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Diet for COVID-19
28 studies from 358 scientists
693,236 patients in 10 countries
Statistically significant lower risk for ICU, hospitalization, progression, recovery, cases, and viral clearance.
72% lower hospitalization in 3 studies CI 57-82%
Studies analyze diet quality before infection.
COVID-19 Diet studies. Dec 2023. c19early.org
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 50% With exclusions 53% Mortality 20% Hospitalization 72% Cases 35% Favorshealthy diet Favorscontrol
Studies analyze diet quality before infection, and use different definitions of diet quality. Recent:
Pavlidou
Abbas-Hashemi
Akbar
Hegazy
Micek.
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Dec 3
Covid Analysis Diet for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 28 studies
Statistically significant lower risk is seen for ICU admission, hospitalization, progression, recovery, cases, and viral clearance. 24 studies from 23 independent teams in 10 countries show statistically significant improvements. • Meta..
Nov 9
Pavlidou et al., Diseases, doi:10.3390/diseases11040165 Association of COVID-19 Infection with Sociodemographic, Anthropometric and Lifestyle Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study in an Older Adults’ Population Aged over 65 Years Old
55% fewer cases (p=0.0009). Retrospective 5,197 Greek adults over 65. After adjustment for confounders, COVID-19 infection was independently associated with poor sleep, low physical activity, low Mediterranean diet adherence, living in urban areas, smoking, obesity,..
Nov 7
Akbar et al., MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0330.v1 Association between lifestyle factors and COVID-19: findings from Qatar Biobank
7% fewer cases (p=0.02). Retrospective 10,000 adults in Qatar, showing higher risk of COVID-19 cases with a modern diet characterized by foods high in refined carbohydrates and saturated fat (e.g. fast food, soft drinks, and dessert). Authors do not analyze COVID..
Oct 27
Abbas-Hashemi et al., Clinical Nutrition Research, doi:10.7762/cnr.2023.12.4.283 Relationship Between Dairy Intake and Hospitalization Risk and Disease Severity in Patients With COVID-19
Retrospective 141 COVID-19 patients showing that higher dairy intake was associated with lower risk of hospitalization. The risk of hospitalization was 31% lower in the highest tertile of dairy intake compared to the lowest, after adjustm..
Oct 2
Hegazy et al., BMC Nutrition, doi:10.1186/s40795-023-00727-8 Beneficial role of healthy eating Index-2015 score & physical activity on COVID-19 outcomes
Retrospective 68 COVID-19 patients showing higher healthy eating index scores associated with lower risk of moderate vs. mild COVID-19.
Aug 14
Araujo et al., Jornal de Pediatria, doi:10.1016/j.jped.2023.07.006 Lifestyle and quality of life in children and adolescents during the covid-19 social distancing period
Cross-sectional analysis of 2,574 families in Brazil, showing that pandemic social distancing caused negative changes in exercise, diet, and sleep for children.
Aug 3
Micek et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2023.1241016 Association of dietary intake of polyphenols, lignans, and phytosterols with immune-stimulating microbiota and COVID-19 risk in a group of Polish men and women
70% fewer cases (p=0.09). Dietary analysis of 95 adults in Poland, showing lower risk of COVID-19 with higher intake of polyphenols, lignans, and phytosterols. Results were statistically significant for total phytosterols, secoisolariciresinol, β-sitosterol, matai..
Jul 31
Wang et al., Infection and Drug Resistance, doi:10.2147/idr.s409615 Improving Nutritional Status Was Associated with Decreasing Disease Severity and Shortening of Negative Conversion Time of PCR Test in Non-ICU Patients with COVID-19
45% lower severe cases (p=0.06) and 32% improved viral clearance (p=0.03). Retrospective 148 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in China, showing lower severity and faster viral clearance with improved nutrition.
