307-9 Vitamin D enhances type I IFN signaling in COVID-19 patients
63% lower mortality [p=0.04]. Retrospective 80 ICU patients, and in vitro study with human airway epithelial cells, showing that vitamin D enhances host IFN-a/β signaling. Significantly lower mortality was seen with vitamin D treatment.
Oct 3
Karimpour-Razkenari et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Care, doi:10.18502/jpc.v10i3.10790 Evaluating the Effects of Clinical Characteristics and Therapeutic Regimens on Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with Severe COVID-19
79% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 478 moderate to severe hospitalized patients in Iran, showing lower mortality with vitamin D treatment.
Sep 27
Sarhan et al., Medicina, doi:10.3390/medicina58101358 Evidence for the Efficacy of a High Dose of Vitamin D on the Hyperinflammation State in Moderate-to-Severe COVID-19 Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial
19% lower mortality [p=0.003], 74% better improvement [p=0.03], and 31% shorter hospitalization [p=0.04]. RCT comparing 200,000IU IM cholecalciferol and 1mcg/day alfacalcidol, showing lower mortality and improved recovery with high dose treatment.
Sep 24
Mansour et al., The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine, doi:10.1186/s43162-022-00159-z Association of serum zinc level and clinical outcome in Egyptian COVID-19 patients
Retrospective 30 ICU patients and 30 non-ICU hospitalized patients in Egypt, showing lower vitamin D levels in ICU patients.
Sep 19
Mosadegh et al., Microbial Pathogenesis, doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2022.105792 The effect of Nutrition Bio-shield superfood (NBS) on disease severity and laboratory biomarkers in patients with COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial
61% lower mortality [p=0.002] and 28% shorter hospitalization [p=0.001]. RCT 70 hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing lower mortality and improved clinical markers with treatment combining vitamins A, B1–B3, B5, B6, B9, C, D, K, and magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, manganese, calcium,..
Sep 17
van Helmond et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.09.16.22280047 (Preprint) Vitamin D3 Supplementation at 5000 IU Daily for the Prevention of Influenza-Like Illness in Healthcare Workers: A Randomized Clinical Trial
98% fewer cases [p=0.07]. Prospective prophylaxis trial with 255 healthcare workers taking vitamin D and 2,827 controls, showing significantly lower influenza-like illness with treatment, and lower COVID-19 cases, without statistical significance. While the interv..
Sep 12
Szerszeń et al., Medical Science Monitor, doi:10.12659/MSM.937741 Effect of Vitamin D Concentration on Course of COVID-19
Retrospective 505 hospitalized patients in Poland, showing low vitamin D levels associated with oxygen therapy and ventilation. There was no significant difference for cases.
Sep 9
Zeidan et al., Pediatric Research, doi:10.1038/s41390-022-02275-6 Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor FokI polymorphism as risk factors for COVID-19
62% lower hospitalization [p=0.002]. Prospective study of 180 moderate to critical hospitalized pediatric COVID-19 patients and 200 matched controls, showing vitamin D deficiency and the VDR Fok I polymorphism associated with COVID-19 hospitalization.
Sep 7
Brunvoll et al., BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj-2022-071245 Prevention of covid-19 and other acute respiratory infections with cod liver oil supplementation, a low dose vitamin D supplement: quadruple blinded, randomised placebo controlled trial
11% lower hospitalization [p=1], 20% higher severe cases [p=0.17], and no change in cases [p=0.98]. RCT 17,278 low-risk patients (zero mortality) treated with 5mL/day cod liver oil (~400IU vitamin D) and 17,323 placebo patients in Norway with, showing no significant differences with treatment. The placebo group had higher vitamin D at b..
Sep 2
Foshati et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.3034 Antioxidants and clinical outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review of observational and interventional studies
Systematic review showing that vitamin C, vitamin D, selenium, and zinc can improve COVID-19 clinical outcomes.
Aug 24
Sharif-Askari et al., Life Sciences, doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2022.120909 Vitamin D modulates systemic inflammation in patients with severe COVID-19
36% shorter ICU admission [p=0.01]. Retrospective 20 ICU patients treated with vitamin D in the UAE, and 25 matched controls, showing significantly shorter ICU stay with treatment. Lower proinflammatory cytokines were associated with lower severity markers. Authors also per..
Aug 15
Sinnberg et al., Antioxidants, doi:10.3390/antiox11081580 Vitamin C Deficiency in Blood Samples of COVID-19 Patients
Analysis of 74 COVID-19 patients and 8 controls in Germany, showing low vitamin C levels associated with mortality. There was no significant difference for vitamin A, D, or E levels. Very few group details are provided, for example the ag..
Aug 12
Shannak et al., Technium BioChemMed, doi:10.47577/biochemmed.v3i2.7179 Evaluation of the level of vitamin D3 in the blood serum of patients infected with COVID-19 in Al-Amiriya city
Analysis of 35 COVID-19 patients and 25 healthy controls in Iraq, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.
Aug 11
Dana et al., The Eurasian Journal of Medicine, doi:10.5152/eurasianjmed.2022.21088 Vitamin D Level in Laboratory Confirmed COVID-19 and Disease Progression
33% lower mortality [p=0.29] and no change in severe cases [p=1]. Analysis of 831 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with severe vitamin D deficiency, without statistical significance.
Aug 10
Chellasamy et al., Journal of King Saud University - Science, doi:10.1016/j.jksus.2022.102277 Docking and molecular dynamics studies of human ezrin protein with a modelled SARS-CoV-2 endodomain and their interaction with potential invasion inhibitors
In Silico study of SARS-CoV-1&2 endodomains and ezrin docking, identifying ivermectin, quercetin, calcifediol, calcitriol, selamectin, and minocycline as potential therapeutic drugs with strong ezrin binding which may restrict viral endod..
Aug 9
Hafez et al., Antibiotics, doi:10.3390/antibiotics11081078 Factors Influencing Disease Stability and Response to Tocilizumab Therapy in Severe COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study
94% lower mortality [p=0.07]. Retrospective 49 severe COVID-19 patients treated with tocilizumab, showing lower mortality with vitamin D treatment and a dose-dependent response.
Aug 9
Barrett et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14163252 Vitamin D Status and Mortality from SARS CoV-2: A Prospective Study of Unvaccinated Caucasian Adults
78% lower mortality [p=0.006], 15% lower ICU admission [p=0.63], and 53% lower progression [p=0.12]. Prospective study of 232 hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia patients, showing higher risk of mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
Aug 4
Doğan et al., Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, doi:10.1093/tropej/fmac072 The Clinical Significance of Vitamin D and Zinc Levels with Respect to Immune Response in COVID-19 Positive Children
64% fewer cases [p=0.003]. Prospective study of 88 pediatric COVID-19 patients and 88 healthy controls, showing significantly lower zinc and vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.
Jul 31
Alarslan et al., Medical Journal of İzmir Hospital, 26:3 Vitamin D levels and disease severity in COVID-19
Retrospective 153 COVID-19 patients in Turkey, showing lower age-adjusted vitamin D levels in hospitalized patients vs. outpatients.
Jul 31
Mishra et al., Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, doi:10.3961/jpmph.21.640 (meta analysis) Vitamin D Deficiency and Comorbidities as Risk Factors of COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Systematic review and meta analysis showing low vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 cases.
Jul 27
Lakkireddy et al., Archives of Clinical and Biomedical Research, doi:10.26502/acbr.50170273 Effect of Short Term High Dose Oral Vitamin D Therapy on the Inflammatory Markers in Patients with COVID 19 Disease
61% lower mortality [p=0.27], 22% lower ICU admission [p=0.74], and 7% shorter hospitalization [p=0.9]. RCT 44 treatment and 43 control patients with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml, showing significant reduction in inflammatory markers with treatment of 60,000IU vitamin D per day for 8 days (10 days for BMI >25). Death and ICU admission was lowe..
Jul 26
Fairfield et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14153073 Association of Vitamin D Prescribing and Clinical Outcomes in Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19
9% higher mortality [p<0.0001] and 41% higher ventilation [p<0.0001]. N3C retrospective showing higher risk with vitamin D treatment for hospitalized patients. As noted by authors, confounding by indication may be significant. The more extreme ventilation result, which is a significant outlier among all stu..
Jul 26
De Niet et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14153048 Positive Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
45% faster recovery [p=0.06] and 50% shorter hospitalization [p=0.003]. RCT with 21 vitamin D and 22 placebo hospitalized patients in Belgium with vitamin D deficiency, showing significantly shorter hospitalization and improved clinical recovery with treatment.
Jul 25
Peng et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.960859 Vitamin D levels and clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariant BA.2 in children: A longitudinal cohort study
Retrospective 116 hospitalized pediatric patients in China, showing accelerated viral clearance early in the disease course, and greater pneumonia lesion improvement with vitamin D sufficiency.
Jul 25
Zurita-Cruz et al., Frontiers in Pediatrics, doi:10.3389/fped.2022.943529 Efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation in hospitalized COVID-19 pediatric patients: A randomized controlled trial
79% lower mortality [p=0.11], 72% lower ventilation [p=0.08], and 73% lower ICU admission [p=0.006]. RCT 45 hospitalized high-risk pediatric patients requiring supplemental oxygen in Mexico, showing lower mortality, ventilation, and intensive care with vitamin D treatment, however there were less severe and critical cases at baseline in ..
Jul 21
Abroug et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1276203/v1 (Preprint) Effect of vitamin D supplementation versus placebo on recovery delay among COVID-19 patients: A randomized-controlled clinical trial
8% improved recovery [p=0.85] and 58% worse viral clearance [p=0.02]. Long COVID RCT with mostly asymptomatic patients that remained PCR positive for 14 days, showing slower viral conversion with treatment. Authors report "a 30-day follow-up of our patients showed that a long-lasting COVID-19 was noted..
Jul 19
Gholi et al., Complementary Therapies in Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2022.102855 Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of delirium and mortality among critically Ill, elderly covid-19 patients
75% lower mortality [p=0.0007] and 45% higher ventilation [p=0.27]. Prospective study of 310 COVID-19 ICU patients in Iran, showing higher mortality for patients with vitamin D deficiency.
Jul 19
Hosseini et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1588325/v1 (Preprint) PRevention of COVID-19 with Oral Vitamin D supplemental Therapy in Essential healthCare Teams (PROTECT): Ancillary study of a randomised controlled trial
82% fewer cases [p=0.19]. Early terminated prophylaxis RCT for healthcare workers in Canada, showing 0/19 cases with vitamin D prophylaxis vs. 2/15 for control. 100,000IU cholecalciferol at baseline, 10,000IU weekly for 16 weeks.
Jul 15
Romero-Ibarguengoitia et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.07.12.22277450 (Preprint) Effect of Vitamin D3 supplementation vs. dietary-hygienic measures on SARS-COV-2 infection rates in hospital workers with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] levels >20 ng/mL
79% fewer cases [p=0.008]. RCT healthcare workers with vitamin D levels between 20-100 ng/mL, 43 treated with vitamin D 52,000 IU monthly, and 42 with dietary-hygienic measures, which were also focused on increasing vitamin D, including sun exposure for at least 10..
Jul 13
Charla et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1826271/v1 (Preprint) Is suboptimal circulating level of vitamin D a risk factor for the poor prognosis of COVID- 19? – A comparison of first and second waves in India
11% lower mortality [p=0.74]. Retrospective 179 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in India, showing no significant difference in mortality with vitamin D deficiency in unadjusted results. Patients with deficiency were younger.
Jul 6
D’Ecclesiis et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0268396 (meta analysis) Vitamin D and SARS-CoV2 infection, severity and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis
65% lower mortality [p=0.004] and 62% lower severe cases [p=0.003]. Systematic review showing significantly lower risk of mortality and severe cases with vitamin D supplementation, and for high vs. low vitamin D levels.
Jul 6
Mamurova et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1806260/v1 (Preprint) A strong association between the VDR gene markers and SARS-CoV-2 variants
Analysis of 300 PCR+ and 300 PCR- patients, showing COVID-19 associated with vitamin D receptor polymorphisms FokI and TaqI. Notably, these polymorphisms have been found to be associated with improved response to vitamin D supplementation..
Jul 5
Bogliolo et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.934258 Vitamin D 25OH Deficiency and Mortality in Moderate to Severe COVID-19: A Multi-Center Prospective Observational Study
15% lower mortality [p=0.29]. Prospective 361 consecutive hospitalized patients in Italy, showing 77% had vitamin D deficiency. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality with deficiency.
Jul 4
Cervero et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2022.863587 Beneficial Effect of Short-Term Supplementation of High Dose of Vitamin D3 in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: A Multicenter, Single-Blinded, Prospective Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial
79% lower ICU admission [p=0.2] and 28% lower ARDS [p=0.74]. RCT 85 hospitalized patients in Spain, comparing 10,000IU/day vs. 2,000IU/day cholecalciferol, showing beneficial effects of the larger dose.
Jul 2
Gupta et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14132757 Temporal Association of Reduced Serum Vitamin D with COVID-19 Infection: Two Single-Institution Case–Control Studies
Retrospective study of 107 COVID-19 patients with vitamin D levels measured within 180 days before diagnosis, and 203 patients with levels measured after diagnosis, showing lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 hospitalized patients compare..
Jun 29
Quesada-Gomez et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14132716 (Review) Vitamin D Endocrine System and COVID-19: Treatment with Calcifediol
Review of the use of calcifediol for COVID-19. Authors note several advantages of calcifediol vs. cholecalciferol: calcifediol induces a more rapid increase in circulating 250HD; calcifediol is more potent than cholecalciferol; calcifedio..
Jun 29
Hunt et al., Journal of General Internal Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11606-022-07701-3 Medications Associated with Lower Mortality in a SARS-CoV-2 Positive Cohort of 26,508 Veterans
47% lower mortality [p=0.0007]. Retrospective 26,508 consecutive COVID+ veterans in the USA, showing lower mortality with multiple treatments including vitamin D. Treatment was defined as drugs administered ≥50% of the time within 2 weeks post-COVID+, and may be a conti..
Jun 26
Nicolescu et al., Farmacia, doi:10.31925/farmacia.2022.3.17 The evaluation of vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor in the case of patients with moderate COVID-19
Retrospective 128 hospitalized patients in Romania, showing a negative outcome associated with lower vitamin D levels.
Jun 23
Alzahrani et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.26266 The Association Between Vitamin D Serum Level and COVID-19 Patients’ Outcomes in a Tertiary Center in Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Cohort Study
43% lower mortality [p=0.46] and 7% lower ICU admission [p=0.8]. Retrospective 545 hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, without statistical significance.
Jun 23
Karonova et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14132602 Effect of Cholecalciferol Supplementation on the Clinical Features and Inflammatory Markers in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Randomized, Open-Label, Single-Center Study
86% lower ICU admission [p=0.11] and 7% lower need for oxygen therapy [p=0.85]. RCT with 56 cholecalciferol and 54 control hospitalized patients with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in Russia, showing positive effects on immune status. The median age in the treatment group was 7 years lower and deficiency was l..
Jun 17
Shahid et al., Abstracts from the 2022 Annual Meeting of the Society of General Internal Medicine, Journal of General Internal Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11606-022-07653-8 The effects of vitamin D therapy on outcomes for hispanic patients hospitalized for COVID-19
38% lower mortality [p=0.001]. Retrospective 1,478 hospitalized Hispanic patients in the USA with 705 receiving vitamin D treatment, showing lower mortality with treatment in unadjusted results. Very minimal information is currently available.
Jun 14
Neves et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2022.05.027 Vitamin D deficiency predicts 30-day hospital mortality of adults with COVID-19
57% lower mortality [p=0.05] and 20% higher ICU admission [p=0.81]. Retrospective 115 hospitalized patients in Brazil, showing lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels. Adjusted results are only provided for vitamin D as a continuous variable.
Jun 1
Singh et al., Abstracts Criticare - IJCCM2022, Indian J. Crit. Care Med., doi:10.5005/ijccm-26-S1-S1 Single, High Dose Vitamin D Supplementation in Vitamin D Deficient Severe COVID-19: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebocontrol Study (Shade-S)
45% lower mortality [p=0.05]. RCT 90 vitamin D deficient moderate/severe COVID-19 ARDS patients in India, showing lower mortality with vitamin D treatment. 600,000IU nanoformulation cholecalciferol. Minimal information is currently available.
