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Other Treatments Global Adoption
Colchicine for COVID-19
40 studies from 785 scientists
29,991 patients in 19 countries
Statistically significant improvement for mortality, ICU, hospitalization, and recovery.
23 studies from 23 independent teams in 14 countries show statistically significant improvements in isolation.
17% improvement in 21 RCTs CI [5-28%]
COVID-19 Colchicine studies. Dec 2022.
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 37% With exclusions 46% Mortality 37% Hospitalization 19% Recovery 27% Cases -33% RCTs 17% RCT mortality 6% Prophylaxis 41% Early 68% Late 35% Favorscolchicine Favorscontrol
Colchicine COVID-19 studies. Recent:
Colchicine has been officially adopted for early treatment in 1 country. Submit updates/corrections.
Dec 2
Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis) Colchicine for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 40 studies
Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality, ICU admission, hospitalization, and recovery. 23 studies from 23 independent teams in 14 different countries show statistically significant improvements in isolation (14 for..
Nov 16
Rahman et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0277790 Efficacy of colchicine in patients with moderate COVID-19: A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
71% lower mortality [p=0.04] and 71% lower progression [p=0.04]. RCT 300 patients in Bangladesh, published 2 years after completion, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment at 28 days (not significant at 14 days). 1.2mg colchicine on day 1 followed by 0.6mg for 13 days.
Oct 31
Perricone et al., European Journal of Internal Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2022.10.016 Treatment with COLchicine in hospitalized patients affected by COVID-19: the COLVID-19 trial
36% higher mortality [p=0.77], 7% higher progression [p=1], 76% lower ICU admission [p=0.21], and 4% shorter hospitalization [p=0.69]. RCT 152 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing no significant difference in outcomes with colchicine treatment. Table 2 shows 13% of patients treated with antivirals in the colchicine arm, however 16.9% were treated with one specific ant..
Oct 10
Eikelboom et al., The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(22)00299-5 Colchicine and aspirin in community patients with COVID-19 (ACT): an open-label, factorial, randomised, controlled trial
9% higher mortality [p=0.84], 2% higher combined mortality/hospitalization [p=0.93], and 2% higher hospitalization [p=0.92]. Late (5.4 days) outpatient RCT showing no significant difference in outcomes with colchicine treatment. Authors include a meta analysis of 6 colchicine RCTs, however there were 19 RCTs as of the publication date [].
Oct 10
Eikelboom et al., The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(22)00298-3 Colchicine and the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 (ACT): an open-label, factorial, randomised, controlled trial
8% higher mortality [p=0.38] and 4% higher progression [p=0.58]. RCT very late stage (baseline SpO2 80%) patients, showing no significant differences with colchicine treatment.
Sep 29
Hernández-Rodríguez et al., Clinical Drug Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40261-022-01201-2 FRAGILE-COLCOVID19: A Clinical Trial Based on Early Administration of an Oral Combination of Colchicine and Prednisone in Elderly Patients with COVID-19 in Geriatric Facilities
16% higher mortality [p=1] and 42% improvement [p=0.25]. RCT 54 elderly patients in Spain comparing colchicine + prednisone vs. dexamethasone, showing lower combined mortality/therapeutic failure with colchicine + prednisone, but no significant difference in mortality. Data appears unreliable, ..
Sep 19
Correa-Rodríguez et al., Medicina Clínica (English Edition), doi:10.1016/j.medcle.2022.08.009 Clinical course of Covid-19 in a cohort of patients with Behçet disease
150% higher need for oxygen therapy [p=1], 150% higher hospitalization [p=1], 7% improved recovery [p=1], and 1% fewer cases [p=1]. Retrospective 244 Behçet disease patients in Spain, showing no significant difference in outcomes with colchicine treatment. Confounding by indication may significantly affect results - colchicine may be prescribed more often for more ser..
Jul 27
Rai et al., Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, doi:10.9734/jammr/2022/v34i2031503 (meta analysis) The Potential Role of Colchicine in Reducing Mortality and Mechanical Ventilation Rates in COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-analysis
37% lower mortality [p=0.001]. Meta analysis of 12 colchicine studies, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment.
Jul 21
Avanoglu Guler et al., Modern Rheumatology, doi:10.1093/mr/roac074 COVID-19 in familial Mediterranean fever: Clinical course and complications related to primary disease
79% lower need for oxygen therapy [p=0.04]. Retrospective 73 familial Mediterranean fever patients with COVID-19 in Turkey, showing significantly higher risk of hospitalization for respiratory support with non-adherence to colchicine treatment before the infection.