Jul 6
Aghajani et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2023.1174113 Association between dietary antioxidant quality score and severity of coronavirus infection: a case–control study
88% lower severe cases (p<0.0001). Case control study of 295 COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing lower risk of severe cases with higher dietary antioxidant quality scores, and with higher intake of vitamin D.
Jun 7
Stavrinos et al., Journal of Pediatric Nursing, doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2023.06.003 COVID-19 effects on diet, sleep, and physical activity among mid- to late-adolescents residing in the deep south in the United States
Prospective study tracking sleep, diet, and physical activity for adolescents in the USA before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, showing negative health effects of the pandemic / restrictions.
Apr 12
Jääskeläinen et al., Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, doi:10.1177/14034948231163960 Poor health status before the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with unfavourable changes in health-related lifestyle
Analysis of 3,834 adults in Finland, showing that people with poor health status were more likely to have unfavorable lifestyle changes during the pandemic, including decreased vegetable consumption, decreased leisure-time physical activi..
Mar 31
Barania Adabi et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2023.1075061 The association between inflammatory and immune system biomarkers and the dietary inflammatory index in patients with COVID-19
99% lower ICU admission (p<0.0001). Retrospective 500 COVID-19 patients, showing dietary inflammatory index (DII) and energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) associated with COVID-19 severity.
Mar 3
Zamanian et al., Clinical Nutrition Open Science, doi:10.1016/j.nutos.2023.02.001 The association of dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) diet with hospitalization risk in patients with COVID-19
81% lower hospitalization (p=0.002). Case control study with 53 inpatients and 88 outpatients in Iran, showing lower risk of hospitalization with increased adherence to the DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) diet. Increased intake of fruits, vegetables and low-fat ..
Feb 18
Tavassoli et al., International Journal of Preventive Medicine, doi:10.4103/ijpvm.ijpvm_129_21 The Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index with Risk of Coronavirus Infection and Severity: A Case-Control Study
Case control study in Iran with 100 COVID-19 cases and 100 healthy controls, showing no significant association between DII score and cases or symptoms. Results are only provided for DII as a continuous variable. COVID‐19 patients had a h..
Feb 6
Wang et al., JAMA Internal Medicine, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.6555 Adherence to Healthy Lifestyle Prior to Infection and Risk of Post–COVID-19 Condition
9% lower PASC (p=0.43). Prospective analysis of 32,249 women from the Nurses’ Health Study II in the USA, showing lower risk of PASC with a healthy lifestyle, and in a dose-dependent manner. Participants with 5 or 6 healthy lifestyle factors had significantly lo..
Jan 26
Mohajeri et al., Medicina, doi:10.3390/medicina59020227 Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Association with Serum Inflammatory Factors Stress Oxidative and Appetite in COVID-19 Patients
25% lower progression (p<0.0001). Retrospective 600 COVID-19 patients in Iran with moderate/severe CT scans, showing lower prevalence of dyspnea, fever, taste/smell abnormalities, and cough with high adherence to the Mediterranean diet in unadjusted results.
Dec 28
2022
Kucharska et al., Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, doi:10.26444/aaem/156939 Diet and selected elements of lifestyle in the Polish population before and during the COVID-19 pandemic – a population study
Retrospective 964 people in Poland showing unfavourable changes in diet during the COVID-19 pandemic, with increased intake of total lipids, saturated fatty acids, and sucrose.
Dec 14
2022
Zhao et al., SSRN Electronic Journal, doi:10.2139/ssrn.4300209 Associations between the Dietary Inflammatory Index and COVID-19 Outcomes in the UK Biobank Cohort
24% lower mortality (p=0.13), 28% lower severe cases (p=0.0003), and 15% fewer cases (p<0.0001). UK Biobank retrospective 196,154 participants with 11,288 COVID-19 cases, showing lower COVID-19 mortality, severity, and incidence for lower dietary inflammatory scores.
Nov 11
2022
Rahmati et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.28298 The effect of adherence to high-quality dietary pattern on COVID-19 outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
62% lower hospitalization (p=0.004) and 28% fewer cases (p<0.0001). Meta analysis of 5 diet and COVID-19 studies, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases and hospitalization with higher quality diets.