May 31
Annweiler et al., PLoS Medicine, doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003999 High-dose versus standard-dose vitamin D supplementation in older adults with COVID- 19 (COVIT-TRIAL): A multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled superiority trial
30% lower mortality [p=0.29]. RCT comparing single dose 400,000IU and single dose 50,000IU vitamin D in France, showing lower mortality with the higher dose, statistically significant only at day 14. The aHR for days 0-5 was 1.30 [0.31-5.35], compared to 0.11 [0.02-0...
May 30
Baykal et al., Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine, doi:10.32322/jhsm.1063405 Correlation of vitamin D level with the clinical-radiological severity of COVID-19 in geriatric patients
22% lower mortality [p=0.43] and 59% lower ICU admission [p=0.005]. Retrospective 75 patients in Turkey showing lower ICU admission with vitamin D treatment in unadjusted results subject to confounding by time and indication (treatment was given to patients with low levels and only during a certain period..
May 30
Kumar et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.25467 Efficacy and Safety of Aspirin, Promethazine, and Micronutrients for Rapid Clinical Recovery in Mild to Moderate COVID-19 Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
89% improved recovery [p=0.05]. RCT 260 patients in India, 130 treated with aspirin, promethazine, vitamin C, D, B3, zinc, and selenium, showing faster recovery with treatment. There was no hospitalization, ICU admission, or supplemental oxygen requirements in either gr..
May 27
Galmés et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14112254 Suboptimal Consumption of Relevant Immune System Micronutrients Is Associated with a Worse Impact of COVID-19 in Spanish Populations
Ecological study in Spain, showing lower intake of vitamin D, A, B9, and zinc in regions with the highest COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Vitamin D intake was associated with lower prevalence, incidence, and a combined incidence+mortali..
May 27
Mariani et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0267918 High-dose vitamin D versus placebo to prevent complications in COVID-19 patients: Multicentre randomized controlled clinical trial
25% lower ventilation [p=0.85], 27% lower ICU admission [p=0.62], and 3% lower progression [p=0.82]. Late stage RCT with 115 patients treated with a single dose of 500,000IU cholecalciferol and 103 placebo patients, showing no significant differences. Authors do not explain why they did very late treatment with cholecalciferol instead of..
May 22
Fiore et al., Healthcare, doi:10.3390/healthcare10050956 Effectiveness of Vitamin D Supplements among Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19: Results from a Monocentric Matched-Cohort Study
93% lower mortality [p=0.02], 50% lower ventilation [p=0.36], 50% lower ICU admission [p=0.36], and 48% lower progression [p=0.04]. Retrospective 116 patients with D levels < 30ng/mL, 58 treated with vitamin D 100,000IU daily for two days, and 58 matched controls, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment.
May 20
Hosseini et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14102134 (meta analysis) Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on COVID-19 Related Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
54% lower mortality [p=0.0004], 65% lower ICU admission [p=0.0003], and 9% fewer cases [p=0.11]. Systematic review and meta analysis showing significantly lower ICU admission and mortality with vitamin D treatment. There was no significant difference for cases.
May 16
Ozturk et al., Bratislava Medical Journal, doi:10.4149/BLL_2022_065 Is there a relationship between vitamin D levels, inflammatory parameters, and clinical severity of COVID-19 infection?
46% lower severe cases [p=0.1]. Retrospective 300 hospitalized patients in Turkey with vitamin D levels measured with 6 months before admission, showing no significant difference in severity based on vitamin D deficiency.
May 13
Zangeneh et al., Obesity Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.obmed.2022.100420 Survival analysis based on body mass index in patients with Covid-19 admitted to the intensive care unit of Amir Al-Momenin Hospital in Arak – 2021
26% higher mortality [p=0.4]. Retrospective 193 ICU patients in Iran, showing no significant difference with vitamin D treatment.
May 13
Galluzzo et al., Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, doi:10.1016/j.mad.2022.111684 Association between vitamin D status and physical performance in COVID-19 survivors: Results from the Gemelli against COVID-19 post-acute care project
Analysis of 681 COVID-19 survivors in Italy, showing a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D levels were associated with poor physical performance, and were more common in patients that had been hospitalized.
May 11
Jabeen et al., Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, doi:10.53350/pjmhs221631053 Protective Effect of Vitamin-D Supplementation in Patients of Acute Coronary Syndrome During COVID-19 Pandemic
89% fewer symptomatic cases [p=0.11]. Prospective study of 40 acute coronary syndrome patients in Pakistan, 20 given a single dose of 200,000IU vitamin D, showing lower incidence of COVID-19 in the following 2 months.
May 7
Kazemi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-022-07438-8 Comparison of the cardiovascular system, clinical condition, and laboratory results in COVID-19 patients with and without vitamin D insufficiency
76% lower mortality [p=0.26] and 5% higher severe cases [p=1]. Retrospective 202 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing no significant difference in outcomes based on vitamin D levels.
May 5
Charkowick et al., AJRCCM Conference Vitamin D Deficiency and Thrombosis in Hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Embolism
73% lower mortality [p=0.02] and 67% lower ICU admission [p=0.001]. Retrospective 208 hospitalized COVID+ patients in the USA, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with higher mortality and ICU admission.
May 3
Nguyen et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0268038 25-hydroxyvitamin D is a predictor of COVID-19 severity of hospitalized patients
81% lower mortality [p=0.008], 53% lower ventilation [p=0.13], and 74% higher hospital discharge [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 88 COVID-19 hospitalized patients and 122 controls, showing higher mortality, ventilation, and length of stay with vitamin D deficiency.
May 1
Khan et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2022.898062 Oral Co-Supplementation of Curcumin, Quercetin, and Vitamin D3 as an Adjuvant Therapy for Mild to Moderate Symptoms of COVID-19—Results From a Pilot Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial
33% improved recovery [p=0.15] and 50% improved viral clearance [p=0.009]. RCT 50 COVID+ outpatients in Pakistan, 25 treated with curcumin, quercetin, and vitamin D, showing significantly faster viral clearance, significantly improved CRP, and faster resolution of acute symptoms (p=0.154). 168mg curcumin, 260mg ..
Apr 30
Voelkle et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14091862 Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: An Observational Cohort Study
23% lower combined mortality/ICU admission [p=0.55]. Prospective study of 57 consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Switzerland, showing higher risk of mortality/ICU admission with vitamin A, vitamin D, and zinc deficiency, with statistical significance only for vitamin A and zinc. A..
Apr 26
Kalichuran et al., Southern African Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.4102/sajid.v37i1.359 Vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity
60% fewer symptomatic cases [p<0.0001]. Prospective study of 100 COVID-19 patients in South Africa, 50 with COVID-19 pneumonia and 50 asymptomatic, showing higher risk of symptomatic COVID-19 with vitamin D deficiency and with lower exposure to sunlight. Authors analyzed sunlig..
Apr 20
Pandya et al., Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, doi:10.1016/j.imu.2022.100951 Unravelling Vitamin B12 as a potential inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2: A computational approach
In Silico study showing significant interaction with SARS-CoV-2 targets for multiple vitamins.
Apr 20
Karimian et al., European Journal of Translational Myology, doi:10.4081/ejtm.2022.10453 Association of vitamin D and severity of COVID-19 in children
Analysis of 99 pediatric COVID-19 cases in Iran, mean age 2.9, showing severity associated with vitamin D levels.
Apr 18
Villasis-Keever et al., Archives of Medical Research, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2022.04.003 Efficacy and Safety of Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent COVID-19 in Frontline Healthcare Workers. A Randomized Clinical Trial
78% fewer cases [p=0.001]. RCT 321 healthcare workers in Mexico, showing significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 infection with vitamin D prophylaxis. 4,000IU daily for 30 days. In comparison to [Jolliffe], this study used a higher dose, the participants had much higher exp..
Apr 14
Torres et al., Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2022.112965 Changes in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in individuals with severe COVID-19 treated with high dose of vitamin D
28% lower ARDS [p=0.74] and 31% shorter hospitalization. RCT comparing 41 patients treated with 10,000IU/day cholecalciferol and 44 treated with 2,000IU/day in Spain, showing significantly shorter hospitalization for ARDS patients with the higher dose. There was also an increase of anti-inflamm..
Apr 14
Parant et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14081641 Vitamin D and COVID-19 Severity in Hospitalized Older Patients: Potential Benefit of Prehospital Vitamin D Supplementation
50% lower mortality [p=0.11], 51% lower ICU admission [p=0.008], and 39% lower severe cases [p=0.01]. Retrospective 228 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, median age 78, showing significantly lower risk of ICU admission and severe cases with vitamin D prophylaxis. NCT04877509.
Apr 9
Takase et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2022.04.003 Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and COVID-19 severity
Retrospective 117 consecutive COVID+ hospitalized patients in Japan, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with mechanical ventilation or mortality.
Apr 5
Latifi-Pupovci et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-09785-7 Relationship of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies with Vitamin D and inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients
Prospective study of 69 COVID+ patients in Kosovo, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 severity.
Mar 31
Martínez-Rodríguez et al., Gaceta Médica de México, doi:10.24875/GMM.M22000637 Evaluation of the usefulness of vitamin D as a predictor of mortality in patients with COVID-19
52% lower mortality [p=0.04]. Retrospective 154 consecutive COVID-19 patients in Mexico, showing low vitamin D levels associated with higher mortality.
Mar 26
Ferrer-Sánchez et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19073965 Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Levels in Pregnant Women with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Case-Control Study
63% fewer cases [p=0.01]. Retrospective 256 pregnant women, 82 with COVID-19 and 174 controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 patients.
Mar 23
Ghanei et al., European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1038/s41430-022-01095-5 Low serum levels of zinc and 25-hydroxyvitmain D as potential risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility: a pilot case-control study
42% fewer cases [p=0.09]. Case control study with 90 COVID-19 cases and 95 matched controls in Iran, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for cases.
Mar 23
Jolliffe et al., BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj-2022-071230 (date from earlier preprint) Effect of a test-and-treat approach to vitamin D supplementation on risk of all cause acute respiratory tract infection and covid-19: phase 3 randomised controlled trial (CORONAVIT)
41% higher hospitalization [p=0.16] and 9% more cases [p=0.55]. RCT 5,979 low risk patients (0 COVID-19 deaths) in the UK, showing no significant differences with vitamin D prophylaxis. CORONAVIT. NCT04579640. For more discussion see [ reddit.com , twitter.com ] . 51% of confirmed COVID-19 cases were ..
Mar 16
Pande et al., Journal of Communicable Diseases, doi:10.24321/0019.5138.202227 Vitamin D Levels and its Association with Inflammatory Markers, Severity and Outcome in Hospitalised COVID-19 Patients - An Indian Perspective
93% lower severe cases [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 209 hospitalized patients in India, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with COVID-19 severity.
Mar 10
DiGuilio et al., International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms23062995 (Review) Micronutrient Improvement of Epithelial Barrier Function in Various Disease States: A Case for Adjuvant Therapy
Review of epithelial and endothelial barrier compromise and associated disease risk including COVID-19, and the potential benefits of vitamin A, vitamin D, and zinc for improving barrier function.
Mar 7
Wadi Al Ramahi et al., The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.3823/862 The Effect of Vitamin D treatment on COVID 19- Patients, an Inverted Propensity Score Weighting (IPSW), and Inverted Probability of Treatment Weighting (IPTW) Analyzed Study
Retrospective study comparing 847 patients receiving ≤149,000IU vitamin D and 170 receiving ≥150,000IU, showing no significant differences, however the result may not be very meaningful - membership in the higher cumulative dose group req..
Mar 2
Karonova et al., Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph15030305 Vitamin D Status and Immune Response in Hospitalized Patients with Moderate and Severe COVID-19
22% lower severe cases [p=0.01]. Retrospective 331 hospitalized patients in Russia, showing lower risk of severe cases with higher vitamin D levels.
Feb 28
Shehab et al., Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, doi:10.4314/tjpr.v21i2.13 Immune-boosting effect of natural remedies and supplements on progress of, and recovery from COVID-19 infection
46% lower severe cases [p=0.2]. Retrospective survey-based analysis of 349 COVID-19 patients, showing a lower risk of severe cases with vitamin D, zinc, turmeric, and honey prophylaxis in unadjusted analysis, without statistical significance. REC/UG/2020/03.
Feb 28
Nimer et al., Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.7009 The impact of vitamin and mineral supplements usage prior to COVID-19 infection on disease severity and hospitalization
33% lower hospitalization [p=0.001] and 29% lower severe cases [p=0.01]. Retrospective survey based analysis of 2,148 COVID-19 recovered patients in Jordan, showing lower risk of severity and hospitalization with vitamin D prophylaxis.
Feb 24
Rodríguez-Vidales et al., Nutrición Hospitalaria, doi:10.20960/nh.03731 Severe COVID-19 patients have severe vitamin D deficiency in Northeast Mexico
39% lower severe cases [p=0.21]. Retrospective 181 diagnostic center patients and 116 ICU patients in Mexico, showing higher risk of severity with vitamin D levels <10ng/mL.
Feb 24
Kory et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, doi:10.14740/jocmr4658 (Review) “MATH+” Multi-Modal Hospital Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 Infection: Clinical and Scientific Rationale
Review of the data supporting the MATH+ hospital treatment protocol for COVID-19.
Feb 22
Tylicki et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v14030451 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors May Increase While Active Vitamin D May Decrease the Risk of Severe Pneumonia in SARS-CoV-2 Infected Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease on Maintenance Hemodialysis
45% lower severe cases [p=0.02]. Retrospective 85 COVID+ hemodialysis patients in Poland, showing lower severity with existing vitamin D use. Patients in this study are also analyzed in [Tylicki].
Feb 21
Saeed et al., The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine, doi:10.1186/s43162-022-00116-w Cholecalciferol level and its impact on COVID-19 patients
Prospective study of 414 COVID+ ICU patients in Egypt, showing mortality associated with lower vitamin D levels.
Feb 19
Zidrou et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.22385 The Relationship Between Vitamin D Status and the Clinical Severity of COVID-19 Infection: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis
18% lower progression [p=0.26] and 38% shorter hospitalization [p=0.16]. Retrospective 71 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Greece with vitamin D levels measured within 48 hours of admission, showing longer hospitalization, more radiographic findings, and higher inflammatory and cellular damage markers with vi..
Feb 19
Sanson et al., Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971 -), doi:10.1007/s11845-022-02952-9 A combined role for low vitamin D and low albumin circulating levels as strong predictors of worse outcome in COVID-19 patients
64% lower progression [p=0.03]. Prospective study of 69 hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia patients, showing higher risk of combined NIV/IMV/60-day death with low vitamin D levels.
Feb 18
Cannata-Andía et al., BMC Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12916-022-02290-8 A single-oral bolus of 100,000 IU of cholecalciferol at hospital admission did not improve outcomes in the COVID-19 disease: the COVID-VIT-D — a randomised multicentre international clinical trial
44% higher mortality [p=0.31], 5% higher ICU admission [p=0.82], and 5% longer hospitalization. RCT 274 very late stage (>80% pulmonary involvement at baseline) hospitalized COVID-19 patients treated with a single dose of cholecalciferol, and 269 control patients, showing no significant differences. High serum calcidiol levels at ad..
Feb 17
Junior et al., BMC Geriatrics, doi:10.1186/s12877-022-02776-3 Chronic diseases, chest computed tomography, and laboratory tests as predictors of severe respiratory failure and death in elderly Brazilian patients hospitalized with COVID-19: a prospective cohort study
22% lower mortality [p=0.61] and 31% lower progression [p=0.26]. Prospective study of 201 COVID+ hospitalized adults in Brazil, mean age 73, showing a lower risk of mortality and respiratory failure with vitamin D supplementation in unadjusted results, without statistical significance, and a higher ris..
Feb 15
Shah et al., QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcac040 (meta analysis) Does vitamin D supplementation reduce COVID-19 severity? - a systematic review
52% lower mortality [p<0.0001], 46% lower ventilation [p<0.0001], and 64% lower ICU admission [p<0.0001]. Meta-analysis of seven systematic reviews showing that vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of COVID-19 mortality, ventilation, and ICU admission. Authors note that oral and IV supplements were well tolerated, safe, and effective.
