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Outcomes in COVID-19 molnupiravir studies
Outcomes in molnupiravir studies. Potential risks of the mechanism of action include the creation of dangerous variants, and mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and embryotoxicity [Hadj Hassine, Swanstrom, Waters]. See [twitter.com] for analysis of a variant potentially created by molnupiravir. There is substantial publication bias. Two trials (CTRI/2021/05/033864 and CTRI/2021/08/0354242) reported no significant efficacy, however the results have not been published. Multiple trials have not reported results and did not respond to requests [Lawrence].
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 20% 24 67,989 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk Mortality 26% 11 57,313 Ventilation 48% 4 5,222 ICU admission 24% 2 42 Hospitalization 7% 14 53,437 Progression 37% 4 9,996 Recovery 19% 7 25,669 Viral clearance 34% 9 7,455 RCTs 42% 12 30,633 RCT mortality 52% 4 26,901 Peer-reviewed 20% 17 22,564 Early 24% 21 67,698 Late -8% 3 291 Molnupiravir for COVID-19 c19early.org/m Dec 2022 Favorsmolnupiravir Favorscontrol after exclusions
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Fischer (RCT) 77% 0.23 [0.01-5.69] death 0/140 1/62 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Hetero (RCT) 70% 0.30 [0.13-0.70] hosp. 7/371 23/370 Optimus (RCT) 58% 0.42 [0.31-0.58] viral+ 38/175 93/180 Khoo (RCT) -33% 1.33 [0.55-3.26] no recov. 8/12 3/6 Jayk Bernal (RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-0.86] death 1/709 9/699 Tippabhotla (RCT) 46% 0.54 [0.22-1.34] hosp. 7/610 13/610 Wong (PSM) 52% 0.48 [0.40-0.59] death 1,856 (n) 1,856 (n) Yip (PSW) -12% 1.12 [0.68-1.82] death/ICU Flisiak 39% 0.61 [0.38-0.97] death 20/203 63/387 Khoo (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.08] oxygen 0/90 1/90 Kneidinger -15% 1.15 [0.56-2.37] severe case 8/46 26/172 Najjar-Deb.. (PSM) 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.43] death 22/2,661 27/2,661 Arbel 65+ 74% 0.26 [0.10-0.73] death 4/845 137/12,724 Arbel 40-64 -1182% 12.82 [3.41-48.2] death 4/224 7/6,075 Suzuki (PSM) -100% 2.00 [0.34-11.9] death 2/230 3/690 Brown -101% 2.01 [0.43-9.38] hosp. 8/442 2/222 Butler (RCT) 60% 0.40 [0.08-2.06] death 2/12,516 5/12,484 Wong (PSM) 24% 0.76 [0.61-0.95] death Liu -162% 2.62 [0.11-60.6] ICU 1/26 0/16 Sinha (RCT) 65% 0.35 [0.16-0.73] hosp. 9/608 26/610 Zheng -100% 2.00 [1.23-3.23] death/hosp. 61/2,689 34/3,331 OT​1 Tau​2 = 0.28, I​2 = 80.7%, p = 0.072 Early treatment 24% 0.76 [0.56-1.03] 202/24,453 473/43,245 24% improvement 033864 (RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.50-2.00] improv. n/a n/a FUTILITY, PENDING​2 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control 035424 (RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.50-2.00] improv. n/a n/a FUTILITY, PENDING​2 Arribas (DB RCT) -282% 3.82 [0.50-29.1] death 11/216 1/75 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.77 Late treatment -8% 1.08 [0.67-1.73] 11/216 1/75 -8% improvement All studies 20% 0.80 [0.60-1.06] 213/24,669 474/43,320 20% improvement 24 molnupiravir COVID-19 studies c19early.org/m Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.27, I​2 = 78.8%, p = 0.12 Effect extraction pre-specified 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 FUTILITY: terminated for futility, results pending Favors molnupiravir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Fischer (RCT) 77% 0.23 [0.01-5.69] death 0/140 1/62 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Hetero (RCT) 70% 0.30 [0.13-0.70] hosp. 7/371 23/370 Optimus (RCT) 58% 0.42 [0.31-0.58] viral+ 38/175 93/180 Khoo (RCT) -33% 1.33 [0.55-3.26] no recov. 