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Diet for COVID-19
19 studies from 288 scientists
607,729 patients in 8 countries
Statistically significant improvement for hospitalization, recovery, and cases.
38% lower cases in 10 studies CI [26-48%]
Studies analyze diet quality before infection.
COVID-19 Diet studies. Dec 2022. c19early.org/dt
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 52% With exclusions 53% Mortality 25% Hospitalization 70% Cases 38% Favorshealthy diet Favorscontrol
Diet COVID-19 studies. Studies analyze diet quality before infection, and use different definitions of diet quality. Recent:
Ganguli
Rahmati
Reis
Bonaccio
Parastouei
Tadbir Vajargah
Ebrahimzadeh.
Submit updates/corrections.
Dec 2
Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis) Diet for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 19 studies
Statistically significant improvements are seen for hospitalization, recovery, and cases. 16 studies from 16 independent teams in 8 different countries show statistically significant improvements in isolation (15 for the most serious ou..
Nov 11
Rahmati et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.28298 The effect of adherence to high‐quality dietary pattern on COVID‐19 outcomes: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
62% lower hospitalization [p=0.004] and 28% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. Meta analysis of 5 diet and COVID-19 studies, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases and hospitalization with higher quality diets.
Oct 25
Bonaccio et al., European Journal of Public Health, doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckac130.235 Dietary factors and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Moli-sani Study Cohort
Retrospective 1,096 participants showing high consumption of vegetables or fruits and nuts associated with lower risk of COVID-19 cases.
Oct 24
Reis et al., American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, doi:10.1177/15598276221135541 The Association between Lifestyle Risk Factors and COVID-19 Hospitalization in a Healthcare Institution
75% lower hospitalization [p=0.0003]. Retrospective 546 COVID+ patients in the USA, showing lower risk of hospitalization with higher consumption of vegetables.
Oct 6
Parastouei et al., BMJ Military Health, doi:10.1136/military-2022-002173 Adherence to Healthy Eating Index-2015 and severity of disease in hospitalised military patients with COVID-19: a cross sectional study
Retrospective 295 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing significantly lower HEI-2015 diet scores for patients admitted to the ICU. Adjusted results are only provided for HEI-2015 score as a continuous variable.
Sep 29
Tadbir Vajargah et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.934568 Association of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with COVID-19 severity and symptoms in hospitalized patients: A cross-sectional study
67% lower severe cases [p=0.003]. Retrospective 250 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber associated with lower COVID-19 severity.
Sep 6
Ganguli et al., Nutrition and Health, doi:10.1177/02601060221124068 Association of food habit with the COVID-19 severity and hospitalization: A cross-sectional study among the recovered individuals in Bangladesh
Retrospective 1,025 COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh finding reduced risk of COVID-19 severity and hospitalization with high consumption of fruit, vegetables, and fish; moderate consumption of garlic, onion, and turmeric; and tea and honey.
Aug 19
Ebrahimzadeh et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.929384 Major dietary patterns in relation to disease severity, symptoms, and inflammatory markers in patients recovered from COVID-19
69% lower severe cases [p=0.004], 56% lower hospitalization [p=0.07], and 68% improved recovery [p=0.003]. Retrospective 250 recovered COVID-19 patients, showing lower risk of severe cases and shorter recovery and hospitalization times with a healthy diet. Notably, all individual symptoms show lower incidence with a healthy diet with the excep..
Aug 16
Zhou et al., European Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1007/s00394-022-02982-0 Impact of ultra-processed food intake on the risk of COVID-19: a prospective cohort study
16% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. Prospective study of 41,012 UK Biobank participants, showing higher risk of COVID-19 cases with ultra-processed food consumption.
Aug 9
Yue et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqac219 Long-term diet and risk of SARS -CoV-2 infection and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity
19% fewer cases [p=0.008]. Analysis of 42,935 participants showing lower risk of COVID-19 with healthier diets. Risk of severe cases was also lower with healthier diets, while not reaching statistical significance. Severity results are only provided with diet indic..