Feb 8
Bushnaq et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19031901 The Impact of Vitamin D Status on COVID-19 Severity among Hospitalized Patients in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study
32% lower ventilation [p=0.27] and 4% lower ICU admission [p=0.87]. Retrospective 197 hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia, showing no significant differences based on vitamin D levels. Adjusted results are provided only for vitamin D as a continuous variable.
Feb 5
Bishop et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2022.111899 (date from earlier preprint) REsCue Trial: Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial with Extended-Release Calcifediol in Symptomatic COVID-19 Outpatients
34% improved recovery [p=0.56]. Small RCT with low-risk patients in Florida, USA, showing no significant differences in overall recovery. Minimal details on outcomes are provided in the preprint. Authors note significantly faster resolution of respiratory symptoms when ..
Feb 2
Grant et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14030639 A Narrative Review of the Evidence for Variations in Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration Thresholds for Optimal Health
Review of the benefits of vitamin D for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and COVID-19. Authors conclude that optimal levels are above 30ng/mL for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, whereas the th..
Jan 31
Levy et al., Gerontology, doi:10.1159/000521412 Frail Older Adults with Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Clinical Course and Prognosis
30% lower combined mortality/hospitalization [p=0.05]. Retrospective 849 COVID-19+ patients in skilled nursing homes, showing lower risk of combined hospitalization/death with vitamin D prophylaxis, very close to statistical significance.
Jan 31
Subramanian et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqac027 Vitamin D, D-binding protein, free vitamin D and COVID-19 mortality in hospitalized patients
27% lower mortality [p=0.12]. Retrospective 427 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the United Kingdom, showing lower mortality with vitamin D supplementation (p=0.12), and higher mortality with both low and high vitamin D levels compared to a reference range of 50-74 n..
Jan 29
Mohajeri et al., Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, doi:10.3233/MNM-211521 The difference in the dietary inflammatory index, functional food, and antioxidants intake between COVID -19 patients and healthy persons
Retrospective dietary survey analysis of 500 COVID-19 patients and 500 healthy matched controls in Iran, showing that COVID-19 patients had lower daily consumption of vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, zinc, and selenium. IR.ARUMS.REC.1400...
Jan 27
Schmitt et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27606 Oxidative stress status and vitamin D levels of asymptomatic to mild symptomatic COVID-19 infections during the third trimester of pregnancy: A retrospective study in Metz, France
Retrospective 15 COVID+ pregnant women and 20 healthy controls in France, showing that all COVID+ patients were vitamin D deficient, and vitamin D levels were significantly lower in symptomatic patients compared to controls or asymptomati..
Jan 24
Karonova et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14030505 Vitamin D Intake May Reduce SARS-CoV-2 Infection Morbidity in Health Care Workers
95% fewer symptomatic cases [p=0.002] and 42% fewer cases [p=0.1]. Small RCT in Russia with 45 high dose vitamin D patients (50,000IU/wk for 2 wks followed by 5,000IU/day) and 46 low dose patients (2,000IU/day), showing lower cases and lower symptomatic cases with high dose treatment.
Jan 24
Saponaro et al., Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.745713 Is There a Crucial Link Between Vitamin D Status and Inflammatory Response in Patients With COVID-19?
36% lower ARDS [p=0.43]. Retrospective 93 COVID-19 pneumonia patients in Italy, showing low vitamin D levels associated with severe ARDS, and significantly lower vitamin D levels for non-survivors.
Jan 22
Juraj et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2022.01.044 COVID-19 pneumonia patients with 25(OH)D levels lower than 12 ng/ml are at increased risk of death
19% lower mortality [p=0.05]. Retrospective 357 COVID-19 pneumonia patients in Slovakia, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency (<12ng/mL). All patients received vitamin D supplementation in hospital. In multivariable linear regression, vitamin D levels we..
Jan 15
Tentolouris et al., Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, doi:10.1002/dmrr.3517 (meta analysis) The effect of vitamin D supplementation on mortality and intensive care unit admission of COVID-19 patients. A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression
40% lower mortality [p=0.11] and 67% lower ICU admission [p=0.005]. Systematic review and meta analysis of 10 vitamin D studies showing lower mortality, and ICU admission with treatment, statistically significant only for ICU admission.
Jan 15
Soltani-Zangbar et al., Gene Reports, doi:10.1016/j.genrep.2022.101509 Serum levels of vitamin D and immune system function in patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care unit
Analysis of 50 COVID-19 ICU patients and 50 healthy controls in Iran, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.
Jan 6
Tylicki et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm11020285 Predictors of Mortality in Hemodialyzed Patients after SARS-CoV-2 Infection
14% lower mortality [p=0.61]. Retrospective 133 COVID+ hemodialysis patients in Poland, showing lower mortality with existing vitamin D use, without statistical significance.
Jan 1
Seal et al., Journal of General Internal Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11606-021-07170-0 Association of Vitamin D Status and COVID-19-Related Hospitalization and Mortality
45% lower mortality [p=0.001] and 22% lower hospitalization [p=0.01]. Retrospective 4,599 COVID+ veterans in the USA with vitamin D levels measured 15 to 90 days prior to testing positive, showing a significant independent inverse dose-response relationship between vitamin D levels (from 15 to 60ng/mL) and ..
Jan 1
Bilir et al., Journal of Contemporary Medicine, doi:10.16899/jcm.990057 Does Vitamin D Supplementation Reduce Cytokine Storm and Mortality in Geriatric Intensive Care Patients Diagnosed with COVID-19
23% lower mortality [p=0.26], 3% lower ventilation [p=1], 20% improved recovery [p=0.13], and 10% shorter ICU admission [p=0.44]. Retrospective 80 elderly ICU patients in Turkey, 40 with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml received vitamin D treatment, showing no significant differences in outcomes. Although not statistically significant, results favored treatment which sugge..
Dec 31
2021
Jabbar et al., Nat. Volatiles & Essent. Oils, 8:4 Vitamin D Serum Levels and Its Association With COVID 19 Infection In Babylon Governorate, Iraq
Analysis of 120 COVID-19 and 120 control patients in Iraq, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 patients.
Dec 31
2021
Efird et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19010447 The Interaction of Vitamin D and Corticosteroids: A Mortality Analysis of 26,508 Veterans Who Tested Positive for SARS-CoV-2
49% lower mortality [p=0.1]. Retrospective 26,508 COVID+ veterans in USA, showing lower mortality with vitamin D use after testing positive (defined as being administered ≥7 days or half of the survival time within 2 weeks after testing), with statistical significanc..
Dec 29
2021
Mahmood et al., European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.6.1159 Coronavirus in HIP Fractures CHIP 2: Is Vitamin D Deficiency Associated with Increased Mortality from COVID-19 Infections in A Hip Fracture Population?
9% lower mortality [p=0.67]. Retrospective 517 hip fracture patients in the UK with vitamin D levels measured during COVID-19 admission, not showing significant differences in mortality for supplementation in unadjusted analysis with no group details and subject to c..
Dec 28
2021
Baguma et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1193578/v1 (Preprint) Characteristics of the COVID-19 patients treated at Gulu Regional Referral Hospital, Northern Uganda: A cross-sectional study
97% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Retrospective COVID+ hospitalized patients in Uganda, 23 patients receiving vitamin D treatment, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment.
Dec 22
2021
Chiodini et al., Frontiers in Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.736665 Vitamin D Status and SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes
Meta analysis concluding that "patients with low vitamin D levels present an increased risk of ARDS requiring admission to intensive care unit (ICU) or mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and a higher susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 i..
Dec 10
2021
Putra et al., European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.6.1131 Vitamin D Levels among Hospitalized and Non-Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Dr. M. Djamil General Hospital Padang
26% lower hospitalization [p=0.59]. Case control study in Indonesia with 31 moderate to critical hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and 31 asymptomatic or mild non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, showing lower vitamin D levels in the hospitalized patients, without reaching sta..
Dec 3
2021
Ma et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqab389 Associations between predicted vitamin D status, vitamin D intake, and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Coronavirus Disease 2019 severity
49% lower hospitalization [p=0.04], 7% more symptomatic cases [p=0.25], and 17% fewer cases [p=0.07]. Analysis of 39,915 patients with 1,768 COVID+ cases based on surveys in the Nurses' Health Study II, showing higher predicted vitamin D levels associated with lower risk of COVID-19 cases. There was significantly lower risk of hospitaliza..
Nov 30
2021
Fatemi et al., Acute and Critical Care, doi:10.4266/acc.2021.00605 Association of vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19 severity and mortality in Iranian people: a prospective observational study
42% lower mortality [p=0.07] and 38% lower severe cases [p=0.007]. Prospective study of 248 hospitalized COVID+ patients in Iran with vitamin D levels measured in the previous year and again at admission, showing vitamin D status associated with severity and mortality.
Nov 30
2021
Kaur et al., Indian Journal of Clinical Practice, 32:6 Correlation of Vitamin D Levels with COVID-19 Severity and Outcome
90% lower mortality [p<0.0001] and 90% lower ventilation [p<0.0001]. Prospective study of 81 hospitalized COVID+ patients in India, showing low vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality.
Nov 29
2021
Ranjbar et al., Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, doi:10.4103/jrms.JRMS_1151_20 Serum level of Vitamin D is associated with COVID-19 mortality rate in hospitalized patients
42% lower mortality [p=0.07]. Retrospective 317 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing mortality associated with lower vitamin D levels.
Nov 24
2021
Jenei et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.11.025 COVID-19 mortality is associated with low Vitamin D levels in patients with risk factors and/or advanced age
Retrospective 257 hospitalized patients in Hungary, showing mortality associated with lower vitamin D levels for all patients, for patients >60, and for age-matched patients with risk factors or age >60. The non-age-matched analyses are c..
Nov 23
2021
Ahmed et al., BioMed Research International, doi:10.1155/2021/1676914 Factors Affecting the Incidence, Progression, and Severity of COVID-19 in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Retrospective type 1 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia showing that mean vitamin D levels were significantly lower in type 1 diabetes patients with COVID-19 than in type 1 diabetes patients without COVID-19, or in a control group of patie..
Nov 23
2021
Seven et al., The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, doi:10.1080/14767058.2021.2005564 Correlation between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and COVID-19 severity in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study
47% lower severe cases [p=0.006]. Prospective study of 403 pregnant COVID+ hospitalized women in Turkey, showing higher risk of severe disease or poor prognostic factors with vitamin D deficiency.
Nov 21
2021
Ahmed et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.18.21266489 (Preprint) Causal Inference and COVID-19 Nursing Home Patients: Identifying Factors That Reduced Mortality Risk
10% lower mortality [p=0.28]. Retrospective causal inference analysis of 4,091 COVID+ long-term care high risk patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with vitamin D, without statistical significance.
Nov 21
2021
Asgari et al., Acta Medica Iranica, doi:10.18502/acta.v59i11.7779 Vitamin D Insufficiency in Disease Severity and Prognosis of the Patients With SARS Corona Virus-2 Infection
73% lower mortality [p=0.03] and 66% lower progression [p=0.02]. Retrospective 98 moderate/severe hospitalized COVID-19+ patients in Iran, showing significantly increased risk of mortality and severity with vitamin D deficiency. IR.AJAUMS.REC.1399.060.
Nov 15
2021
Ramos et al., Global Journal of Health Science, doi:10.5539/gjhs.v14n1p1 Vitamin D, Zinc and Iron in Adult Patients with Covid-19 and Their Action in the Immune Response as Biomarkers
46% fewer cases [p=0.16]. Retrospective 13 COVID-19 patients and 7 controls in Brazil, showing higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency for COVID-19 cases, without statistical significance.
Nov 14
2021
Beigmohammadi et al., Trials, doi:10.1186/s13063-021-05795-4 The effect of supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E on disease severity and inflammatory responses in patients with COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial
89% lower mortality [p=0.11], 41% lower hospitalization [p=0.25], and 45% improved recovery [p=0.001]. Small RCT 60 ICU patients in Iran, 30 treated with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E, showing significant improvement in SOFA score and several inflammatory markers at day 7 with treatment. 5,000 IU vitamin A daily, 600,000 IU vitamin D once, 30..
Nov 12
2021
Sacristán et al., Transplantation Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.08.060 Risk of severe COVID-19 infection in kidney transplant recipients
Retrospective 63 COVID+ kidney transplant recipients, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels before infection in patients requiring ICU admission.
Nov 12
2021
Gönen et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13114047 Rapid and Effective Vitamin D Supplementation May Present Better Clinical Outcomes in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Patients by Altering Serum INOS1, IL1B, IFNg, Cathelicidin-LL37, and ICAM1
21% lower hospitalization [p=0.11]. Retrospective 867 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Turkey, showing worse outcomes with vitamin D deficiency (without statistical significance); followed by a prospective study of 210 patients with vitamin D supplementation for those that..
Nov 10
2021
Asghar et al., Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., doi:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0577 Evaluation of Vitamin-D Status and Its Association with Clinical Outcomes Among COVID-19 Patients in Pakistan
53% lower mortality [p=0.05], 19% lower ventilation [p=0.32], and 33% lower ICU admission [p=0.54]. Retrospective 91 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with mortality in multivariate Cox regression.
Nov 3
2021
Gallelli et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13113932 Vitamin D Serum Levels in Subjects Tested for SARS-CoV-2: What Are the Differences among Acute, Healed, and Negative COVID-19 Patients? A Multicenter Real-Practice Study
Analysis of 117 patients in Italy, showing COVID-19 patients had significantly lower vitamin D levels than control patients.
Nov 2
2021
Atanasovska et al., Redox Report, doi:10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126 Vitamin D levels and oxidative stress markers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19
59% lower severe cases [p=0.13]. Retrospective 33 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in North Macedonia, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for severe vs. moderate cases. Oxidative stress was also higher for vitamin D insufficient patients.
Oct 25
2021
Leal-Martínez et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19031172 (date from earlier preprint) Effect of a Nutritional Support System to Increase Survival and Reduce Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in Stage III and Comorbidities: A Blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
86% lower mortality [p=0.03] and 57% lower ventilation [p=0.31]. 80 patient RCT with 40 patients treated with a comprehensive regimen of nutritional support, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment. Treatment contained cholecalciferol, vitamin C, zinc, spirulina maxima, folic acid, glutami..
Oct 22
2021
Hurst et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055435 Vitamin D insufficiency in COVID-19 and influenza A, and critical illness survivors: a cross-sectional study
68% lower mortality [p=0.005] and 66% lower ventilation [p=0.004]. Analysis of 259 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the UK, showing a majority of patients had vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, which was associated with poor outcomes. Both free and total 25(OH)D were analyzed with consistent results...
Oct 20
2021
Al-Anouti et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13113680 Associations between Genetic Variants in the Vitamin D Metabolism Pathway and Severity of COVID-19 among UAE Residents
68% lower severe cases [p=0.0007]. Retrospective 646 COVID-19 patients in the UAE, showing significant associations between genetic determinants of vitamin D metabolism and COVID-19 severity, and an association with vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 severity. Patients in t..
Oct 15
2021
Ramirez-Sandoval et al., Archives of Medical Research, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2021.09.006 Very Low Vitamin D Levels are a Strong Independent Predictor of Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with Severe COVID-19
32% lower mortality [p<0.0001] and 22% shorter hospitalization [p=0.001]. Retrospective 2,908 hospitalized patients in Mexico with vitamin D levels measured on admission, showing significantly lower mortality for patients without vitamin D deficiency.
Oct 13
2021
Maghbooli et al., Endocrine Practice, doi:10.1016/j.eprac.2021.09.016 Treatment with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (calcifediol) is associated with a reduction in the blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio marker of disease severity in patients hospitalized with COVID-19: a pilot, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled double blind clinical trial
40% lower ICU admission [p=0.42] and 17% shorter hospitalization [p=0.1]. RCT 106 hospitalized patients with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml in Iran, 53 treated with calcifediol, showing that treatment was able to correct vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, resulting in improved immune system function. Hospitalizatio..