8/12 3/6 Jayk Bernal (RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-0.86] death 1/709 9/699 Tippabhotla (RCT) 46% 0.54 [0.22-1.34] hosp. 7/610 13/610 Wong (PSM) 52% 0.48 [0.40-0.59] death 1,856 (n) 1,856 (n) Yip (PSW) -12% 1.12 [0.68-1.82] death/ICU Flisiak 39% 0.61 [0.38-0.97] death 20/203 63/387 Khoo (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.08] oxygen 0/90 1/90 Kneidinger -15% 1.15 [0.56-2.37] severe case 8/46 26/172 Najjar-Deb.. (PSM) 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.43] death 22/2,661 27/2,661 Arbel 65+ 74% 0.26 [0.10-0.73] death 4/845 137/12,724 Arbel 40-64 -1182% 12.82 [3.41-48.2] death 4/224 7/6,075 Suzuki (PSM) -100% 2.00 [0.34-11.9] death 2/230 3/690 Butler (RCT) 60% 0.40 [0.08-2.06] death 2/12,516 5/12,484 Wong (PSM) 24% 0.76 [0.61-0.95] death Liu -162% 2.62 [0.11-60.6] ICU 1/26 0/16 Sinha (RCT) 65% 0.35 [0.16-0.73] hosp. 9/608 26/610 Zheng -100% 2.00 [1.23-3.23] death/hosp. 61/2,689 34/3,331 OT​1 Tau​2 = 0.28, I​2 = 81.3%, p = 0.051 Early treatment 27% 0.73 [0.54-1.00] 194/24,011 471/43,023 27% improvement 033864 (RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.50-2.00] improv. n/a n/a FUTILITY, PENDING​2 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control 035424 (RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.50-2.00] improv. n/a n/a FUTILITY, PENDING​2 Arribas (DB RCT) -282% 3.82 [0.50-29.1] death 11/216 1/75 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.77 Late treatment -8% 1.08 [0.67-1.73] 11/216 1/75 -8% improvement All studies 22% 0.78 [0.59-1.04] 205/24,227 472/43,098 22% improvement 23 molnupiravir COVID-19 studies after exclusions c19early.org/m Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.27, I​2 = 79.4%, p = 0.088 Effect extraction pre-specified 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 FUTILITY: terminated for futility, results pending Favors molnupiravir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Fischer (RCT) 77% 0.23 [0.01-5.69] 0/140 1/62 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Jayk Bernal (RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-0.86] 1/709 9/699 Wong (PSM) 52% 0.48 [0.40-0.59] 1,856 (n) 1,856 (n) Flisiak 39% 0.61 [0.38-0.97] 20/203 63/387 Najjar-Deb.. (PSM) 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.43] 22/2,661 27/2,661 Arbel 65+ 74% 0.26 [0.10-0.73] 4/845 137/12,724 Arbel 40-64 -1182% 12.82 [3.41-48.2] 4/224 7/6,075 Suzuki (PSM) -100% 2.00 [0.34-11.9] 2/230 3/690 Butler (RCT) 60% 0.40 [0.08-2.06] 2/12,516 5/12,484 Wong (PSM) 24% 0.76 [0.61-0.95] Tau​2 = 0.23, I​2 = 78.8%, p = 0.097 Early treatment 30% 0.70 [0.46-1.07] 55/19,384 252/37,638 30% improvement Arribas (DB RCT) -282% 3.82 [0.50-29.1] 11/216 1/75 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.2 Late treatment -282% 3.82 [0.50-29.1] 11/216 1/75 -282% improvement All studies 26% 0.74 [0.49-1.13] 66/19,600 253/37,713 26% improvement 11 molnupiravir COVID-19 mortality results c19early.org/m Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.24, I​2 = 78.1%, p = 0.17 Favors molnupiravir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Wong (PSM) 58% 0.42 [0.17-1.01] 1,856 (n) 1,856 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Flisiak 5% 0.95 [0.39-2.32] 7/203 14/387 Suzuki (PSM) 57% 0.43 [0.02-10.5] 0/230 1/690 Wong (PSM) 60% 0.40 [0.19-0.84] Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0072 Early treatment 48% 0.52 [0.32-0.84] 7/2,289 15/2,933 48% improvement All studies 48% 0.52 [0.32-0.84] 7/2,289 15/2,933 48% improvement 4 molnupiravir COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19early.org/m Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0072 Favors molnupiravir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Wong (PSM) 26% 0.74 [0.45-1.21] Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Liu -162% 2.62 [0.11-60.6] 1/26 0/16 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.29 Early treatment 24% 0.76 [0.47-1.25] 1/26 0/16 24% improvement All studies 24% 0.76 [0.47-1.25] 1/26 0/16 24% improvement 