Jun 29
Hunt et al., Journal of General Internal Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11606-022-07701-3 Medications Associated with Lower Mortality in a SARS-CoV-2 Positive Cohort of 26,508 Veterans
68% lower mortality [p=0.003]. Retrospective 26,508 consecutive COVID+ veterans in the USA, showing lower mortality with multiple treatments including colchicine. Treatment was defined as drugs administered ≥50% of the time within 2 weeks post-COVID+, and may be a cont..
Jun 2
Cecconi et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-13424-6 Efficacy of short-course colchicine treatment in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia and hyperinflammation: a randomized clinical trial
29% lower mortality [p=0.62], 50% lower ventilation [p=0.29], 21% lower ICU admission [p=0.67], and 15% improvement [p=0.62]. RCT 240 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, mean 9 days from the onset of symptoms, showing no significant differences with colchicine treatment. EudraCT 2020-001841-38.
May 5
Jalal et al., Indian Journal of Rheumatology, doi:10.4103/injr.injr_264_21 Effectiveness of colchicine among patients with COVID-19 infection: A randomized, open-labeled, clinical trial
24% shorter hospitalization [p=0.009]. Open label RCT of colchicine showing improved recovery with treatment. Only the abstract is currently available. Colchicine 0.5mg bid for 14 days.
Apr 28
Pimenta Bonifácio et al., SSRN Electronic Journal, doi:10.2139/ssrn.4095747 Efficacy and safety of Ixekizumab vs. low-dose IL-2 vs. Colchicine vs. standard of care on the treatment of patients hospitalized with moderate to critical Covid-19: a pilot randomized clinical trial (STRUCK: Survival Trial Using Cytokine Inhibitors)
85% better improvement [p=0.23]. Open label RCT late stage hospitalized patients in Brazil with 14 colchicine and 16 SOC patients, showing lower mortality and improved recovery with treatment, without statistical significance. Authors note that the colchicine group had o..
Apr 12
Gorial et al., Annals of Medicine and Surgery, doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2022.103593 Randomized controlled trial of colchicine add on to the standard therapy in moderate and severe corona virus Disease-19 infection
63% improved recovery [p=0.001]. RCT with 80 colchicine and 80 control patients, showing improved recovery with treatment. SOC included vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc.
Apr 5
Yasmin et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0266245 (meta analysis) Safety and efficacy of colchicine in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials
Meta analysis of 5 colchicine RCTs (currently there are RCTs) finding that treatment significantly reduced COVID-19 severity.
Mar 21
Oztas et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27731 Frequency and Severity of COVID-19 in Patients with Various Rheumatic Diseases Treated Regularly with Colchicine or Hydroxychloroquine
406% higher hospitalization [p=0.12], 73% more symptomatic cases [p=0.07], and 24% more cases [p=0.35]. Retrospective 635 HCQ users and 643 household contacts, showing higher risk with colchicine in unadjusted results. Patients with conditions leading to the use of colchicine may have significantly different baseline risk, e.g. [Topless].
Feb 2
Pourdowlat et al., Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.7319 Efficacy and safety of colchicine treatment in patients with COVID-19: A prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial
73% lower hospitalization [p=0.004] and 38% improved recovery [p=0.03]. RCT 202 patients in Iran, 102 treated with colchicine, showing lower hospitalization and improved clinical outcomes with treatment.
Jan 31
Karakaş et al., The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, doi:10.3855/jidc.14924 Reducing length of hospital stay with colchicine
13% lower mortality [p=0.72], 16% lower ICU admission [p=0.5], and 25% shorter hospitalization [p=0.0001]. Retrospective 356 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, shorter hospitalization time with colchicine treatment. There were no statistically significant differences for mortality or ICU admission. Significantly lower mortality was seen with high..
Jan 28
Topless et al., The Lancet Rheumatology, doi:10.1016/S2665-9913(21)00401-X Gout and the risk of COVID-19 diagnosis and death in the UK Biobank: a population-based study
23% lower mortality [p=0.12]. UK Biobank retrospective showing a higher risk of COVID-19 cases and mortality for patients with gout. Among patients with gout, mortality risk was lower for those on colchicine, OR 1.06 [0.60-1.89], compared to those without colchicine, ..
Jan 12
Zein et al., Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2022.102395 (meta analysis) Effect of colchicine on mortality in patients with COVID-19 – A systematic review and meta-analysis
Systematic review and meta analysis showing that colchicine was associated with lower mortality in COVID-19 patients: All studies: RR 0.66 [95%CI 0.53, 0.83], p < 0.001; I2: 42% RCTs: RR 0.81 [95%CI 0.54, 1.20], p = 0.29; I2: 10% The RCT ..