Oct 12
2021
Afaghi et al., The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, doi:10.1620/tjem.255.127 Prevalence and Clinical Outcomes of Vitamin D Deficiency in COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis
55% lower mortality [p=0.002], 56% lower ventilation [p<0.0001], and 34% lower ICU admission [p=0.0001]. Retrospective 646 COVID-19+ hospitalized patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
Oct 12
2021
Worcel et al., Annals of Palliative Medicine, doi:10.21037/apm-21-1707 Low mortality from COVID-19 at a nursing facility in France following a combined preventive and active treatment protocol
Report on the relatively low mortality and relatively mild COVID-19 symptoms at a French nursing facility that has adopted several treatments including vitamin D, zinc, anticoagulants, corticosteroids, and a multivitamin.
Oct 9
2021
Caballero-García et al., Medicina, doi:10.3390/medicina57101079 Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Muscle Status in Old Patients Recovering from COVID-19 Infection
Small RCT with 30 patients examining the effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle status in elderly recovering COVID-19 patients, showing serum creatine kinase levels returned to optimal values, however there was no significant diffe..
Oct 5
2021
Mukherjee et al., FEBS Open Bio, doi:10.1002/2211-5463.13309 Seasonal UV exposure and vitamin D: Association with the dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in Europe
Analysis of UV and temperature levels in 26 European countries, showing that low temperature, UV index, and cloud-free vitamin D UV dose levels are negatively correlated with COVID-19 prevalence. Authors suggest that low UV exposure can a..
Oct 2
2021
Abdollahzadeh et al., Infection, Genetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105098 Association of Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and clinical/severe outcomes of COVID-19 patients
Analysis of 500 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing associations between specific vitamin D receceptor gene polymorphisms and COVID-19 outcomes.
Sep 27
2021
Yildiz et al., Bratislava Medical Journal, doi:10.4149/BLL_2021_119 The prognostic significance of vitamin D deficiency in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia
81% lower mortality [p=0.04], 94% lower ICU admission [p=0.13], and 10% shorter hospitalization [p=0.32]. Retrospective 207 hospitalized patients in Turkey, 37 with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml treated with a 300,000IU vitamin D, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Sep 25
2021
Borsche et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103596 (date from earlier preprint) (meta analysis) COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could Theoretically Be Achieved at 50 ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Meta analysis of 8 studies with vitamin D levels measured pre-infection or on the day of hospital admission, showing a correlation between the levels and mortality. Authors recommend combining vaccination with vitamin D supplementation to..
Sep 24
2021
Arroyo-Díaz et al., Frontiers in Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.758347 Previous Vitamin D Supplementation and Morbidity and Mortality Outcomes in People Hospitalised for COVID19: A Cross-Sectional Study
12% higher mortality [p=0.59], 43% lower ventilation [p=0.22], 44% lower ICU admission [p=0.03], and 12% shorter hospitalization [p=0.2]. Retrospective 1,267 hospitalized patients in Spain, 189 on vitamin D supplementation before admission, showing lower ICU admission with supplementation, and no statistically significant difference for mortality or ventilation.
Sep 22
2021
Castle et al., Journal of Inflammation Research, doi:10.2147/JIR.S323356 (Review) Implications for Systemic Approaches to COVID-19: Effect Sizes of Remdesivir, Tocilizumab, Melatonin, Vitamin D3, and Meditation
Review of the effects of COVID-19 on inflammatory markers, and the effects on those markers of standard treatments vs. vitamin D, melatonin, and meditation, showing comparable or superior effects with the non-standard treatments. The stan..
Sep 22
2021
Marino-Ramirez et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.09.20.21263865 (Preprint) Vitamin D and socioeconomic deprivation mediate COVID-19 ethnic health disparities
UK Biobank retrospective showing that vitamin supplements, including vitamin D, mediate the Asian disparity in COVID-19 susceptibility, and vitamin D levels mediate Asian and Black COVID-19 severity disparities. Authors conclude that the ..
Sep 19
2021
Derakhshanian et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.2591 The predictive power of serum vitamin D for poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients
45% lower mortality [p=0.05], 42% lower ventilation [p=0.09], and 37% lower ICU admission [p=0.04]. Retrospective 290 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
Sep 14
2021
Padhi et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107001 Lower levels of vitamin D are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in the Indian population: An observational study
Analysis of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 in Indian states and union territories, showing an inverse correlation of vitamin D levels with SARS-CoV-2 cases and mortality.
Sep 9
2021
Pickard et al., PLOS Pathogens, doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1009840 (In Vitro) Discovery of re-purposed drugs that slow SARS-CoV-2 replication in human cells
In Vitro studying identifying 35 compounds that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells and hepatocytes when treated prior to infection, and several compounds that slow replication when treated after infection: vitamin D, amodiaquine, atovaquone..
Sep 8
2021
Elamir et al., Bone, doi:10.1016/j.bone.2021.116175 A Randomized Pilot Study Using Calcitriol in Hospitalized Patients
86% lower mortality [p=0.23], 38% lower ICU admission [p=0.33], 40% shorter hospitalization [p=0.14], and 86% improved recovery [p=0.03]. RCT 50 hospitalized patients in the USA, 25 treated with calcitriol, showing significantly improved oxygenation with treatment. Mortality, intubation, ICU admission, and hospitalization time also favored treatment, while not reaching stat..
Sep 5
2021
Lázaro et al., Endocrine Abstracts, doi:10.1530/endoabs.70.EP552 (Preprint) Vitamin D deficit in type 2 diabetes patients during COVID-19 lockdown with and without supplementation
27% fewer cases [p=1]. Analysis of 239 consecutive diabetic patients, 97 taking vitamin D supplements, showing significantly higher vitamin D levels in supplemented patients. There was no statistically significant difference in cases based on supplementation, w..
Sep 1
2021
Bagheri et al., Journal of Family & Reproductive Health, doi:10.18502/jfrh.v14i3.4668 Supplement Usage Pattern in a Group of COVID- 19 Patients in Tehran
71% lower severe cases [p=0.02] and 38% lower hospitalization [p=0.11]. Retrospective 510 patients in Iran, showing lower risk of severity with vitamin D (statistically significant) and zinc (not statistically significant) supplementation. IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1398.1063.
Sep 1
2021
Soliman et al., Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare, doi:10.1177/20101058211041405 Impact of Vitamin D Therapy on the Progress COVID-19: Six Weeks Follow-Up Study of Vitamin D Deficient Elderly Diabetes Patients
63% lower mortality [p=0.21], 20% lower ventilation [p=0.56], and 20% improved recovery [p=0.56]. Small RCT with 56 eldery diabetes patients hospitalized in Egypt, 40 treated with cholecalciferol, not showing significant differences.
Aug 31
2021
Ben-Eltriki et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891 (meta analysis) Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Developing Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Meta analysis of 24 observational studies with 3,637 participants, showing low vitamin D status associated with a higher risk of death and a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
Aug 29
2021
Karonova et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13093021 Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19
78% lower mortality [p=0.006] and 67% lower severe cases [p=0.005]. Retrospective 161 hospitalized patients in Russia, showing COVID-19 severity and mortality associated with vitamin D deficiency. Patients in this study may overlap with those in an earlier smaller study from some of the same authors.
Aug 28
2021
Assiri et al., Journal of Infection and Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.08.030 COVID-19 related treatment and outcomes among COVID-19 ICU patients: A retrospective cohort study
66% higher mortality [p=0.6]. Retrospective 118 ICU patients in Saudi Arabia showing no significant differences in unadjusted results with zinc, vitamin D, and favipiravir treatment.
Aug 27
2021
Pecina et al., Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, doi:10.1177/21501327211041206 Vitamin D Status and Severe COVID-19 Disease Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients
70% higher mortality [p=0.52], 10% higher ventilation [p=0.89], and 30% higher ICU admission [p=0.61]. Retrospective 92 hospitalized patients not showing significant differences in outcomes based on vitamin D status or supplementation.
Aug 26
2021
Golabi et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103368 (date from earlier preprint) The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study
25% more cases [p=0.56]. Analysis of vitamin D and zinc levels in 53 PCR+ outpatients and 53 matched controls, showing lower zinc levels in COVID-19 patients, and increased risk of cases and symptoms with vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant difference ..
Aug 26
2021
Golabi et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103368 (date from earlier preprint) The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study
90% improved recovery [p<0.0001] and 72% fewer cases [p=0.07]. Analysis of vitamin D and zinc levels in 53 PCR+ outpatients and 53 matched controls, showing lower zinc levels in COVID-19 patients, and increased risk of cases and symptoms with vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant difference ..
Aug 25
2021
Varikasuvu et al., Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, doi:10.1080/14787210.2022.2035217 (meta analysis) COVID-19 and Vitamin D (Co-VIVID Study): a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Meta analysis of 6 vitamin D treatment RCTs, showing statistically significant improvements for pooled outcomes and PCR positivity, and positive but not statistically significant improvements for mortality, mechanical ventilation, ICU adm..
Aug 24
2021
Parra-Ortega et al., Nutrition Research and Practice, doi:10.4162/nrp.2021.15.S1.S32 25-Hydroxyvitamin D level is associated with mortality in patients with critical COVID-19: a prospective observational study in Mexico City
99% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. Prospective study of 94 COVID-19 patients in Mexico, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with mortality in multivariate analysis. 84% of patients were vitamin D deficient, and the remaining 16% had insufficient vitamin D levels.
Aug 20
2021
Song et al., Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, doi:10.1080/07391102.2021.1964601 Vitamin D3 and its hydroxyderivatives as promising drugs against COVID-19: a computational study
In Silico study suggesting that vitamin D3 and its biologically active hydroxyderivatives can serve as an TMPRSS2 inhibitor, and inhibit ACE2 binding with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD.
Aug 18
2021
Shakeri et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27277 Evaluation of the relationship between serum levels of zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19
Retrospective 293 hospitalized patients in Iran showing lower levels of zinc, vitamin B12, and vitamin D in patients that died, with statistical significance reached only for zinc.
Aug 12
2021
di Filippo et al, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab599 Vitamin D levels associate with blood glucose and BMI in COVID-19 patients predicting disease severity
11% lower mortality [p=1], 42% lower ICU admission [p=0.22], and 40% lower severe cases [p=0.04]. Retrospective 88 patients in Italy, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with severe cases, blood glucose, and BMI.
Aug 11
2021
Sinaci et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105964 Impact of vitamin D on the course of COVID-19 during pregnancy: A case control study
90% lower severe cases [p=0.35] and 19% more moderate/severe cases [p=0.64]. Retrospective 159 COVID-19+ pregnant women in Turkey and 332 healthy pregnant controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19+ patients. 23% of COVID-19 patients where on vitamin D supplementation, while none of the 7 s..
Aug 10
2021
Alpcan et al., Epidemiology & Infection, doi:10.1017/S0950268821001825 Vitamin D levels in children with COVID-19: a report from Turkey
73% fewer cases [p=0.0005]. Retrospective 75 COVID-19 hospitalized pediatric patients in Turkey and 80 healthy controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.
Aug 5
2021
Eden et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000270 Nutritional parameters and outcomes in patients admitted to intensive care with COVID-19: a retrospective single-centre service evaluation
64% lower mortality [p=0.1]. Retrospective 72 ICU patients in the UK, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, not reaching statistical significance.
Aug 5
2021
Ribeiro et al., Clinica Chimica Acta, doi:10.1016/j.cca.2021.08.003 Previous vitamin D status and total cholesterol are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection
50% fewer cases [p=0.02]. Retrospective 1,634 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil, showing vitamin D levels <30ng/mL associated with greater odds of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test in patients older than 49 years.
Aug 5
2021
Nimavat et al., Annals of Medicine and Surgery, doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102661 Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19: A case-control study at a tertiary care hospital in India
50% lower mortality [p=0.17] and 68% lower severe cases [p=0.003]. Case control study with 156 PCR+ cases in India and 204 controls, showing more frequent vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients, and an association between lower vitamin D levels and COVID-19 severity.
Aug 4
2021
Mohseni et al., Nutrition & Food Science, doi:10.1108/NFS-11-2020-0421 Do body mass index (BMI) and history of nutritional supplementation play a role in the severity of COVID-19? A retrospective study
12% fewer cases [p=0.09]. Retrospective 603 patients in Iran, 192 taking vitamin D supplements, showing no significant difference in COVID-19 cases in unadjusted results. IR.SHOUSHTAR.REC.1399.015.
Jul 30
2021
Matin et al., Archives of Microbiology, doi:10.1007/s00203-021-02482-5 The sufficient vitamin D and albumin level have a protective effect on COVID-19 infection
66% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. Case control study with 191 COVID-19 patients and 203 healthy controls in Iran, showing an association between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 infection and severity. 84.4% of COVID-19 patients had vitamin D deficiency.
Jul 29
2021
Desai et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofab408 Vitamin K & D Deficiencies Are Independently Associated With COVID-19 Disease Severity
Case control study with 100 COVID-19+ patients and 50 age and gender matched controls, showing vitamin K and vitamin D levels independently associated with COVID-19 severity.
Jul 29
2021
Al-Salman et al., Nutrition & Food Science, doi:10.1108/NFS-05-2021-0143 In COVID-19 patients, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in serum is associated with longer viral clearance time and higher risk of intensive care unit admission
44% lower ICU admission [p=0.03]. Retrospective 450 hospitalized patients in Bahrain, showing increased risk of ICU admission and slower viral clearance with vitamin D deficiency.
Jul 29
2021
Ghasemian et al., The International Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14675 (meta analysis) The Role of Vitamin D in the Age of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Systematic review and meta analysis of 23 studies, finding significantly higher risk of COVID-19 cases and severity with vitamin D deficiency. Mortality risk was higher with deficiency, but not reaching statistical significance, OR 1.6 [0..
Jul 29
2021
Annweiler et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:0.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105958 Vitamin D supplementation prior to or during COVID-19 associated with better 3-month survival in geriatric patients: Extension phase of the GERIA-COVID study
64% lower mortality [p=0.002]. Report on extended results from the GERIA-COVID study, showing significantly lower mortality at 3 months with vitamin D treatment. Results combine prophylaxis and early treatment.
Jul 27
2021
Qayyum et al., Endocrinology and Metabolism, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00174.2021 Vitamin D and lumisterol novel metabolites can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery enzymes
In Silico analysis showing that vitamin D and lumisterol metabolites may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and RdRP.
Jul 27
2021
Cozier et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0255132 Lower serum 25(OH)D levels associated with higher risk of COVID-19 infection in U.S. Black women
39% fewer cases [p=0.04]. Prospective study of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 infection in the Black Women's Health Study, showing higher risk of infection for lower vitamin D levels. Vitamin D levels were from 3-7 years before infection. Levels at the time of infe..
Jul 27
2021
Israel et al., Epidemiology and Global Health Microbiology and Infectious Disease, doi:10.7554/eLife.68165 Identification of drugs associated with reduced severity of COVID-19: A case-control study in a large population
13% lower hospitalization [p=0.003]. Case control study examining medication usage with a healthcare database in Israel, showing lower risk of hospitalization with vitamin D (defined as being picked up within 35 days prior to PCR+). Other patients may have acquired vitamin D..
Jul 26
2021
Jimenez et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13082559 Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients with COVID-19, the Effect of Paricalcitol or Calcimimetics
50% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Retrospective 288 hemodialysis patients in Spain, 137 with existing vitamin D treatments (94 with paricalcitol), showing lower mortality with treatment. There was no significant difference in outcomes based on serum levels, however author..
Jul 23
2021
Güven et al, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1038/s41430-021-00984-5 The effect of high-dose parenteral vitamin D3 on COVID-19-related inhospital mortality in critical COVID-19 patients during intensive care unit admission: an observational cohort study
25% lower mortality [p=0.32]. Retrospective 175 ICU patients, 113 treated with a single dose of 300,000IU intramuscular cholecalciferol, showing lower mortality with treatment, but not reaching statistical significance. Calcifediol or calcitriol, which avoids several ..
Jul 17
2021
Oristrell et al., Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01639-9 Vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19 risk: a population-based, cohort study
1% higher mortality [p=0.91] and 1% fewer cases [p=0.65]. Retrospective study of cholecalciferol and calcitriol supplementation in Catalonia showing a small but significant lower risk of cases with cholecalciferol, but no significant difference for mortality, or for calcitriol supplementation. S..
Jul 9
2021
Rabail et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.2458 Nutritional and lifestyle changes required for minimizing the recovery period in home quarantined COVID-19 patients of Punjab, Pakistan
Survey of 80 recovered COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, showing faster recovery with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation.