Jul 19
Zargarzadeh et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.911273 Higher Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Is Inversely Associated With Severity of COVID-19 and Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study
77% lower severe cases [p=0.0002]. Retrospective 250 COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing lower risk of severe disease with greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet.
May 27
Galmés et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14112254 Suboptimal Consumption of Relevant Immune System Micronutrients Is Associated with a Worse Impact of COVID-19 in Spanish Populations
Ecological study in Spain, showing diets lower in vitamin D, A, B9, and zinc in regions with the highest COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Vitamin D intake was associated with lower prevalence, incidence, and a combined incidence+mortalit..
May 18
Bodolea et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14102105 Nutritional Risk Assessment Scores Effectively Predict Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with Severe COVID-19
Retrospective 90 severe COVID-19 ARDS patients in Romania, showing nutritional risk assessment scores PNI, CONUT, NUTRIC, and mNUTRIC to be independent predictors of mortality.
May 11
Pimenta et al., European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, doi:10.1093/eurjpc/zwac056.304 Cardiovascular risk factor insights into the Tesco 1.0 Dataset
Tesco grocery purchase retrospective, showing COVID-19 mortality correlated with myocardial infarction mortality risk factors. Salt, percentage of fat and oils, and total weight increased risk, while fiber was protective.
May 2
Kahleova et al., American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, doi:10.1177/15598276221097621 (Review) The Role of Nutrition in COVID-19: Taking a Lesson from the 1918 H1N1 Pandemic
Review of evidence suggesting that a healthy diet reduces risk for COVID-19.
Apr 29
Hou et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.837458 COVID-19 Illness Severity in the Elderly in Relation to Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Diets: A Single-Center Experience
72% lower severe cases [p=0.23] and 11% fewer moderate/severe cases [p=0.66]. Retrospective 509 COVID-19 patients in Taiwan, showing higher risk of critical COVID-19 cases with non-vegetarian diets.
Mar 29
Firoozi et al., International Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.1155/2022/5452488 The Association between Energy-Adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index, Body Composition, and Anthropometric Indices in COVID-19-Infected Patients: A Case-Control Study in Shiraz, Iran
65% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 133 COVID-19 patients and 322 controls, showing higher risk of COVID-19 for diets that have a higher inflammatory index (E-DII).
Jan 24
Perez-Araluce et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.805533 Components of the Mediterranean Diet and Risk of COVID-19
78% lower severe cases [p=0.15], 15% fewer symptomatic cases [p=0.31], and 20% fewer cases [p=0.14]. Retrospective 5,194 participants in Spain with 382 COVID-19 cases, showing lower risk of COVID-19 with high adherence to a Mediterranean diet, with statistical significance only when excluding healthcare professionals.
Jan 14
Jagielski et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14020350 Associations of Nutritional Behavior and Gut Microbiota with the Risk of COVID-19 in Healthy Young Adults in Poland
82% fewer cases [p=0.005]. Retrospective 95 people in Poland, showing significantly lower risk of COVID-19 with higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Diets with higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and nuts had a significantly lower dietary infla..
Dec 30
2021
Yamamoto et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-04350-0 Flight attendant occupational nutrition and lifestyle factors associated with COVID-19 incidence
66% fewer cases [p=0.009]. Retrospective 84 flight attendants, 52 reporting COVID-19 status and diet quality, showing higher risk of COVID-19 with lower self-reported diet quality.
Dec 31
2021
Magaña et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.09.606 Influence of mediterranean diet on survival from covid-19 disease
53% lower mortality [p=0.05]. Retrospective 89 COVID-19 patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with adherence to the Mediterranean diet.
Sep 18
2021
Nguyen et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13093258 Single and Combinative Impacts of Healthy Eating Behavior and Physical Activity on COVID-19-like Symptoms among Outpatients: A Multi-Hospital and Health Center Survey
15% fewer symptomatic cases [p=0.006]. Analysis of 3,947 participants in Vietnam, showing significantly lower risk of COVID-19-like symptoms with physical activity and with a healthy diet. The combination of being physically active and eating healthy reduced risk further compa..
