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Associations of Nutritional Behavior and Gut Microbiota with the Risk of COVID-19 in Healthy Young Adults in Poland

Jagielski et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14020350
Jan 2022  
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Case 82% Improvement Relative Risk Diet for COVID-19  Jagielski et al.  Prophylaxis Is a healthy diet beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 95 patients in Poland Fewer cases with healthier diets (p=0.005) c19early.org Jagielski et al., Nutrients, January 2022 Favorshealthy diet Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Diet for COVID-19
21st treatment shown to reduce risk in June 2021
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 28 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 95 people in Poland, showing significantly lower risk of COVID-19 with higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Diets with higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, and nuts had a significantly lower dietary inflammatory index.
risk of case, 81.5% lower, RR 0.18, p = 0.005, higher quality diet 4 of 40 (10.0%), lower quality diet 9 of 20 (45.0%), NNT 2.9, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor higher quality diet, odds ratio converted to relative risk, model 2, FV ≥ 500g and nuts ≥ 10g vs. FV < 500g and nuts < 10g, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Jagielski et al., 14 Jan 2022, retrospective, Poland, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperDietAll
Associations of Nutritional Behavior and Gut Microbiota with the Risk of COVID-19 in Healthy Young Adults in Poland
Paweł Jagielski, Edyta Łuszczki, Dominika Wnęk, Agnieszka Micek, Izabela Bolesławska, Beata Piórecka, Paweł Kawalec
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14020350
The numerous consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in healthy young people and the lack of clarity as to the long-term disease outcomes have spurred the search for risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the associations of nutritional behaviors, gut microbiota, and physical activity with the risk of COVID-19 in healthy young nonobese people. Data on body composition, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, dietary intake, and gut microbiota were obtained from 95 adults (mean age, 34.66 ± 5.76 years). A balanced diet rich in vegetables and fruit, including nuts, wholegrain cereal products, and legumes, covers the need for vitamins and minerals. Such a diet can be an effective measure to reduce the risk of COVID-19 in nonobese healthy physically active young people with normal immune function. People with balanced diet and an average daily consumption of >500 g of vegetables and fruit and >10 g of nuts had an 86% lower risk of COVID-19 compared with those whose diet was not balanced and who consumed lower amounts of these products. It is well documented that proper nutrition, physical activity, and maintenance of normal weight facilitate good health by ensuring optimal immune function. The beneficial effects of these interventions should be strongly emphasized during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at https://www.mdpi.com/article/ 10.3390/nu14020350/s1,: Table S1 : Example of traditional menus., Table S2 : Examples of vegetarian menus. Author Contributions: Conceptualization: P.J., E.Ł., D.W., A.M., I.B. and P.K.; Data curation: P.J.; Formal analysis: P.J. and A.M.; Funding acquisition: P.J.; Investigation: P.J. and B.P.; Methodology: P.J.; Project administration: P.J.; Resources: P.K.; Visualization: A.M.; Writing-original draft: P.J., E.Ł., D.W. and I.B.; Writing-review and editing: P.J., E.Ł., B.P. and P.K. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding: The study was carried out as part of the project supported by the National Science Centre in Poland: "MINIATURA 3" (No. 2019/03/X/NZ9/01550; to P.J.). Study was also supported by UJCM statutory research (No. N43/DBS/000099, N43/DBS/000083). Institutional Review Board Statement: The study was conducted according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the Jagiellonian University Bioethics Commission (No. 1072.6120.5.2020 and 1072.6120.202.2019). Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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