Jul 7
2021
González-Estevez et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18147266 Association of Food Intake Quality with Vitamin D in SARS-CoV-2 Positive Patients from Mexico: A Cross-Sectional Study
25% fewer symptomatic cases [p=0.04]. Retrospective survey analysis of 40 COVID+ patients in Mexico, showing higher risk of symptoms with vitamin D deficiency. Higher food intake quality and intense physical activity were associated with vitamin D sufficiency. Insufficient in..
Jul 6
2021
Margolin et al., Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1177/2515690X211026193 20-Week Study of Clinical Outcomes of Over-the-Counter COVID-19 Prophylaxis and Treatment
94% fewer cases [p=0.003]. Retrospective 113 outpatients, 53 (patient choice) treated with zinc, quercetin, vitamin C/D/E, l-lysine, and quina, showing lower cases with treatment. Results are subject to selection bias and limited information on the groups is provid..
Jul 1
2021
Bianconi et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111408 Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its prognostic impact on patients hospitalized with COVID-19
18% lower mortality [p=0.59] and 16% lower combined mortality/ICU admission [p=0.53]. Prospective study of 200 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing 80% of patients had vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant differences in outcomes based on vitamin D levels. There was also no significant difference in vitamin D l..
Jun 24
2021
Sabico et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13072170 Effects of a 2-Week 5000 IU versus 1000 IU Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Recovery of Symptoms in Patients with Mild to Moderate Covid-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
14% higher hospital discharge [p=0.14] and 14% faster recovery [p=0.97]. Small RCT of 69 hospitalized patients comparing 1,000IU and 5,000IU daily cholecalciferol, showing faster recovery with the higher dose (statistically significant only for cough and ageusia).
Jun 24
2021
Pal et al., Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01614-4 (meta analysis) Vitamin D supplementation and clinical outcomes in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Meta analysis of 13 vitamin D treatment studies, showing significantly lower ICU admission/mortality with treatment.
Jun 24
2021
Beigmohammadi et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111400 The association between serum levels of micronutrients and the severity of disease in patients with COVID-19
Retrospective 60 ICU patients in Iran, showing that lower levels of vitamin D, magnesium, and zinc were significantly associated with higher APACHE scores (P = 0.001, 0.028, and <0.001, respectively) and higher lung involvement (P = 0.002..
Jun 22
2021
Zelzer et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13072129 Vitamin D Metabolites and Clinical Outcome in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients
46% lower mortality [p=0.08]. Retrospective 148 patients in Austria, showing no statistically significant differences in vitamin D levels and metabolites for mortality or respiratory support.
Jun 17
2021
Jude et al., Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab439 Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher hospitalisation risk from COVID-19: a retrospective case-control study
72% lower hospitalization [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 80,670 people in the UK with vitamin D levels measured within the last 12 months, showing higher risk of hospitalization with low vitamin D levels.
Jun 14
2021
Campi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06281-7 Vitamin D and COVID-19 severity and related mortality: a prospective study in Italy
88% lower severe cases [p<0.0001]. Prospective study of 103 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing very high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and increased severity for lower vitamin D levels. Vitamin D supplementation was significantly less common for cases.
Jun 7
2021
Dror et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0263069 (date from earlier preprint) Pre-infection 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and association with severity of COVID-19 illness
85% lower severe cases [p=0.001]. Retrospective 253 hospitalized patients in Israel showing higher mortality and higher risk of severe cases with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D levels were measured 14 to 730 days before the COVID-19 test. Adjusted results are only provid..
Jun 6
2021
Diaz-Curiel, Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105928 The relationship between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and COVID-19 onset and disease course in Spanish patients
73% lower ICU admission [p=0.02]. Retrospective 1,549 patients in Spain showing that the frequency of vitamin D deficiency was higher in admitted patients compared to the overall Spanish population, and that vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of ICU a..
Jun 4
2021
Kotur et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.689419 Association of Vitamin D, Zinc and Selenium Related Genetic Variants With COVID-19 Disease Severity
Analysis of variants in genes significant for the status of vitamin D in 120 Serbian COVID-19 patients, showing that vitamin D related genetic variants DHCR7/NADSYN rs12785878 and CYP2R1 rs10741657 were associated with severe COVID-19 in ..
Jun 2
2021
Fasano et al., Movement Disorders, doi:10.1002/mds.28176 COVID-19 in Parkinson’s Disease Patients Living in Lombardy, Italy
42% fewer cases [p=0.05]. Retrospective phone survey of 1,486 Parkinson's disease patients in Italy, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin D supplementation. This paper also presents a case control study of PD patients and family member control patients.
Jun 1
2021
Butler-Laporte et al., PLOS Medicine, doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003605 Vitamin D and COVID-19 susceptibility and severity in the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative: A Mendelian randomization study
Mendelian randomization study not finding significant differences in COVID-19 outcomes based on vitamin D level. This study does not compare patients with deficiency/insuffiency/sufficiency, only providing ORs for increase in D levels. Au..
May 31
2021
Pimental et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.05.021 Low vitamin D levels and increased neutrophil in patients admitted at ICU with COVID-19
29% lower mortality [p=1]. Retrospective 25 ICU patients in Brazil, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. There appears to be a typo in the mortality percentage for vitamin D deficiency (20% is not valid for the group size..
May 29
2021
Sooriyaarachchi et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.05.011 Impact of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19
Analysis of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 cases and deaths in 47 countries, showing vitamin D deficiency significantly associated with mortality.
May 28
2021
Sánchez-Zuno, J. Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10112378 Vitamin D Levels in COVID-19 Outpatients from Western Mexico: Clinical Correlation and Effect of Its Supplementation
89% lower severe cases [p=0.04] and 81% improved recovery [p=0.22]. Very small 42 PCR+ outpatient RCT in Mexico, 22 treated with vitamin D. Most patients had insufficient vitamin D levels, there were more symptoms in those with insufficient levels, and there were less cases with fever or with >3 symptoms ..
May 28
2021
Galaznik et al., Journal of Clinical Oncology, doi:10.1200/JCO.2021.39.15_suppl.6589 (Preprint) Assessment of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 diagnosis in patients with breast or prostate cancer using electronic medical records
35% fewer cases [p=0.01]. Retrospective 16,287 breast cancer and 14,919 prostate cancer showing increased risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin D deficiency.
May 26
2021
Al-Mazaideh et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, doi:10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29B31603 Vitamin D is a New Promising Inhibitor to the Main Protease (Mpro) of COVID-19 by Molecular Docking
In Silico study showing vitamin D binding with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. Among the compounds tested, vitamin D had the highest potential interaction in terms of total H-bond, van der Waal, torsional, and desolvation energy. Authors recommend ad..
May 25
2021
Papadimitriou et al., World J. Virology, doi:10.5501/wjv.v10.i3.111] Association between population vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 related serious-critical illness and deaths: An ecological integrative approach
Country analysis showing negative correlations between population vitamin D level and severe cases and death (but not with cases overall). Authors conclude that higher vitamin D levels may protect from severe cases and death, even more so..
May 22
2021
Asimi et al., Endocrine Abstracts, doi:10.1530/endoabs.73.PEP14.2 (Preprint) Selenium, zinc, and vitamin D supplementation affect the clinical course of COVID-19 infection in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
97% lower ventilation [p<0.0001], 99% lower hospitalization [p<0.0001], and 100% lower severe cases [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 356 Hashimoto's thyroiditis outpatients, 270 taking vitamin D, zinc, and selenium, showing significantly lower hospitalization with treatment. Authors adjust for age, gender, BMI, and smoking status, reporting statistically ..
May 21
2021
Reis et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqab151 Influence of vitamin D status on hospital length of stay and prognosis in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19: a multicenter prospective cohort study
23% lower mortality [p=0.82], 45% higher ventilation [p=0.77], 33% higher hospital discharge [p=0.18], and 22% shorter hospitalization [p=0.06]. Prospective study of 220 hospitalized patients in Brazil, showing no significant differences based on vitamin D levels. There was a trend (p=0.057) towards longer hospital stay for patients with levels <10ng/mL.
May 21
2021
Alcala-Diaz et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13061760 Calcifediol Treatment and Hospital Mortality Due to COVID-19: A Cohort Study
81% lower mortality [p=0.04]. Retrospective 537 patients in Spain, 79 treated with calcifediol, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment. The treated group had a higher risk of comorbidity, whereas the control group had lower O2 saturation, higher CURB‐65,..
May 19
2021
AlSafar et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13051714 COVID-19 Disease Severity and Death in Relation to Vitamin D Status among SARS-CoV-2-Positive UAE Residents
59% lower mortality [p=0.05] and 33% lower severe cases [p=0.005]. Retrospective 464 patients in United Arab Emirates showing low D levels at first hospital visit associated with higher COVID-19 severity and mortality.
May 19
2021
Li et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11634 Assessment of the Association of Vitamin D Level With SARS-CoV-2 Seropositivity Among Working-Age Adults
9% fewer cases [p=0.24]. Cohort study of 18,148 patients in the USA showing low vitamin D associated with COVID-19 PCR+ status before adjustments but not after. Authors state that "low vitamin D levels were not independently associated with the risk of..
May 18
2021
Davoudi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06168-7 Lack of association between vitamin D insufficiency and clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 infection
12% higher mortality [p=1], 16% lower ventilation [p=1], 28% lower ICU admission [p=0.74], and 68% higher severe cases [p=0.3]. Retrospective 153 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing no significant difference in outcomes based on vitamin D levels. Adjusted results are only provided for vitamin D as a continuous variable.
May 18
2021
Dudley et al., BJPsych Bulletin, doi:10.1192/bjb.2021.55 Revisiting vitamin D status and supplementation for in-patients with intellectual and developmental disability in the North of England, UK
22% fewer symptomatic cases [p=0.65]. Retrospective 64 patients with intellectual and developmental disability in the UK, showing no significant difference in COVID-19 status with vitamin D supplementation. Only 6 patients were not on vitamin D supplementation.
May 11
2021
Aldwihi et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18105086 Patients’ Behavior Regarding Dietary or Herbal Supplements before and during COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia
49% higher hospitalization [p=0.002]. Retrospective survey-based analysis of 738 COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia, showing lower hospitalization with vitamin C, turmeric, zinc, and nigella sativa, and higher hospitalization with vitamin D. For vitamin D, most patients contin..
May 8
2021
Savitri et al., Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 25:6 Comparison between Vitamin D Level of Asymptomatic Confirmed Covid-19 Patients with Symptomatic Confirmed Covid-19 Patients in Makassar
88% fewer symptomatic cases [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 42 PCR+ patients in Indonesia, showing significantly higher risk of symptomatic cases with vitamin D deficiency.
May 7
2021
Bychinin et al., Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.17816/clinpract64976 Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit
36% lower mortality [p=0.03]. Retrospective 103 COVID-19 ICU patients in Russia, showing higher mortality with low vitamin D levels in unadjusted results.
May 3
2021
Levitus et al., Journal of the Endocrine Society, doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvab048.567 The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Severe COVID-19 Outcomes in Patients With Vitamin D Insufficiency
31% lower severe cases [p=0.25]. Retrospective 129 hospitalized patients with vitamin D levels measured within 90 days prior to admission, showing lower, but not statistically significant, risk of severe cases with vitamin D supplementation among patients with levels <20..
Apr 30
2021
Elhadi et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0251085 Epidemiology, outcomes, and utilization of intensive care unit resources for critically ill COVID-19 patients in Libya: A prospective multi-center cohort study
23% lower mortality [p=0.29]. Prospective study of 465 COVID-19 ICU patients in Libya showing no significant differences with treatment.
Apr 30
2021
Azadeh et al., J. Mazandaran Univ. Med. Sci. 31:195 Serum Vitamin D Concentrations in CoVID19 Patients
Retrospective 80 COVID-19 patients in Iran and 70 healthy controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.
Apr 29
2021
Loucera et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-02701-5 (date from earlier preprint) Real world evidence of calcifediol or vitamin D prescription and mortality rate of COVID-19 in a retrospective cohort of hospitalized Andalusian patients
33% lower mortality [p=0.009]. Retrospective 15,968 hospitalized patients in Spain showing a significant reduction in mortality associated with the prescription of vitamin D, especially calcifediol, within 15-30 days prior to hospitalization.
Apr 26
2021
Al-Daghri et al., Journal of Translational Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12967-021-02838-x Vitamin D status of Arab Gulf residents screened for SARS-CoV-2 and its association with COVID-19 infection: a multi-centre case–control study
Case control study with 220 adults showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in PCR+ patients.
Apr 18
2021
Elham et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.03.040 Serum vitamin D, calcium, and zinc levels in patients with COVID-19
Case control study with 93 hospitalized patients in Iran and 186 control patients, showing significantly lower vitamin D, zinc, and calcium levels in cases. IR.SHOUSHTAR.REC.1399.017.
Apr 17
2021
Shah Alam et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107686 (Review) The role of vitamin D in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection: An update
Review of vitamin D for COVID-19 noting that infections are likely to be more prevalent in the winter season; clinical trials show vitamin D as a potential therapeutic agent; vitamin D is beneficial against COVID-19 by reducing inflammato..
Apr 8
2021
Abdulateef et al., Open Medicine, doi:10.1515/med-2021-0273 COVID-19 severity in relation to sociodemographics and vitamin D use
41% lower hospitalization [p=0.3]. Survey of 428 recovered COVID-19 patients in Iraq, showing fewer hospital visits for patients on prophylactic vitamin C or D. Hospitalization was lower for those on vitamin C, D, or zinc, without statistical significance.
Apr 6
2021
Oristrell et al., Biomedicines, doi:10.3390/biomedicines9050509 (date from earlier preprint) Association of Calcitriol Supplementation with Reduced COVID-19 Mortality in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Population-based Study
43% lower mortality [p=0.001], 43% lower severe cases [p=0.0008], and 22% fewer cases [p=0.01]. Retrospective study of calcitriol supplementation with chronic kidney disease patients in Catalonia showing lower cases, severe cases, and mortality with supplementation. A dose-response relationship was found for severe cases and mortali..
Apr 5
2021
Ünsal et al., Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01566-9 Retrospective analysis of vitamin D status on ınflammatory markers and course of the disease in patients with COVID-19 infection
81% lower mortality [p=0.23] and 73% lower need for oxygen therapy [p=0.07]. Retrospective 56 patients in Turkey showing greater need for oxygen therapy and higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, and significantly lower risk of pneumonia with vitamin D supplementation.
Apr 2
2021
Livingston et al., Int. J. Clinical Practive, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14166 Detectable respiratory SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA is associated with low vitamin D levels and high social deprivation
51% fewer cases [p=0.02]. Retrospective 104 consecutive patients tested for COVID-19 in a hospital in the UK, showing lower vitamin D and higher social deprivation associated with COVID-19 positive results.
Mar 31
2021
Bayramoğlu et al., European Journal of Pediatrics, doi:10.1007/s00431-021-04030-1 The association between vitamin D levels and the clinical severity and inflammation markers in pediatric COVID-19 patients: single-center experience from a pandemic hospital
70% lower severe cases [p=0.03]. Retrospective 103 pediatric hospitalized COVID-19 patients, showing an association between vitamin D deficiency and clinical severity.
Mar 30
2021
Holt et al., Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-217487 Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
7% fewer cases [p=0.53]. Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistica..
Mar 29
2021
Akbar et al., Front. Nutr. 8:660420, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.660420 (meta analysis) Low Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vitamin D) Level Is Associated With Susceptibility to COVID-19, Severity, and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Systematic review and meta analysis showing that low vitamin D levels was associated with COVID-19 cases, severity, and mortality.
Mar 27
2021
Gaudio et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18073491 Vitamin D Levels Are Reduced at the Time of Hospital Admission in Sicilian SARS-CoV-2-Positive Patients
79% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 50 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Italy with vitamin D levels measured on admission, and 100 matched control patients, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D levels were also lower in..
Mar 27
2021
Freitas et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.22.21254032 (Preprint) Vitamin D-related polymorphisms and vitamin D levels as risk biomarkers of COVID-19 infection severity
41% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Analysis of 491 hospitalized patients in Portugal showing that polymorphisms in the vitamin D binding protein encoded by the GC gene are related to COVID-19 severity (p = 0.005). There was an association between vitamin D polygenic risk s..