2 molnupiravir COVID-19 ICU results c19early.org/m Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.29 Favors molnupiravir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Fischer (RCT) -33% 1.33 [0.14-12.5] hosp. 3/140 1/62 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Hetero (RCT) 70% 0.30 [0.13-0.70] hosp. 7/371 23/370 Tippabhotla (RCT) 46% 0.54 [0.22-1.34] hosp. 7/610 13/610 Wong (PSM) 6% 0.94 [0.89-1.00] hosp. time 1,856 (n) 1,856 (n) Yip (PSW) -17% 1.17 [0.99-1.39] hosp. Flisiak -1% 1.01 [0.71-1.43] hosp. time 203 (n) 387 (n) Khoo (DB RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-2.03] hosp. 0/90 4/90 Arbel 65+ 45% 0.55 [0.34-0.88] hosp. 18/845 513/12,724 Arbel 40-64 -80% 1.80 [0.86-3.77] hosp. 8/224 97/6,075 Brown -101% 2.01 [0.43-9.38] hosp. 8/442 2/222 Butler (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.83-1.45] hosp. 102/12,516 93/12,484 Wong (PSM) 2% 0.98 [0.89-1.06] hosp. Liu 18% 0.82 [0.63-1.06] hosp. time 26 (n) 16 (n) Sinha (RCT) 65% 0.35 [0.16-0.73] hosp. 9/608 26/610 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 70.3%, p = 0.25 Early treatment 7% 0.93 [0.82-1.05] 162/17,931 772/35,506 7% improvement All studies 7% 0.93 [0.82-1.05] 162/17,931 772/35,506 7% improvement 14 molnupiravir COVID-19 hospitalization results c19early.org/m Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 70.3%, p = 0.25 Favors molnupiravir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Fischer (RCT) 77% 0.23 [0.01-5.69] death 0/140 1/62 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Hetero (RCT) 70% 0.30 [0.13-0.70] hosp. 7/371 23/370 Jayk Bernal (RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-0.86] death 1/709 9/699 Tippabhotla (RCT) 46% 0.54 [0.22-1.34] hosp. 7/610 13/610 Wong (PSM) 52% 0.48 [0.40-0.59] death 1,856 (n) 1,856 (n) Yip (PSW) -12% 1.12 [0.68-1.82] death/ICU Flisiak 39% 0.61 [0.38-0.97] death 20/203 63/387 Khoo (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.08] oxygen 0/90 1/90 Kneidinger -15% 1.15 [0.56-2.37] severe case 8/46 26/172 Najjar-Deb.. (PSM) 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.43] death 22/2,661 27/2,661 Arbel 65+ 74% 0.26 [0.10-0.73] death 4/845 137/12,724 Arbel 40-64 -1182% 12.82 [3.41-48.2] death 4/224 7/6,075 Suzuki (PSM) -100% 2.00 [0.34-11.9] death 2/230 3/690 Brown -101% 2.01 [0.43-9.38] hosp. 8/442 2/222 Butler (RCT) 60% 0.40 [0.08-2.06] death 2/12,516 5/12,484 Wong (PSM) 24% 0.76 [0.61-0.95] death Liu -162% 2.62 [0.11-60.6] ICU 1/26 0/16 Sinha (RCT) 65% 0.35 [0.16-0.73] hosp. 9/608 26/610 Zheng -100% 2.00 [1.23-3.23] death/hosp. 61/2,689 34/3,331 OT​1 Tau​2 = 0.30, I​2 = 80.4%, p = 0.13 Early treatment 23% 0.77 [0.55-1.08] 156/24,266 377/43,059 23% improvement Arribas (DB RCT) -282% 3.82 [0.50-29.1] death 11/216 1/75 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.2 Late treatment -282% 3.82 [0.50-29.1] 11/216 1/75 -282% improvement All studies 20% 0.80 [0.57-1.11] 167/24,482 378/43,134 20% improvement 20 molnupiravir COVID-19 serious outcomes c19early.org/m Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.30, I​2 = 79.8%, p = 0.18 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment Favors molnupiravir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Hetero (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.54-0.82] recov. time 371 (n) 370 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Khoo (RCT) -33% 1.33 [0.55-3.26] no recov. 8/12 3/6 Khoo (DB RCT) -12% 1.12 [0.71-1.79] no recov. 27/90 24/90 Butler (RCT) 22% 0.78 [0.76-0.81] no recov. 3,874/12,432 4,847/12,151 Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 50.6%, p = 0.0062 Early treatment 21% 0.79 [0.66-0.93] 3,909/12,905 4,874/12,617 21% improvement 033864 (RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.50-2.00] improv. n/a n/a FUTILITY, PENDING​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control 035424 (RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.50-2.00] improv. n/a n/a FUTILITY, PENDING​1 Arribas (DB RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.68-1.45] no recov. 