Aug 31
2021
Ahmadi et al., Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2021.04.022 Lifestyle risk factors and infectious disease mortality, including COVID-19, among middle aged and older adults: Evidence from a community-based cohort study in the United Kingdom
3% higher mortality [p=0.85]. Retrospective 468,569 adults in the UK, showing significantly lower COVID-19 mortality with physical activity.
Aug 23
2021
Moludi et al., British Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1017/S0007114521003214 The relationship between Dietary Inflammatory Index and disease severity and inflammatory status: a case–control study of COVID-19 patients
92% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 60 COVID-19 hospitalized patients and 60 controls in Iran, showing pro-inflammatory diets associated with COVID-19 cases and severity. IR.KUMS.REC.1399·444, IR.TBZMED.REC.1399·225.
Jul 30
2021
El Khoury et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.707359 Inverse Association Between the Mediterranean Diet and COVID-19 Risk in Lebanon: A Case-Control Study
Retrospective 399 people in Lebanon, showing a significant inverse association between the MedDiet score, corresponding to the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and the risk of COVID-19.
Jul 9
2021
Rabail et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.2458 Nutritional and lifestyle changes required for minimizing the recovery period in home quarantined COVID-19 patients of Punjab, Pakistan
Survey of 80 recovered COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, showing faster recovery with improved nutrition.
Jun 25
2021
Merino et al., Gut, doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2021-325353 (date from earlier preprint) Diet quality and risk and severity of COVID-19: a prospective cohort study
41% lower severe cases [p<0.0001] and 18% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 592,571 participants in the UK and USA with 31,815 COVID-19 cases, showing lower risk or COVID-19 cases and severity for higher healthful plant-based diet scores. Notably, the assocation was less evident with higher levels o..
Jun 7
2021
Kim et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272 Plant-based diets, pescatarian diets and COVID-19 severity: a population-based case–control study in six countries
72% fewer moderate/severe cases [p=0.02] and 19% fewer cases [p=0.24]. Retrospective healthcare workers in six countries with exposure to COVID-19 patients, showing lower risk of moderate/severe COVID-19 with plant-based diets.
May 19
2021
Ponzo et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13051721 Mediterranean Diet and SARS-COV-2 Infection: Is There Any Association? A Proof-of-Concept Study
Retrospective 1,206 healthcare professionals in Italy, showing the risk of COVID-19 infection inversely associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet.
Apr 20
2021
Naushin et al., eLife, doi:10.7554/eLife.66537 Insights from a Pan India Sero-Epidemiological survey (Phenome-India Cohort) for SARS-CoV2
40% lower seropositivity [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 10,427 volunteers in India, 1,058 anti-nucleocapsid antibody positive, showing lower risk of seropositivity with a vegetarian diet.
Mar 5
2021
Greene et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.591964 Negative Association Between Mediterranean Diet Adherence and COVID-19 Cases and Related Deaths in Spain and 23 OECD Countries: An Ecological Study
Analysis of 17 regions in Spain, showing an inverse association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and COVID-19 cases and mortality.
Feb 15
2021
Mahto et al., American Journal of Blood Research, 11:1 Seroprevalence of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 and its determinants among healthcare workers of a COVID-19 dedicated hospital of India
20% lower IgG positivity [p=0.32]. Retrospective 689 healthcare workers in India, showing non-statistically significant lower risk of IgG positivity with a vegetarian diet in unadjusted results.
Sep 8
2020
Galmés et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12092738 Current State of Evidence: Influence of Nutritional and Nutrigenetic Factors on Immunity in the COVID-19 Pandemic Framework
Ecological study of European countries analyzing 10 vitamins and minerals endorsed by the European Food Safety Authority as having sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between intake and optimal immune system function: vitamins D..
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