Oct 25
2022
Bonaccio et al., European Journal of Public Health, doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckac130.235 Dietary factors and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Moli-sani Study Cohort
Retrospective 1,096 participants showing high consumption of vegetables or fruits and nuts associated with lower risk of COVID-19 cases.
Oct 24
2022
Reis et al., American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, doi:10.1177/15598276221135541 The Association between Lifestyle Risk Factors and COVID-19 Hospitalization in a Healthcare Institution
75% lower hospitalization (p=0.0003). Retrospective 546 COVID+ patients in the USA, showing lower risk of hospitalization with higher consumption of vegetables.
Oct 6
2022
Parastouei et al., BMJ Military Health, doi:10.1136/military-2022-002173 Adherence to Healthy Eating Index-2015 and severity of disease in hospitalised military patients with COVID-19: a cross sectional study
Retrospective 295 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing significantly lower HEI-2015 diet scores for patients admitted to the ICU. Adjusted results are only provided for HEI-2015 score as a continuous variable.
Sep 29
2022
Tadbir Vajargah et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.934568 Association of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with COVID-19 severity and symptoms in hospitalized patients: A cross-sectional study
67% lower severe cases (p=0.003). Retrospective 250 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber associated with lower COVID-19 severity.
Sep 6
2022
Ganguli et al., Nutrition and Health, doi:10.1177/02601060221124068 Association of food habit with the COVID-19 severity and hospitalization: A cross-sectional study among the recovered individuals in Bangladesh
Retrospective 1,025 COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh finding reduced risk of COVID-19 severity and hospitalization with high consumption of fruit, vegetables, and fish; moderate consumption of garlic, onion, and turmeric; and tea and honey.
Aug 19
2022
Ebrahimzadeh et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.929384 Major dietary patterns in relation to disease severity, symptoms, and inflammatory markers in patients recovered from COVID-19
69% lower severe cases (p=0.004), 56% lower hospitalization (p=0.07), and 68% improved recovery (p=0.003). Retrospective 250 recovered COVID-19 patients, showing lower risk of severe cases and shorter recovery and hospitalization times with a healthy diet. Notably, all individual symptoms show lower incidence with a healthy diet with the excep..
Aug 16
2022
Zhou et al., European Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1007/s00394-022-02982-0 Impact of ultra-processed food intake on the risk of COVID-19: a prospective cohort study
16% fewer cases (p<0.0001). Prospective study of 41,012 UK Biobank participants, showing higher risk of COVID-19 cases with ultra-processed food consumption.
Aug 9
2022
Yue et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqac219 Long-term diet and risk of SARS -CoV-2 infection and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity
19% fewer cases (p=0.008). Analysis of 42,935 participants showing lower risk of COVID-19 with healthier diets. Risk of severe cases was also lower with healthier diets, while not reaching statistical significance. Severity results are only provided with diet indic..
Jul 19
2022
Zargarzadeh et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.911273 Higher Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Is Inversely Associated With Severity of COVID-19 and Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study
77% lower severe cases (p=0.0002). Retrospective 250 COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing lower risk of severe disease with greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet.
May 27
2022
Galmés et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14112254 Suboptimal Consumption of Relevant Immune System Micronutrients Is Associated with a Worse Impact of COVID-19 in Spanish Populations
Ecological study in Spain, showing diets lower in vitamin D, A, B9, and zinc in regions with the highest COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Vitamin D intake was associated with lower prevalence, incidence, and a combined incidence+mortalit..
May 18
2022
Bodolea et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14102105 Nutritional Risk Assessment Scores Effectively Predict Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with Severe COVID-19
Retrospective 90 severe COVID-19 ARDS patients in Romania, showing nutritional risk assessment scores PNI, CONUT, NUTRIC, and mNUTRIC to be independent predictors of mortality.