72 (n) 75 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.97 Late treatment 1% 0.99 [0.74-1.34] 0/72 0/75 1% improvement All studies 19% 0.81 [0.71-0.92] 3,909/12,977 4,874/12,692 19% improvement 7 molnupiravir COVID-19 recovery results c19early.org/m Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 29.9%, p = 0.0018 1 FUTILITY: terminated for futility, results pending Favors molnupiravir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Fischer (RCT) 49% 0.51 [0.22-1.18] viral+ 10/118 9/54 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Optimus (RCT) 58% 0.42 [0.31-0.58] viral+ 38/175 93/180 Tippabhotla (RCT) 59% 0.41 [0.29-0.57] viral+ 42/610 103/610 Wong (PSM) 28% 0.72 [0.61-0.87] viral+ 1,856 (n) 1,856 (n) Khoo (DB RCT) 23% 0.77 [0.58-1.09] viral+ 90 (n) 90 (n) Butler (RCT) -13% 1.13 [1.03-1.23] viral load 203 (n) 241 (n) Liu 21% 0.79 [0.59-1.05] viral time 26 (n) 16 (n) Sinha (RCT) 48% 0.52 [0.42-0.63] viral load 608 (n) 610 (n) Tau​2 = 0.17, I​2 = 93.5%, p = 0.0046 Early treatment 36% 0.64 [0.47-0.87] 90/3,686 205/3,657 36% improvement Arribas (DB RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.62-1.25] viral+ 26/52 34/60 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.49 Late treatment 12% 0.88 [0.62-1.25] 26/52 34/60 12% improvement All studies 34% 0.66 [0.50-0.88] 116/3,738 239/3,717 34% improvement 9 molnupiravir COVID-19 viral clearance results c19early.org/m Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.16, I​2 = 92.6%, p = 0.0043 Favors molnupiravir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Fischer (RCT) 77% 0.23 [0.01-5.69] death 0/140 1/62 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Hetero (RCT) 70% 0.30 [0.13-0.70] hosp. 7/371 23/370 Optimus (RCT) 58% 0.42 [0.31-0.58] viral+ 38/175 93/180 Khoo (RCT) -33% 1.33 [0.55-3.26] no recov. 8/12 3/6 Jayk Bernal (RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-0.86] death 1/709 9/699 Tippabhotla (RCT) 46% 0.54 [0.22-1.34] hosp. 7/610 13/610 Khoo (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.08] oxygen 0/90 1/90 Butler (RCT) 60% 0.40 [0.08-2.06] death 2/12,516 5/12,484 Sinha (RCT) 65% 0.35 [0.16-0.73] hosp. 9/608 26/610 Tau​2 = 0.03, I​2 = 13.4%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 56% 0.44 [0.32-0.60] 72/15,231 174/15,111 56% improvement 033864 (RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.50-2.00] improv. n/a n/a FUTILITY, PENDING​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control 035424 (RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.50-2.00] improv. n/a n/a FUTILITY, PENDING​1 Arribas (DB RCT) -282% 3.82 [0.50-29.1] death 11/216 1/75 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.77 Late treatment -8% 1.08 [0.67-1.73] 11/216 1/75 -8% improvement All studies 42% 0.58 [0.39-0.85] 83/15,447 175/15,186 42% improvement 12 molnupiravir COVID-19 Randomized Controlled Trials c19early.org/m Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.19, I​2 = 49.7%, p = 0.0056 Effect extraction pre-specified 1 FUTILITY: terminated for futility, results pending Favors molnupiravir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Fischer (RCT) 77% 0.23 [0.01-5.69] 0/140 1/62 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Jayk Bernal (RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-0.86] 1/709 9/699 Butler (RCT) 60% 0.40 [0.08-2.06] 2/12,516 5/12,484 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.019 Early treatment 76% 0.24 [0.07-0.79] 3/13,365 15/13,245 76% improvement Arribas (DB RCT) -282% 3.82 [0.50-29.1] 11/216 1/75 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.2 Late treatment -282% 3.82 [0.50-29.1] 11/216 1/75 -282% improvement All studies 52% 0.48 [0.10-2.22] 14/13,581 16/13,320 52% improvement 4 molnupiravir COVID-19 RCT mortality results c19early.org/m Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 1.25, I​2 = 51.8%, p = 0.35 Favors molnupiravir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Hetero (RCT) 70% 0.30 [0.13-0.70] hosp. 7/371 23/370 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Khoo (RCT) -33% 1.33 [0.55-3.26] no recov. 