Mar 26
2021
Petrelli et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105883 (meta analysis) Therapeutic and prognostic role of vitamin D for COVID-19 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 43 observational studies
Meta analysis showing vitamin D deficiency associated with higher risk of COVID-19, worse severity, and higher mortality. Supplementation with vitamin D reduced the risk of severe cases and mortality.
Mar 22
2021
Kohlmeier et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000265 (Review) When Mendelian randomisation fails
Analysis of why Mendelian randomization may fail in vitamin D studies. Authors suggest that it may come down to the use of 25(OH)D concentration in serum as a less than ideal proxy for vitamin D status of cells involved in the immune resp..
Mar 19
2021
Meltzer et al., JAMA Netw Open., doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.4117 Association of Vitamin D Levels, Race/Ethnicity, and Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results
35% fewer cases [p=0.11]. Retrospective 4,638 individuals with vitamin D levels within 1 year before COVID-19 testing, showing higher risk of COVID-19 PCR+ for vitamin D deficient individuals, and lower (but not statistically significant) cases for individuals usi..
Mar 14
2021
Vanegas-Cedillo, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.12.21253490 Serum Vitamin D Levels Are Associated With Increased COVID-19 Severity and Mortality Independent of Whole-Body and Visceral Adiposity
53% lower mortality [p=0.006]. Retrospective 551 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients in Mexico showing vitamin D ≤12ng/mL independently associated with COVID-19 mortality. No association was found between vitamin D levels and the need for intubation. Vitamin D deficie..
Mar 13
2021
Jayawardena et al., Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.03.006 Impact of the vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 infection and mortality in Asian countries
Analysis of Asian countries finding that prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and lower vitamin D levels were associated with COVID-19 infection and mortality. Positive correlations were observed for prevalence of vitamin D deficiency with ..
Mar 12
2021
Ahmad et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.11.21253361 (Preprint) Mean Vitamin D levels in 19 European Countries & COVID-19 Mortality over 10 months
54% lower mortality [p=0.03]. Retrospective 19 European countries showing countries with mean vitamin D levels > 50nmol/L have a 2.2 times lower risk of mortality (p = 0.032) compared to those with mean levels < 50 nmol/L.
Mar 9
2021
Nikniaz et al., Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.34172/PS.2021.13 The impact of vitamin D supplementation on mortality rate and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
74% lower mortality [p=0.008]. Meta analysis of 4 supplementation studies, finding that vitamin D supplementation "seems to decrease the mortality rate, the severity of the disease, and serum levels of the inflammatory markers". Mortality odds ratio OR 0.264,..
Mar 8
2021
Charoenngam et al., Endocrine Practice, doi:10.1016/j.eprac.2021.02.013 Association of vitamin D status with hospital morbidity and mortality in adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients
34% lower mortality [p=0.26], 37% lower ventilation [p=0.17], and 23% lower ICU admission [p=0.28]. Retrospective 287 hospitalized patients in the USA showing significantly lower mortality with vitamin D sufficiency in elderly patients and patients without obesity; and lower mortality for all patients but not reaching statistical signif..
Mar 7
2021
Notz et al., Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2021.03.001 Vitamin D deficiency in critically ill COVID-19 ARDS patients
Retrospective 26 ICU patients showing that the majority of patients had vitamin D deficiency. There was no statistically significant association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and clinical course, however low levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitami..
Mar 5
2021
Kralj et al., Critical Case Reports, doi:10.1002/ccr3.4010 Vitamin D and COVID‐19 in an immunocompromised patient with multiple comorbidities—A Case Report
Case report of a high-risk immunocompromised patient with multiple comorbidities that had a mild case of COVID-19. The patient had UVB phototherapy three months earlier and had normal vitamin D levels (92.2 nmol/L, normal range 50-125).
Mar 5
2021
Mazziotti et al., J Endocrinol. Invest., doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01535-2 Vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism and respiratory insufficiency in hospitalized patients with COVID-19
19% lower mortality [p=0.49] and 67% higher ventilation [p=0.08]. Retrospective 348 hospitalized patients in Italy showing vitamin D deficiency associated with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Vitamin D supplementation during hospitalization was not significantly associated with mortality or ventila..
Mar 4
2021
Ullah et al., Pancreatology, doi:10.1016/j.pan.2020.10.005 COVID-19 in patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases in East London: a single-centre cohort study
42% higher mortality [p=0.35] and 146% more cases [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 15,440 patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases in the United Kingdom, 226 with confirmed COVID-19, showing higher risk with vitamin D supplementation. Results are likely confounded by impaired vitamin D processin..
Mar 4
2021
Lohia et al., American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00517.2020 Exploring the link between vitamin D and clinical outcomes in COVID-19
15% lower mortality [p=0.56], 19% lower ventilation [p=0.48], and 28% lower ICU admission [p=0.17]. Retrospective 270 patients with vitamin D levels measured in the last year, showing no significant difference in outcomes based on vitamin D levels or vitamin D supplementation.
Mar 3
2021
Ricci et al., Respiratory Research, doi:10.1186/s12931-021-01666-3 Circulating Vitamin D levels status and clinical prognostic indices in COVID-19 patients
88% lower mortality [p=0.07]. Retrospective 52 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with compromised inflammatory responses and higher pulmonary involvement. Vitamin D deficient patients also showed higher mortality, although ..
Feb 28
2021
Karen et al., International Journal of Progressive Science and Technologies, doi:10.52155/ijpsat.v27.2.3269 Vitamin D Associated Peculiarities in Women with Mild Covid-19 and Effect of Calcifediol on the Level of Vitamin D and Possibly, on Disease Outcome - Prospective Pilot Study
Prospective study of 30 female COVID-19 patients, all treated with calcifediol on admission, showing significantly increased vitamin D levels with treatment. There was no mortality.
Feb 24
2021
Sulli et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13030717 Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 Patients
76% fewer cases [p=0.0002]. Retrospective 65 elderly COVID-19 patients and 65 matched controls, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with more severe lung involvement, longer disease duration, and higher mortality. Vitamin D supplementation was less common in t..
Feb 19
2021
Gavioli et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1869626 An Evaluation of Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels in Patients with COVID-19 in New York City
5% higher mortality [p=0.83], 55% lower need for oxygen therapy [p=0.0002], and 4% lower hospitalization [p=0.41]. Retrospective 437 mostly serious condition (85% hospitalized) patients in New York, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with increased likelihood of oxygen support, but no association with mortality and hospitalization. Multivariate a..
Feb 18
2021
Infante et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1877580 Low Vitamin D Status at Admission as a Risk Factor for Poor Survival in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: An Italian Retrospective Study
55% lower mortality [p=0.05]. Retrospective 137 hospitalized patients in Italy. All patients had low vitamin D levels, and lower levels were associated with higher mortality. In multivariate logistic regression, vitamin D levels were significantly inversely associated..
Feb 17
2021
Burahee et al., SICOT-J, doi:10.1051/sicotj/2021001 Older patients with proximal femur fractures and SARS-CoV-2 infection – An observational study
93% lower mortality [p=0.01]. Small retrospective study of 29 hip fracture patients in the UK, 14 with COVID-19. All COVID-19 patients were treated with vitamin D except for 2 where testing and supplementation was missed due to a clerical error. The two COVID-19 patie..
Feb 12
2021
Basaran et al., Bratislava Medical Journal, doi:10.4149/bll_2021_034 The relationship between vitamin D and the severity of COVID-19
69% lower severe cases [p=0.005]. Prospective study of 204 patients with COVID-19-like pneumonia in Turkey, 42 outpatients (mild cases), and 162 inpatients (serious cases), showing significantly higher risk of severe cases with vitamin D deficiency.
Feb 12
2021
Susianti et al., Journal of Medical Biochemistry, doi:10.5937/jomb0-30228 Low levels of vitamin D were associated with coagulopathy among hospitalized coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients: A single-centered study in Indonesia
91% lower mortality [p=0.32], 90% lower ICU admission [p=0.32], and 81% lower progression [p=0.04]. Retrospective 50 hospitalized PCR+ patients in Indonesia showing ICU admission, mortality, ISTH DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation) score>=5, and increased D-dimer significantly associated with lower vitamin D levels.
Feb 9
2021
Hancock et al., SSRN, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3779211 (Preprint) Case Cluster of RT-PCR COVID-19 Positive Patients with an Unexpected Benign Clinical Course With Vitamin D, Melatonin, Vitamin C, and Viscum Album
Case series of 24 COVID-19 patients (12 confirmed PCR+) treated with vitamin D, vitamin C, and melatonin, showing positive outcomes with no patient having worse than a mild case, including 7 high risk patients.
Feb 8
2021
Ersöz et al., International Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14078 The association between micronutrient and hemogram values and prognostic factors in COVID-19 patients: A single-center experience from Turkey
Retrospective 310 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Turkey, showing patients that were admitted to the ICU, intubated, or died had lower vitamin D levels compared to those that were not (statistically significant for ICU admission).
Feb 3
2021
Yadav et al., Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, doi:10.1007/s12291-020-00950-1 Association of Vitamin D Status with COVID-19 Infection and Mortality in the Asia Pacific region: A Cross-Sectional Study
Analysis of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 in 37 Asia Pacific countries, finding a significant association with the number of cases/million (r =  −0.394, p = 0.016) and a weak association with the number of deaths/ million (r =  −0.280, p ..
Feb 2
2021
Söbü et al., The Journal of Current Pediatrics, doi:10.4274/jcp.2021.0002 Vitamin D Levels of COVID-19 Positive Sypmtomatic Pediatric Cases
Retrospective 30 hospitalized pediatric COVID-19 patients and 82 healthy controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.
Feb 1
2021
Patchen et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000255 Genetically predicted serum vitamin D and COVID-19: a Mendelian randomization study
2% lower severe cases [p=0.11], no change in hospitalization [p=1], and no change in cases [p=1]. UK Biobank Mendelian randomization study not finding significant differences in COVID-19 risk. The number of people predicted to have vitamin D deficiency does not appear to be provided.
Jan 31
2021
Nadiger et al., Critical Care Medicine, doi:10.1097/01.ccm.0000726440.30551.47 Vitamin D Levels in Children With COVID-19 Admitted to the PICU
Retrospective 14 pediatric COVID-19 ICU patients showing that the majority were vitamin D deficient.
Jan 29
2021
Demir et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26832 Vitamin D deficiency is associated with COVID‐19 positivity and the severity of the disease
89% lower severe cases [p=0.001], 87% shorter hospitalization [p=0.001], and 24% fewer cases [p=0.18]. Retrospective cohort study of 487 patients finding that lower vitamin D levels is associated with more severe cases as measured by affected lung segments and increased hospitalization time for COVID-19 positive patients, and that lower vi..
Jan 29
2021
Ma et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqaa381 Habitual use of vitamin D supplements and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a prospective study in UK Biobank
30% fewer cases [p=0.03]. Retrospective 8,297 adults from the UK Biobank showing the habitual use of vitamin D supplements significantly associated with lower risk of COVID-19 cases. Note that the information on vitamin D supplement use was collected a median of 1..
Jan 29
2021
Bakaloudi et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111441 A critical update on the role of mild and serious vitamin D deficiency prevalence and the COVID-19 epidemic in Europe
Analysis of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 cases and mortality in European countries showing significant correlation between mortality and prevalence of both mild vitamin D deficiency (r = 0.634, p = 0.003) and severe vitamin D deficie..
Jan 28
2021
Brenner, H., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13020411 (Review) Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent COVID-19 Infections and Deaths—Accumulating Evidence from Epidemiological and Intervention Studies Calls for Immediate Action
Summary of epidemiological and intervention studies for vitamin D supplementation. Author concludes that despite limitations, evidence strongly supports widespread supplementation, in particular for high-risk populations, as well as high-..
Jan 25
2021
Tehrani et al., Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.01.014 Evaluation of vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients referred to Labafinejad hospital in Tehran and its relationship with disease severity and mortality
48% lower mortality [p=0.07]. Retrospective 205 patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, not quite reaching statistical significance.
Jan 25
2021
Barassi et al., Panminerva Med., doi:10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04277-4 Vitamin D in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients with non-invasive ventilation support
65% lower ventilation [p=0.15]. Retrospective 118 consecutive hospitalized PCR+ patients in Italy showing higher ventilation and mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
Jan 22
2021
Nogués et al., The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab405 Calcifediol Treatment and COVID-19-Related Outcomes
79% lower mortality [p=0.001] and 87% lower ICU admission [p<0.0001]. Quasi-randomized trial with 930 hospitalized patients, 447 treated with calcifediol, showing significantly lower ICU admission and death with treatment. Note that the randomization in this trial is by ward. Authors report that patients we..
Jan 21
2021
Walrand, S., Nature, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-81419-w Autumn COVID-19 surge dates in Europe correlated to latitudes, not to temperature-humidity, pointing to vitamin D as contributing factor
Analysis of the increase in COVID-19 cases in European countries, showing no correlation with temperature, but a significant correlation with country latitude. Since UV radiation decreases earlier for higher latitudes, this supports the t..
Jan 19
2021
Orchard et al., Clin Chem Lab Med, doi:10.1515/cclm-2020-1567 Vitamin-D levels and intensive care unit outcomes of a cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients
59% lower ICU admission [p=0.001] and 9% lower ventilation [p=0.7]. Retrospective 165 hospitalized patients with known vitamin D levels, showing an associated between vitamin D deficiency and ICU admission. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical outcomes for ICU patients. It's uncle..
Jan 18
2021
Vasheghani et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-97017-9 (date from earlier preprint) (Preprint) The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the severity of COVID-19 disease and its mortality
30% lower mortality [p=0.45] and 64% lower ICU admission [p=0.009]. Retrospective 508 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Iran showing lower mortality with vitamin D supplementation (not reaching statistical significance), and an association between lower vitamin D levels and disease severity, ICU admission..
Jan 16
2021
Hutchings et al., Endocrine, doi:/10.1007/s12020-020-02597-7 Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 have low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D
Retrospective 330 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Armenia, showing significantly higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<12ng/mL) compared to health controls (45% vs. 13%).
Jan 14
2021
Giannini et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13010219 Effectiveness of In-Hospital Cholecalciferol Use on Clinical Outcomes in Comorbid COVID-19 Patients: A Hypothesis-Generating Study
37% lower combined mortality/ICU admission [p=0.13]. Retrospective 91 hospitalized patients, 36 treated with high-dose cholecalciferol, showing lower combined death/ICU admission with treatment. Authors also analyze the relationship with comorbidity burden, finding that the positive effect ..
Jan 12
2021
Bennouar et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1856013 Vitamin D Deficiency and Low Serum Calcium as Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Patients with Severe COVID-19
86% lower mortality [p=0.002]. Prospective study of 120 severe cases of COVID-19 in Algeria finding low vitamin D and low calcium both associated with increased mortality.
Jan 11
2021
Li et al., Aging and Disease, doi:10.14336/AD.2020.1108 Metabolic Healthy Obesity, Vitamin D Status, and Risk of COVID-19
36% lower hospitalization [p<0.0001] and 29% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. UK Biobank retrospective 353,299 patients showing that vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are associated with increased COVID-19 risk. This study also analyzes metabolic/obesity phenotypes and the combination with vitamin D status. No..
Jan 9
2021
Angelidi et al., Mayo Clinic Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.01.001 Vitamin D Status is Associated With In-hospital Mortality and Mechanical Ventilation: A Cohort of COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients
88% lower mortality [p=0.01]. Retrospective 144 patients in the USA showing significantly lower mortality for vitamin D levels >=30ng/mL.
Jan 7
2021
Pal et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2020.590805 High Prevalence of Hypocalcemia in Non-severe COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Case-Control Study
Retrospective 72 non-severe COVID-19 patients in India, showing very high levels of vitamin D deficiency (70 of 72 patients).
Jan 7
2021
Amin et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000151 No evidence that vitamin D is able to prevent or affect the severity of COVID-19 in individuals with European ancestry: a Mendelian randomisation study of open data
32% higher progression [p=0.2] and 8% more cases [p=0.14]. Analysis of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 cases and severity based on genetic predisposition to higher vitamin D levels or lower vitamin D deficiency, finding no significant association.