May 11
2022
Pimenta et al., European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, doi:10.1093/eurjpc/zwac056.304 Cardiovascular risk factor insights into the Tesco 1.0 Dataset
Tesco grocery purchase retrospective, showing COVID-19 mortality correlated with myocardial infarction mortality risk factors. Salt, percentage of fat and oils, and total weight increased risk, while fiber was protective.
May 2
2022
Kahleova et al., American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, doi:10.1177/15598276221097621 The Role of Nutrition in COVID-19: Taking a Lesson from the 1918 H1N1 Pandemic
Review of evidence suggesting that a healthy diet reduces risk for COVID-19.
Apr 29
2022
Hou et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.837458 COVID-19 Illness Severity in the Elderly in Relation to Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Diets: A Single-Center Experience
72% lower severe cases (p=0.23) and 11% fewer moderate/severe cases (p=0.66). Retrospective 509 COVID-19 patients in Taiwan, showing higher risk of critical COVID-19 cases with non-vegetarian diets.
Mar 29
2022
Firoozi et al., International Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.1155/2022/5452488 The Association between Energy-Adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index, Body Composition, and Anthropometric Indices in COVID-19-Infected Patients: A Case-Control Study in Shiraz, Iran
65% fewer cases (p<0.0001). Retrospective 133 COVID-19 patients and 322 controls, showing higher risk of COVID-19 for diets that have a higher inflammatory index (E-DII).
Jan 29
2022
Mohajeri et al., Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, doi:10.3233/MNM-211521 The difference in the dietary inflammatory index, functional food, and antioxidants intake between COVID -19 patients and healthy persons
Retrospective dietary survey analysis of 500 COVID-19 patients and 500 healthy matched controls in Iran, showing dietary inflammatory index associated with increased risk of COVID-19. IR.ARUMS.REC.1400.008.
Jan 24
2022
Perez-Araluce et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.805533 Components of the Mediterranean Diet and Risk of COVID-19
78% lower severe cases (p=0.15), 15% fewer symptomatic cases (p=0.31), and 20% fewer cases (p=0.14). Retrospective 5,194 participants in Spain with 382 COVID-19 cases, showing lower risk of COVID-19 with high adherence to a Mediterranean diet, with statistical significance only when excluding healthcare professionals.
Jan 14
2022
Jagielski et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14020350 Associations of Nutritional Behavior and Gut Microbiota with the Risk of COVID-19 in Healthy Young Adults in Poland
82% fewer cases (p=0.005). Retrospective 95 people in Poland, showing significantly lower risk of COVID-19 with higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Diets with higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and nuts had a significantly lower dietary infla..
Dec 30
2021
Yamamoto et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-04350-0 Flight attendant occupational nutrition and lifestyle factors associated with COVID-19 incidence
66% fewer cases (p=0.009). Retrospective 84 flight attendants, 52 reporting COVID-19 status and diet quality, showing higher risk of COVID-19 with lower self-reported diet quality.
Dec 31
2021
Magaña et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.09.606 Influence of mediterranean diet on survival from covid-19 disease
53% lower mortality (p=0.05). Retrospective 89 COVID-19 patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with adherence to the Mediterranean diet.
Nov 30
2021
Deschasaux-Tanguy et al., BMC Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12916-021-02168-1 Nutritional risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection: a prospective study within the NutriNet-Santé cohort
Analysis of 7,766 adults in France, showing higher intakes of vitamin C, folate, vitamin K, dietary fibre, and fruit and vegetables associated with lower seropositivity.
Sep 18
2021
Nguyen et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13093258 Single and Combinative Impacts of Healthy Eating Behavior and Physical Activity on COVID-19-like Symptoms among Outpatients: A Multi-Hospital and Health Center Survey
15% fewer symptomatic cases (p=0.006). Analysis of 3,947 participants in Vietnam, showing significantly lower risk of COVID-19-like symptoms with physical activity and with a healthy diet. The combination of being physically active and eating healthy reduced risk further compa..
