Associations of Nutritional Behavior and Gut Microbiota with the Risk of COVID-19 in Healthy Young Adults in Poland
Jagielski et al.
, Associations of Nutritional Behavior and Gut Microbiota with the Risk of COVID-19 in Healthy Young Adults in..
, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14020350
Retrospective 95 people in Poland, showing significantly lower risk of COVID-19 with higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Diets with higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and nuts had a significantly lower dietary inflammatory index.
risk of case, 81.5% lower, RR 0.18, p = 0.005, higher quality diet 4 of 40 (10.0%), lower quality diet 9 of 20 (45.0%), NNT 2.9, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor higher quality diet, odds ratio converted to relative risk, model 2, FV ≥ 500g and nuts ≥ 10g vs. FV < 500g and nuts < 10g, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Jagielski et al., 14 Jan 2022, retrospective, Poland, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
Associations of Nutritional Behavior and Gut Microbiota with
the Risk of COVID-19 in Healthy Young Adults in Poland
Paweł Jagielski 1, * , Edyta Łuszczki 2 , Dominika Wn˛ek 3 , Agnieszka Micek 4 , Izabela Bolesławska 5 ,
Beata Piórecka 1 and Paweł Kawalec 1
Citation: Jagielski, P.; Łuszczki, E.;
Wn˛ek, D.; Micek, A.; Bolesławska, I.;
Piórecka, B.; Kawalec, P. Associations
of Nutritional Behavior and Gut
Microbiota with the Risk of
COVID-19 in Healthy Young Adults
in Poland. Nutrients 2022, 14, 350.
Department of Nutrition and Drug Research, Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences,
Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-066 Krakow, Poland; email@example.com (B.P.);
Institute of Health Sciences, Medical College of Rzeszow University, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland;
The Cracow’s Higher School of Health Promotion, 31-158 Krakow, Poland; firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Nursing Management and Epidemiology Nursing, Jagiellonian University Medical College,
31-007 Cracow, Poland; email@example.com
Department of Bromatology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 42 Marcelińska Str.,
60-354 Poznań, Poland; firstname.lastname@example.org
Correspondence: email@example.com; Tel.: +48-12-433-28-20
Abstract: The numerous consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in
healthy young people and the lack of clarity as to the long-term disease outcomes have spurred the
search for risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the associations of nutritional
behaviors, gut microbiota, and physical activity with the risk of COVID-19 in healthy young nonobese
people. Data on body composition, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, dietary intake,
and gut microbiota were obtained from 95 adults (mean age, 34.66 ± 5.76 years). A balanced diet rich
in vegetables and fruit, including nuts, wholegrain cereal products, and legumes, covers the need
for vitamins and minerals. Such a diet can be an effective measure to reduce the risk of COVID-19
in nonobese healthy physically active young people with normal immune function. People with
balanced diet and an average daily consumption of >500 g of vegetables and fruit and >10 g of nuts
had an 86% lower risk of COVID-19 compared with those whose diet was not balanced and who
consumed lower amounts of these products. It is well documented that proper nutrition, physical
activity, and maintenance of normal weight facilitate good health by ensuring optimal immune
function. The beneficial effects of these interventions should be strongly emphasized during the
Received: 22 December 2021
Accepted: 11 January 2022
Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; dietary intake; Dietary Inflammatory Index; gut microbiota;
nutrition; physical activity
Published: 14 January 2022
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