Dec 31
2020
Ansari et al., Pakistan J. Med. Heal. Sci., 14:4 Frequency of Severe Vitamin D Deficiency and its Association with Mortality in Patients with Corona virus Disease
86% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Prospective study of 125 severe COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, showing significantly higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
Dec 31
2020
Karonova et al., Infectology, doi:10.22625/2072-6732-2020-12-3-21-27 Serum 25(oH)D level in patients with CoVID-19
79% lower mortality [p=0.11] and 71% lower severe cases [p=0.07]. Retrospective 80 COVID-19 patients showing low vitamin D levels associated with severity and mortality.
Dec 30
2020
Szeto et al., Endocrine Research, doi:10.1080/07435800.2020.1867162 Vitamin D Status and COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients
6% higher mortality [p=1], 40% lower ventilation [p=0.21], and 27% lower hospital discharge [p=0.5]. Retrospective 93 hospitalized patients with vitamin D levels 1-365 days before admission, not showing significant differences with vitamin D deficiency or vitamin D levels. Vitamin D levels may vary significantly throughout the year creat..
Dec 30
2020
McCullough et al., Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.31083/j.rcm.2020.04.264 (Review) Multifaceted highly targeted sequential multidrug treatment of early ambulatory high-risk SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19)
Review urging early treatment of COVID-19 with sequential multidrug treatment that has been shown to be safe and effective. Proposed treatment includes zinc, vitamin D & C, quercetin, and depending on age, comorbidities, and symptoms may ..
Dec 28
2020
Jevalikar et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-85809-y (date from earlier preprint) Lack of association of baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with disease severity and mortality in Indian patients hospitalized for COVID-19
82% lower mortality [p=0.12], 34% lower ICU admission [p=0.29], and 32% lower need for oxygen therapy [p=0.06]. Prospective study of 410 hospitalized patients in India showing lower mortality and ICU admission with cholecalciferol treatment, although not statistically significant with the small number of cases. The median total dose was 60000IU. No..
Dec 26
2020
Sistanizad et al., European Journal of Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.eujim.2020.101271 High dose vitamin D improves total serum antioxidant capacity and ICU outcome in critically ill patients - a randomized, double-blind clinical trial
64% lower mortality [p=0.004]. RCT of 30 ventilated ICU patients showing lower mortality with vitamin D treatment, RR 0.36, p = 0.004. Authors do not indicate why the patients were hospitalized or if any of the patients were COVID-19 patients. 300,000 IU intramuscular ..
Dec 22
2020
Cangiano et al., Aging, doi:10.18632/aging.202307 Mortality in an Italian nursing home during COVID-19 pandemic: correlation with gender, age, ADL, vitamin D supplementation, and limitations of the diagnostic tests
70% lower mortality [p=0.04]. 70% lower mortality with vitamin D supplementation. Analysis of 98 PCR+ nursing home residents in Italy, mean age 90, vitamin D supplementation RR 0.30, p = 0.04. The paper provides the p value for regression but not the effect size. Trea..
Dec 12
2020
Abdollahi et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26726 The Association Between the Level of Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D, Obesity, and underlying Diseases with the risk of Developing COVID‐19 Infection: A case‐control study of hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran
54% fewer cases [p=0.001]. Case control study with 201 patients and 201 matched controls in Iran showing vitamin D deficiency associated with COVID-19.
Dec 11
2020
Ling et el., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123799 High-Dose Cholecalciferol Booster Therapy is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Mortality in Patients with COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Centre Observational Study
80% lower mortality [p=0.001]. 80% lower mortality with cholecalciferol booster therapy. Retrospective 986 hospitalized patients in the UK finding that cholecalciferol booster therapy, regardless of baseline serum levels, was associated with a reduced risk of mortality..
Dec 10
2020
Rosenthal et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.29058 Risk Factors Associated With In-Hospital Mortality in a US National Sample of Patients With COVID-19
11% lower mortality [p=0.005]. Retrospective database analysis of 64,781 hospitalized patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with vitamin C or vitamin D (authors do not distinguish between the two), and higher mortality with zinc and HCQ, statistically significan..
Dec 10
2020
VitaminDForAll (News) Over 100 Scientists, Doctors, & Leading Authorities Call For Increased Vitamin D Use To Combat COVID-19
Over 100 scientists and doctors call for efforts to increase vitamin D levels. Recommendations include reaching 75 nmol/L serum levels, 2000-4000IU daily supplementation (in the absence of testing), and measurement and treatment in hospit..
Dec 9
2020
Vassiliou et al., Hellenic Journal of Cardiology, doi:10.1016/j.hjc.2020.11.011 Vitamin D deficiency correlates with a reduced number of natural killer cells in intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients with COVID-19 pneumonia
Observational study of 29 ICU patients and 10 non-ICU patients showing vitamin D levels positively correlated with cytotoxic T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, NK-T cells, and regulatory T cells.
Dec 9
2020
Vassiliou et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123773 Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels on Admission to the Intensive Care Unit May Predispose COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients to a Higher 28-Day Mortality Risk: A Pilot Study on a Greek ICU Cohort
91% lower mortality [p=0.04]. Small prospective study of 30 ICU patients, showing higher mortality risk for low vitamin D levels. When divided into two groups at the median level, there was 5 of 15 deaths for the low vitamin D group compared to 0 of 15 in the high vit..
Dec 5
2020
Alguwaihes et al., Cardiovascular Diabetology, doi:10.1186/s12933-020-01184-4 Diabetes and Covid-19 among hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia: a single-centre retrospective study
86% lower mortality [p=0.007]. Retrospective 439 diabetic hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia showing lower mortality with vitamin D >12.5 nmol/L, adjusted hazard ratio aHR 0.14, p = 0.007.
Dec 4
2020
Katz el al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111106 Increased risk for Covid-19 in patients with Vitamin D deficiency
78% fewer cases [p=0.001]. Retrospective database analysis showing patients with vitamin D deficiency were 4.6 times more likely to be COVID-19 positive, p<0.001.
Nov 30
2020
Louca et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000250 (date from earlier preprint) Modest effects of dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from 445 850 users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app
8% fewer cases [p=0.0007]. Survey analysis of dietary supplements showing vitamin D usage associated with lower incidence of COVID-19. These results are for PCR+ cases only, they do not reflect potential benefits for reducing the severity of cases. A number of bias..
Nov 25
2020
De Smet et al., American Journal of Clinical Pathology, doi:10.1093/ajcp/aqaa252 Serum 25(OH)D Level on Hospital Admission Associated With COVID-19 Stage and Mortality
70% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Retrospective 186 hospitalized patients in Belgium showing that 59% of patients were vitamin D deficient, and that non-vitamin D deficient patients had significantly lower mortality risk, RR 0.26, p = 0.015.
Nov 19
2020
Jain et al., Nature, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77093-z Analysis of vitamin D level among asymptomatic and critically ill COVID-19 patients and its correlation with inflammatory markers
85% lower mortality [p=0.001] and 95% lower ICU admission [p<0.0001]. Prospective study of 91 asymptomatic and 63 ICU patients showing significantly higher vitamin D deficiency in the ICU patients (97% vs. 33%).
Nov 17
2020
Murai et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26848 (date from earlier preprint) Effect of a Single High Dose of Vitamin D3 on Hospital Length of Stay in Patients With Moderate to Severe COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
49% higher mortality [p=0.43], 48% lower ventilation [p=0.09], and 25% lower ICU admission [p=0.3]. Very late stage (mean 10 days from symptom onset, 90% on oxygen at baseline) vitamin D supplementation RCT not showing significant differences. Ethnicity was poorly matched between arms, and diabetes was 41% in the treatment arm vs. 29% i..
Nov 13
2020
Luo et al., The Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1093/jn/nxaa332 Vitamin D Deficiency Is Inversely Associated with COVID-19 Incidence and Disease Severity in Chinese People
63% lower progression [p=0.01]. Retrospective 335 patients in China compared to 560 matched controls showing significanlty lower risk of severe COVID-19 with vitamin D sufficiency (>=30 nmol/L) OR 0.37, p = 0.014.
Nov 12
2020
Jungreis et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.08.20222638 (Preprint) Mathematical analysis of Córdoba calcifediol trial suggests strong role for Vitamin D in reducing ICU admissions of hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Analysis of Castillo et al. confirming efficacy of calcifediol treatment. Authors find that issues related to imperfect blinding and comorbidities can not explain the result found. See [compbio.mit.edu] for a response to issues raised on ..
Nov 12
2020
Rastogi et al., Postgraduate Medical Journal, doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-139065 Short term, high-dose vitamin D supplementation for COVID-19 disease: a randomised, placebo-controlled, study (SHADE study)
53% improved viral clearance [p=0.02]. 53% reduction in PCR+ with high-dose cholecalciferol supplementation. RCT with 16 treatment patients and 24 control patients. 25(OH)D levels at day 14 were 52 ng/ml vs. 15 ng/ml in the intervention and control group.
Nov 11
2020
Cereda et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111055 Vitamin D supplementation and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the outbreak area of Lombardy, Italy
73% higher mortality [p=0.14] and 17% higher hospitalization [p=0.68]. Retrospective 105 Parkinson's disease patients, 92 caregivers, and 127 hospital inpatients, showing higher, but not statistically significant mortality and hospitalization with treatment. Supplementation was defined as >=25,000IU/month fo..
Nov 9
2020
Walk et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.07.20227512 (Preprint) Vitamin D - contrary to vitamin K - does not associate with clinical outcome in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
no change in combined mortality/intubation [p=1]. Small retrospective study of 135 patients not finding a significant difference in vitamin D status. Patients with good outcomes had a median of 45.0 nmol/L versus 37.7 nmol/L for bad outcomes, p = 0.85. Authors found that vitamin D suffic..
Nov 2
2020
Annweiler et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113377 Vitamin D Supplementation Associated to Better Survival in Hospitalized Frail Elderly COVID-19 Patients: The GERIA-COVID Quasi-Experimental Study
93% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Retrospective study finding that regular bolus vitamin D supplementation was associated with less severe COVID-19 and better survival in frail elderly. For those receiving regular supplementation: Adjusted mortality hazard ratio with supp..
Nov 1
2020
Cereda et al., Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2020.10.055 Vitamin D 25OH deficiency in COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital
120% higher mortality [p=0.04]. Prospective cohort study of 129 adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients finding patients with vitamin D levels >20ng/mL had increased mortality after adjustment. This study does not account for the risk of having a serious enough case to be..
Oct 31
2020
Ohaegbulam et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001222 Vitamin D Supplementation in COVID-19 Patients: A Clinical Case Series
Small case study of 4 vitamin D deficient patients with 2 patients treated with cholecalciferol 1000 IU daily and two patients treated with ergocalciferol 50,000 IU daily for 5 days (high dose), showing that patients receiving high dose t..
Oct 31
2020
Mercola et al., Nutrients 2020, 12:11, 3361, doi:10.3390/nu12113361 (Review) Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity
Review of vitamin D and COVID-19 concluding that the evidence seems strong enough that people and physicians can use or recommend vitamin D supplements to prevent or treat COVID-19 in light of their safety and wide therapeutic window.
Oct 30
2020
Abrishami et al., European Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1007/s00394-020-02411-0 Possible association of vitamin D status with lung involvement and outcome in patients with COVID-19: a retrospective study
76% lower mortality [p=0.04]. Retrospective 73 hospitalized patients showing the probability of death in patients with vitamin D deficiency (< 25ng/mL) was 34.6% compared with 6.4% in patients with sufficient vitamin D levels.
Oct 27
2020
Hernández et al., The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgaa733 Vitamin D Status in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection
83% lower combined mortality/ICU admission [p=0.0001], 81% lower hospitalization [p=0.0001], 76% lower ventilation [p=0.13], and 79% lower ICU admission [p=0.05]. Retrospective 216 COVID-19 patients and 197 population controls, showing vitamin D deficiency in 82.2% of COVID-19 cases and 47.2% of population-based controls (P < .0001). Authors note: "We did not find any relationship between vita..
Oct 26
2020
Tomasa-Irriguible et al., Metabolites, doi:10.3390/metabo11090565 (date from earlier preprint) Low Levels of Few Micronutrients May Impact COVID-19 Disease Progression: An Observational Study on the First Wave
35% lower ventilation [p=0.21] and 17% lower ICU admission [p=0.58]. Retrospective 120 hospitalized patients in Spain showing no significant differences for vitamin D deficiency.
Oct 24
2020
Sainz-Amo et al., Journal of Neurology, doi:10.1007/s00415-020-10272-0 COVID-19 in Parkinson’s disease: what holds the key?
33% lower severe cases [p=0.45] and 44% fewer cases [p=0.23]. Case control study with 39 COVID+ and 172 COVID- Parkinson's disease patients in Spain, showing positive and severe cases being less likely to use vitamin D supplementation compared to negative or mild/negative cases respectively. These d..
Oct 21
2020
Basha et al., Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, doi:10.1016/j.cegh.2020.10.005 (Review) Is the shielding effect of cholecalciferol in SARS CoV-2 infection dependable? An evidence based unraveling
Review of vitamin D for COVID-19, concluding that the available evidence is very suggestive of protective and preventive effect of vitamin D. Authors note that strict lockdown (longer time indoors and home quarantine) may increase the ris..
Oct 21
2020
Macaya et al., Nutr. Hosp., doi:10.20960/nh.03193 Interaction between age and vitamin D deficiency in severe COVID-19 infection
55% lower severe cases [p=0.07]. Retrospective 80 hospitalized patients in Spain showing higher risk of severe COVID-19 with vitamin D deficiency.
Oct 20
2020
Blanch-Rubió et al., Aging, doi:10.18632/aging.104117 Influence of anti-osteoporosis treatments on the incidence of COVID-19 in patients with non-inflammatory rheumatic conditions
8% fewer cases [p=0.68]. Retrospective 2,102 rheumatology patients in Spain showing no significant difference in cases with vitamin D supplementation. Details of vitamin D supplementation are not providied - other patients may have also independently taken vitami..
Oct 13
2020
Annweiler et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105771 Vitamin D and survival in COVID-19 patients: A quasi-experimental study
89% lower mortality [p=0.002]. Vitamin D3 supplementation during or just before COVID-19 was associated with 68% lower mortality and less severe COVID-19 in frail elderly. Retrospective 66 French nursing home residents, mean age 87.7, 9 control patients, and 57 that re..
Oct 13
2020
Ye et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.182600 Does Serum Vitamin D Level Affect COVID-19 Infection and Its Severity? A Case-Control Study
93% lower hospitalization [p=0.03]. Case control study in China comparing 62 patients with 80 healthy controls showing vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for COVID-19, especially for severe/critical cases.
Oct 6
2020
Faniyi et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.05.20206706 (Preprint) Vitamin D status and seroconversion for COVID-19 in UK healthcare workers who isolated for COVID-19 like symptoms during the 2020 pandemic
29% lower seropositivity [p=0.003]. Analysis of vitamin D status and anti-SARS-Cov-2 antibodies in UK healthcare workers finding that Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for COVID-19 seroconversion.
Oct 5
2020
Yılmaz et al., Pediatric Pulmonology, doi:10.1002/ppul.25106 Is vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for COVID‐19 in children?
73% lower severe cases [p=1]. Retrospective 40 hospitalized pediatric COVID-19 patients and 45 healthy controls showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 patients (13.1 vs. 34.8µg/L), and that, within the hospitalized patients, there was more moderate ..
Oct 5
2020
Karahan et al., J. Nutr. Health Aging, doi:10.1007/s12603-020-1479-0 Impact of Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Level on Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in Turkey
83% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 149 COVID-19 patients, 69.1% with vitamin D deficiency, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with higher mortality.
Sep 30
2020
Kerget el al., Tuberk Toraks, doi:10.5578/tt.70027 Evaluation of the relationship of serum vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients with clinical course and prognosis
Prospective study of 88 hospitalized PCR+ COVID-19 patients and 20 asymptomatic PCR- medical personnel, showing lower vitamin D levels correlated with COVID-19 and with the development of ARDS and MAS.