Aug 31
2021
Ahmadi et al., Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2021.04.022 Lifestyle risk factors and infectious disease mortality, including COVID-19, among middle aged and older adults: Evidence from a community-based cohort study in the United Kingdom
3% higher mortality (p=0.85). Retrospective 468,569 adults in the UK, showing significantly lower COVID-19 mortality with physical activity.
Aug 23
2021
Moludi et al., British Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1017/S0007114521003214 The relationship between Dietary Inflammatory Index and disease severity and inflammatory status: a case–control study of COVID-19 patients
92% fewer cases (p<0.0001). Retrospective 60 COVID-19 hospitalized patients and 60 controls in Iran, showing pro-inflammatory diets associated with COVID-19 cases and severity. IR.KUMS.REC.1399·444, IR.TBZMED.REC.1399·225.
Jul 30
2021
El Khoury et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.707359 Inverse Association Between the Mediterranean Diet and COVID-19 Risk in Lebanon: A Case-Control Study
Retrospective 399 people in Lebanon, showing a significant inverse association between the MedDiet score, corresponding to the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and the risk of COVID-19.
Jul 9
2021
Rabail et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.2458 Nutritional and lifestyle changes required for minimizing the recovery period in home quarantined COVID-19 patients of Punjab, Pakistan
Survey of 80 recovered COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, showing faster recovery with improved nutrition.
Jun 25
2021
Merino et al., Gut, doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2021-325353 (date from preprint) Diet quality and risk and severity of COVID-19: a prospective cohort study
41% lower severe cases (p<0.0001) and 18% fewer cases (p<0.0001). Retrospective 592,571 participants in the UK and USA with 31,815 COVID-19 cases, showing lower risk or COVID-19 cases and severity for higher healthful plant-based diet scores. Notably, the assocation was less evident with higher levels o..
Jun 7
2021
Kim et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272 Plant-based diets, pescatarian diets and COVID-19 severity: a population-based case–control study in six countries
72% fewer moderate/severe cases (p=0.02) and 19% fewer cases (p=0.24). Retrospective healthcare workers in six countries with exposure to COVID-19 patients, showing lower risk of moderate/severe COVID-19 with plant-based diets.
May 19
2021
Ponzo et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13051721 Mediterranean Diet and SARS-COV-2 Infection: Is There Any Association? A Proof-of-Concept Study
Retrospective 1,206 healthcare professionals in Italy, showing the risk of COVID-19 infection inversely associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet.
Apr 20
2021
Naushin et al., eLife, doi:10.7554/eLife.66537 Insights from a Pan India Sero-Epidemiological survey (Phenome-India Cohort) for SARS-CoV2
40% lower seropositivity (p<0.0001). Retrospective 10,427 volunteers in India, 1,058 anti-nucleocapsid antibody positive, showing lower risk of seropositivity with a vegetarian diet.
Mar 5
2021
Greene et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.591964 Negative Association Between Mediterranean Diet Adherence and COVID-19 Cases and Related Deaths in Spain and 23 OECD Countries: An Ecological Study
Analysis of 17 regions in Spain, showing an inverse association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and COVID-19 cases and mortality.
Feb 15
2021
Mahto et al., American Journal of Blood Research, 11:1 Seroprevalence of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 and its determinants among healthcare workers of a COVID-19 dedicated hospital of India
20% lower IgG positivity (p=0.32). Retrospective 689 healthcare workers in India, showing non-statistically significant lower risk of IgG positivity with a vegetarian diet in unadjusted results.
Sep 8
2020
Galmés et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12092738 Current State of Evidence: Influence of Nutritional and Nutrigenetic Factors on Immunity in the COVID-19 Pandemic Framework
Ecological study of European countries analyzing 10 vitamins and minerals endorsed by the European Food Safety Authority as having sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between intake and optimal immune system function: vitamins D..
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