8/12 3/6 Jayk Bernal (RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-0.86] death 1/709 9/699 Tippabhotla (RCT) 46% 0.54 [0.22-1.34] hosp. 7/610 13/610 Wong (PSM) 52% 0.48 [0.40-0.59] death 1,856 (n) 1,856 (n) Yip (PSW) -12% 1.12 [0.68-1.82] death/ICU Flisiak 39% 0.61 [0.38-0.97] death 20/203 63/387 Khoo (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.08] oxygen 0/90 1/90 Kneidinger -15% 1.15 [0.56-2.37] severe case 8/46 26/172 Najjar-Deb.. (PSM) 19% 0.81 [0.46-1.43] death 22/2,661 27/2,661 Suzuki (PSM) -100% 2.00 [0.34-11.9] death 2/230 3/690 Brown -101% 2.01 [0.43-9.38] hosp. 8/442 2/222 Wong (PSM) 24% 0.76 [0.61-0.95] death Liu -162% 2.62 [0.11-60.6] ICU 1/26 0/16 Sinha (RCT) 65% 0.35 [0.16-0.73] hosp. 9/608 26/610 Zheng -100% 2.00 [1.23-3.23] death/hosp. 61/2,689 34/3,331 OT​1 Tau​2 = 0.21, I​2 = 77.7%, p = 0.1 Early treatment 23% 0.77 [0.57-1.05] 154/10,553 230/11,720 23% improvement Arribas (DB RCT) -282% 3.82 [0.50-29.1] death 11/216 1/75 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.2 Late treatment -282% 3.82 [0.50-29.1] 11/216 1/75 -282% improvement All studies 20% 0.80 [0.59-1.08] 165/10,769 231/11,795 20% improvement 17 molnupiravir COVID-19 peer reviewed studies c19early.org/m Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.22, I​2 = 77.1%, p = 0.15 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment Favors molnupiravir Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Fischer (RCT) 77% 0.23 [0.01-5.69] death 0/140 1/62 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Fischer (RCT) 65% 0.35 [0.01-8.33] death 0/55 1/62 Fischer (RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.03] death 0/62 1/62 Fischer (RCT) 58% 0.42 [0.02-10.0] death 0/23 1/62 Fischer (RCT) -33% 1.33 [0.14-12.5] hosp. 3/140 1/62 Fischer (RCT) -13% 1.13 [0.07-17.6] hosp. 1/55 1/62 Fischer (RCT) -100% 2.00 [0.19-21.5] hosp. 2/62 1/62 Fischer (RCT) 58% 0.42 [0.02-10.0] hosp. 0/23 1/62 Fischer (RCT) 49% 0.51 [0.22-1.18] viral+ 10/118 9/54 Fischer (RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-0.86] viral+ 1/53 9/54 Fischer (RCT) 30% 0.70 [0.25-1.93] viral+ 5/43 9/54 Fischer (RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.37-3.18] viral+ 4/22 9/54 Fischer (RCT) 92% 0.08 [0.01-0.62] viral+ 1/117 6/54 Fischer (RCT) 92% 0.08 [0.00-1.34] viral+ 0/53 6/54 Fischer (RCT) 91% 0.09 [0.00-1.48] viral+ 0/42 6/54 Fischer (RCT) 59% 0.41 [0.05-3.20] viral+ 1/22 6/54 Fischer (RCT) 30% 0.70 [0.37-1.36] viral+ 19/137 12/61 Fischer (RCT) 62% 0.38 [0.13-1.12] viral+ 4/53 12/61 Fischer (RCT) -8% 1.08 [0.54-2.18] viral+ 13/61 12/61 Fischer (RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.11-1.83] viral+ 2/23 12/61 Hetero (RCT) 70% 0.30 [0.13-0.70] hosp. 7/371 23/370 Hetero (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.54-0.82] recov. time 371 (n) 370 (n) Optimus (RCT) 58% 0.42 [0.31-0.58] viral+ 38/175 93/180 Khoo (RCT) -33% 1.33 [0.55-3.26] no recov. 8/12 3/6 Khoo (RCT) -100% 2.00 [0.28-14.2] no recov. 4/12 1/6 Khoo (RCT) -100% 2.00 [0.90-4.43] no recov. 4/4 3/6 Khoo (RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.28-3.54] no recov. 2/4 3/6 Khoo (RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.28-3.54] no recov. 2/4 3/6 Khoo (RCT) -50% 1.50 [0.13-17.7] no recov. 1/4 1/6 Khoo (RCT) -200% 3.00 [0.39-23.1] no recov. 2/4 1/6 Khoo (RCT) -50% 1.50 [0.13-17.7] no recov. 1/4 1/6 Jayk Bernal (RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-0.86] death 1/709 9/699