Sep 29
2020
Pepkowitz et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-83262/v1 (Preprint) Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Increased COVID-19 Severity: Prospective Screening of At-Risk Groups is Medically Indicated
56% lower ICU admission [p=0.01]. Retrospective 37 hospitalized patients in the USA, showing higher risk of ICU admission with vitamin D deficiency.
Sep 25
2020
Maghbooli et al., PLOS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239799 Vitamin D sufficiency, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at least 30 ng/mL reduced risk for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection
52% lower mortality [p=0.08], 32% lower ventilation [p=0.49], and 32% lower ICU admission [p=0.33]. Retrospective 235 hospitalized patients showing a significant association between vitamin D sufficiency and reduction in clinical severity. For patients over 40, mortality was 9.7% with 25(OH)D levels >30ng/mL, versus 20% for <30ng/mL. A ..
Sep 17
2020
Kaufman et al., PLOS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239252 SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels
53% fewer cases [p=0.001]. Analysis of 191,779 patients in the US finding COVID-19 positivity strongly and inversely associated with circulating 25(OH)D levels. The relationship persists across latitudes, races/ethnicities, gender, and age ranges. COVID-19 adjusted..
Sep 10
2020
Radujkovic et al., Nutrients 2020, 12:9, 2757, doi:10.3390/nu12092757 Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients
93% lower mortality [p=0.001] and 84% lower combined mortality/intubation [p=0.001]. Observational study 185 patients in Germany shows an association between vitamin D status and severity and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratio of vitamin D sufficiency for combined mechanical ventilation and death was HR 0.16, p < 0.001, and..
Sep 10
2020
Israel et al., Internal and Emergency Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11739-021-02902-w Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher risks for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity: a retrospective case–control study
34% lower severe cases [p=0.0001] and 20% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 41,757 PCR+ patients in Israel and 417,570 matched contols, showing an inverse correlation between vitamin D levels and the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and of severe disease in those infected. COM-0046–20.
Sep 8
2020
Galmés et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12092738 Current State of Evidence: Influence of Nutritional and Nutrigenetic Factors on Immunity in the COVID-19 Pandemic Framework
Ecological study of European countries analyzing 10 vitamins and minerals endorsed by the European Food Safety Authority as having sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between intake and optimal immune system function: vitamins D..
Sep 3
2020
Meltzer et al., JAMA network open, 3:9, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19722 Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results
44% fewer cases [p=0.02]. Retrospective 489 patients showing 44% lower risk for COVID-19 with vitamin D sufficiency, relative risk RR = 0.56, p = 0.02.
Aug 29
2020
Castillo et al., Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 203, October 2020, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751 Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study
85% lower mortality [p=0.11] and 94% lower ICU admission [p=0.008]. RCT on calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing significantly reduced intensive care unit admissions. All patients received standard care including HCQ+AZ. Significantly lower ICU admission wi..
Aug 28
2020
Mardani et al., Virus Research, doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198148 Association of vitamin D with the modulation of the disease severity in COVID-19
Prospective study of 123 outpatients in Iran, showing mortality associated with significantly lower vitamin D levels. IR.SBMU.RETECH.REC.1399.131.
Aug 27
2020
Baktash et al., Postgraduate Medical Journal, doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138712 Vitamin D status and outcomes for hospitalised older patients with COVID-19
29% lower mortality [p=0.5]. Prospective study of 105 hospitalized patients, showing lower vitamin D levels in the COVID-19 positive group (27.0 nmol/L vs 52.0 nmol/L, p=0.0008), and non-statistically significant higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
Aug 26
2020
Xu et al., Journal of Translational Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12967-020-02488-5 (Review) The importance of vitamin d metabolism as a potential prophylactic, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective treatment for COVID-19
Review of vitamin D for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, focusing on preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, acting as an immunosuppressant inhibiting cytokine release syndrome, and preventing loss of neural sensation by stimulating exp..
Aug 26
2020
Afshar et al., Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, 10.22317/jcms.v6i4.822 Suggested role of Vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19 severity
Brief report noting that there was a dramatic and complete resolution of ICU admissions after adding routine vitamin D supplementation to standard of care.
Aug 26
2020
Hastie et al., Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 14:4, 561–565, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.050 Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank
17% lower mortality [p=0.31] and 9% lower hospitalization [p=0.4]. Database analysis of 341,484 patients in the UK with 656 hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients and 203 deaths, not showing a statistically significant difference after adjustment. Since adjustment factors may be correlated with vitamin..
Aug 15
2020
Espitia-Hernandez et al., Biomedical Research, 31:5 Effects of Ivermectin-azithromycin-cholecalciferol combined therapy on COVID-19 infected patients: A proof of concept study
70% faster recovery [p=0.0001] and 97% improved viral clearance [p<0.0001]. Small study with 28 patients treated with ivermectin + AZ + cholecalciferol and 7 control patients. All treated patients were PCR- at day 10 while all control patients remained PCR+. The mean duration of symptoms was 3 days in the treatme..
Aug 11
2020
Im et al., Int. J. Infect. Dis., doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018 Nutritional status of patients with COVID-19
73% fewer cases [p=0.0003]. Nutrient study of 50 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in South Korea showing that 76% of patients were vitamin D deficient. Comparison with 150 matched controls showed a higher probability of cases with vitamin D deficiency.
Aug 9
2020
Carpagnano et al., J. Endocrinol. Invest., 2020, Aug 9, 1-7, doi:10.1007/s40618-020-01370-x Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19
71% lower mortality [p=0.05]. Retrospective study 42 patients with acute respiratory failure, 81% with low vitamin D levels. After 10 days, patients with severe vitamin D deficiency had a 50% probability of dying, while those with vitamin D ≥ 10 ng/mL had a 5% mortali..
Jul 31
2020
Anjum et al., Pakistan J. Med. Heal. Sci., 14:3 Examine the association between severe vitamin D deficiency and mortality in patients with Covid-19.
62% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Prospective study of 140 COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, showing significantly higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
Jul 23
2020
Merzon et al., The FEBS Journal, doi:doi.org/10.1111/febs.15495 Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID‐19 infection: an Israeli population‐based study
46% lower hospitalization [p=0.06] and 28% fewer cases [p=0.001]. Analysis of 7,807 patients finding that low vitamin D levels are correlated with increased risk of cases and hospitalization. Adjusted odds ratio OR for sufficient vitamin D level for cases 0.69, p < 0.001, and for hospitalization 0.51, p..
Jul 23
2020
Lansiaux et al., Spat. Spatiotemporal Epidemiol, doi:10.1016/j.sste.2020.100362 Covid-19 and vit-d: Disease mortality negatively correlates with sunlight exposure
Analysis of COVID-19 mortality rate and sunlight exposure finding a correlation that suggests a protective effect of sunlight exposure. In continental metropolitan France, average annual sunlight hours were found to be significantly corr..
Jul 20
2020
Krishnan et al., J Clin Anesth., doi:10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.110005 Clinical comorbidities, characteristics, and outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients in the State of Michigan with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia
19% lower mortality [p=0.42]. Retrospective 152 mechanically ventilated patients in the USA showing unadjusted lower mortality with vitamin C, vitamin D, HCQ, and zinc treatment, statistically significant only for vitamin C.
Jul 17
2020
Jolliffe et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20152728 (Preprint) (meta analysis) Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials
Meta analysis of 40 RCTs showing that vitamin D supplementation is safe and reduced risk of acute respiratory infections, odds ratio OR 0.89 [0.81-0.98].
Jun 30
2020
Hamza et al., Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences Role of Vitamin D in Pathogenesis and Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection
Prospective study of 168 patients in Pakistan reporting an association between vitamin D deficiency and symptomatic cases. Details of the association are not provided.
Jun 30
2020
Faul et al., Irish Medical Journal, 113:5, 84 Vitamin D Deficiency and ARDS after SARS-CoV-2 Infection
69% lower ventilation [p=0.03]. Analysis of 33 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure requiring FiO2 greater than 0.4. Intubation hazard ratio for vitamin D sufficiency HR 0.31, p = 0.03.
Jun 30
2020
Panagiotou et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.21.20136903 (Preprint) Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are associated with greater disease severity: results of a local audit of practice
52% lower ICU admission [p=0.02]. Retrospective analysis 134 hospitalized patients. 19% of ICU patients had 25(OH)D levels > 50 nmol/L vs. 39.1% of non-ICU patients, p=0.02
Jun 27
2020
Mendy et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.25.20137323 (Preprint) Factors Associated with Hospitalization and Disease Severity in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Population of COVID-19 Patients
7% lower mortality [p=0.89], 17% lower combined mortality/ICU admission [p=0.001], 55% lower ICU admission [p=0.008], and 15% lower hospitalization [p=0.001]. Retrospective 689 patients showing vitamin D deficiency associated with hospitalization and disease severity.
Jun 26
2020
Whittemore et al., American Journal of Infection Control, doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2020.06.193 COVID-19 fatalities, latitude, sunlight, and vitamin D
Analysis of 88 countries, showing a significant correlation between death rates and latitude, suggesting that sunlight exposure and vitamin D levels influence mortality.
Jun 24
2020
Andrade et al., SciELO preprints, doi:10.1590/SciELOPreprints.839 (Review) Vitamin A and D deficiencies in the prognosis of respiratory tract infections: A systematic review with perspectives for COVID-19 and a critical analysis on supplementation
Systematic review showing deficiencies of vitamins A and D negatively affecting the prognosis of respiratory tract infections.
Jun 22
2020
Mok et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.21.162396 (Preprint) (In Vitro) Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is a promising candidate for COVID-19 prophylaxis
In Vitro study showing that the active form of Vitamin D, calcitriol, exhibits significant potent activity against SARS-CoV-2.
Jun 19
2020
Raisi-Estabragh et al., J. Public Health, doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdaa095 Greater risk of severe COVID-19 in Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic populations is not explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic or behavioural factors, or by 25(OH)-vitamin D status: study of 1326 cases from the UK Biobank
UK Biobank retrospective not finding a significant association between vitamin D levels and the risk of PCR+ after adjustment. Since adjustment factors may be correlated with vitamin D deficiency, the extent of any causal contribution of ..
Jun 14
2020
Rhodes et al., BMJ Nutr. Prev. Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000110 COVID-19 mortality increases with northerly latitude after adjustment for age suggesting a link with ultraviolet and vitamin D
Analysis of COVID-19 mortality and latitude as of May 18, 2020, showing that latitude was significantly associated with mortality (p=0.031), with an estimated 4.4% [0.4%-8.5%] increase in mortality for each 1° further north.
Jun 13
2020
Davies et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.05.01.20087965 (Preprint) Evidence Supports a Causal Role for Vitamin D Status in Global COVID-19 Outcomes
Causal inference analysis of COVID-19 severity and latitude concluding that vitamin D status plays a key role in COVID-19 outcome.
Jun 10
2020
Tan et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111017 (date from earlier preprint) Cohort study to evaluate the effect of combination Vitamin D, Magnesium and Vitamin B12 (DMB) on progression to severe outcome in older COVID-19 patients
80% lower need for oxygen therapy [p=0.04] and 81% lower ICU admission [p=0.07]. Observational study of 43 patients >= 50 years old, with 17 patients receiving vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12 (DMB); and 26 control patients, showing a significantly lower need for oxygen therapy and ICU admission with treatment. D..
May 27
2020
Skutsch et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.05.25.20112805 (Preprint) The association of UV with rates of COVID-19 transmission and deaths in Mexico: the possible mediating role of vitamin D
Analysis of UV, temperature, humidity and COVID-19 in 45 Mexican cities, showing that UV was negatively correlated with rates of transmission (statistically significant) and mortality (not statistically significant).
May 14
2020
Chodick et al., Journal of Travel Medicine, doi:10.1093/jtm/taaa069 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers are not associated with increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection
Retrospective 14,520 patients in Israel, 1,317 testing positive, showing no significant difference in vitamin D levels (23.6ng/mL and 24.1ng/mL for positive and negative cases respectively).
May 9
2020
D'Avolio et al., Nutrients, 12:5, 1–7, doi:10.3390/nu12051359 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are lower in patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2
Retrospective 107 patients in Switzerland showing lower vitamin D levels (11.1 ng/mL) in PCR positive patients compared with negative patients (24.6 ng/mL), p = 0.004.
Apr 30
2020
Reyes Pérez et al., Revista de Sanidad Militar, doi:10.35366/93773 Deficiency of vitamin D is a risk factor of mortality in patients with COVID-19
62% lower mortality [p=0.006]. Retrospective 172 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Mexico, reporting a very high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and significantly higher mortality with low vitamin D levels in unadjusted results.
Apr 28
2020
Marik et al., Med Drug Discov., doi:10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100041 (Preprint) Does vitamin D status impact mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection?
Analysis of case fatality rates showing that the CFR was significantly greater for Northern states (>40° latitude) compared to Southern States (6.0% vs. 3.5%, p  < 0 .001), although there were some exceptions with individual states.
Apr 28
2020
Lau et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20075838 (Preprint) Vitamin D Insufficiency is Prevalent in Severe COVID-19
45% lower ICU admission [p=0.29]. Analysis of 20 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 13 requiring ICU admission. 84.6% of the ICU patients had low vitamin D levels versus 57.1% of the non-ICU patients.
Apr 2
2020
Grant et al., Nutrients, 12:4, 988, doi:10.3390/nu12040988 (Review) Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths
Review of the evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce COVID-19 risk.
2019
McCullough et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.12.010 (Review) Daily oral dosing of vitamin D3 using 5000 TO 50,000 international units a day in long-term hospitalized patients: Insights from a seven year experience
Report on the long-term use of vitamin D in hospitalized patients with daily dosing from 5,000 to 50,000IU over 7 years. There were no cases of hypercalcemia or any adverse events related to vitamin D supplementation. Authors conclude tha..
2017
Martineau et al., BMJ 2017, 356, doi:10.1136/bmj.i6583 (meta analysis) Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data
7% fewer cases [p=0.003]. Meta analysis of 25 RCTs showing vitamin D supplementation was safe and it protected against acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients who were very vitamin D deficient and those not receiving bolus doses experienced the most be..
2013
Quraishi et al., JAMA Surgery, doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.3176 Association Between Preoperative 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Hospital-Acquired Infections Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery
Retrospective 770 gastric bypass surgery patients showing a strong relationship between pre-operative vitamin D levels and the risk of hospital acquired infections.
2013
Bergman et al., PLoS ONE, 2013, 8:6, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065835 (meta analysis) Vitamin D and Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Meta analysis of 11 placebo-controlled studies of 5660 patients. Vitamin D showed a protective effect against RTI (OR 0.64 [0.49-0.84]). The protective effect was larger in studies using once-daily dosing compared to bolus doses (OR = 0.5..
2012
Palacios et al., J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol., 2014, 144PA, 138–145, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.11.003 (Review) Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?
Review showing vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide in all age groups.
2012
Mitchell et al., Endocr. Pract., 2012, 18:6, 914–923, doi:10.4158/EP12072.OR (Related) Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency in healthy adults
Study of 634 healthy volunteers showing 64% had 25(OH)D ≤ 30 ng/mL. Gender, ethnicity, and multivitamin use were significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels.
2010
Urashima et al., Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2010, 91:5, 1255-60, doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.29094 Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren
RCT for vitamin D supplementation and seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren, showing 10.8% incidence in children in the vitamin D3 group compared with 18.6% in the placebo group, relative risk RR 0.58 [0.34-0.99], p = 0.04. The reduction..
2008
Carlberg et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.01.002 In vivo response of the human epigenome to vitamin D: A Proof-of-principle study
Epigenome-wide chromatin accessibility study before and after vitamin D supplementation (calcitriol), showing significant changes at hundreds of sites within the epigenome of human leukocytes (part of the immune system).
2006
Cannell et al., Epidemiol Infect., 2006, 134:6. 1129-40, doi:10.1017/S0950268806007175 (Review) Epidemic influenza and vitamin D
Review article on the mechanisms of action and seasonality of vitamin D levels, concluding that varying vitamin D levels may be the reason for the seasonality of epidemic influenza.
For search methods, inclusion criteria, effect extraction criteria (more serious outcomes have priority), PRISMA answers, and statistical methods see methods. Meta, Theory, Safety, Review, and News items are not included in the study count. There is a total of 361 items. Studies with preprints and journal versions are listed under the earlier preprint date.
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