Jan 8
Monserrat Villatoro et al., Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph15010078 A Case-Control of Patients with COVID-19 to Explore the Association of Previous Hospitalisation Use of Medication on the Mortality of COVID-19 Disease: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis
80% lower mortality [p=0.02]. PSM retrospective 3,712 hospitalized patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with existing use of azithromycin, bemiparine, budesonide-formoterol fumarate, cefuroxime, colchicine, enoxaparin, ipratropium bromide, loratadine, mepyramine..
Dec 31
Alsultan et al., Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1155/2021/2129006 Efficacy of Colchicine and Budesonide in Improvement Outcomes of Patients with Coronavirus Infection 2019 in Damascus, Syria: A Randomized Control Trial
36% lower mortality [p=0.7] and 20% shorter hospitalization. Small RCT 49 severe condition hospitalized patients in Syria, showing lower mortality with colchicine and shorter hospitalization time with both colchicine and budesonide (all of these were not statistically significant).
Dec 29
Diaz et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.41328 Effect of Colchicine vs Usual Care Alone on Intubation and 28-Day Mortality in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19
12% lower mortality [p=0.3] and 17% lower combined mortality/intubation [p=0.08]. Very late stage RCT (O2 88%, 84% on oxygen) with 1,279 hospitalized patients in Argentina, showing lower mortality and lower combined mortality/ventilation, statistically significant only for the combined outcome and per-protocol analysis..
Sep 23
Dorward et al., British Journal of General Practice, doi:10.3399/BJGP.2022.0083 (date from earlier preprint) Colchicine for COVID-19 in the community (PRINCIPLE): a randomised, controlled, adaptive platform trial
70% lower mortality [p=0.43], 30% higher combined mortality/hospitalization [p=0.66], and 6% worse recovery [p=0.67]. Late treatment RCT with 156 colchicine patients in the UK, showing no significant differences. ISRCTN86534580.
Sep 11
Pascual-Figal et al., International Journal of General Medicine, doi:10.2147/IJGM.S329810 Colchicine in Recently Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: A Randomized Controlled Trial (COL-COVID)
80% lower mortality [p=0.24], 80% lower ventilation [p=0.24], 87% improved 7-point scale results [p=0.03], and 15% longer hospitalization [p=0.34]. RCT with 52 colchicine patients and 51 control patients, showing lower risk of clinical deterioration with treatment. COL-COVID. NCT04350320.
Nov 9
Absalón-Aguilar et al., Journal of General Internal Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11606-021-07203-8 Colchicine Is Safe Though Ineffective in the Treatment of Severe COVID-19: a Randomized Clinical Trial (COLCHIVID)
29% lower mortality [p=0.74], 17% lower progression [p=0.67], and 13% worse recovery [p=0.59]. Very late stage RCT with 56 colchicine and 60 control patients in Mexico, showing no significant differences.
Jul 10
Gaitán-Duarte et al., eClinicalMedicine, doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101242 Effectiveness of rosuvastatin plus colchicine, emtricitabine/tenofovir and combinations thereof in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a pragmatic, open-label randomized trial
22% lower mortality [p=0.38]. RCT 633 hospitalized patients in Colombia, 153 treated with colchicine + rosuvastatin, not showing statistically significant differences in outcomes. Improved results were seen with the combination of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil + ..
Jun 30
Kevorkian et al., Journal of Infection, doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2021.02.008 Oral corticoid, aspirin, anticoagulant, colchicine, and furosemide to improve the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients - the COCAA-COLA cohort study
96% lower progression [p=0.0005]. Observational study in France with 28 hospitalized patients treated with prednisone/furosemide/colchicine/salicylate/direct anti-Xa inhibitor, and 40 control patients, showing lower combined mortality, ventilation, or high-flow oxygen the..
Jun 10
Hueda-Zavaleta et al., Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública, doi:10.17843/rpmesp.2021.382.7158 Factores asociados a la muerte por COVID-19 en pacientes admitidos en un hospital público en Tacna, Perú
54% lower mortality [p=0.03]. Retrospective 450 late stage (median oxygen saturation 86%) COVID+ hospitalized patients in Peru, showing lower mortality with colchicine treatment.
May 18
Recovery Collaborative Group, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00435-5 (date from earlier preprint) Colchicine in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial
1% higher mortality [p=0.77], 18% higher ventilation [p=0.06], 2% higher combined mortality/intubation [p=0.47], and 2% lower hospital discharge [p=0.44]. RCT with 5,610 colchicine and 5,730 control patients showing mortality RR 1.01 [0.93-1.10]. Very late stage treatment, median 9 days after symptom onset. Baseline oxygen requirements unknown (data is provided but combined with "none&..
Apr 20
Mostafaie et al.,, NCT04392141 (Preprint) Colchicine Plus Phenolic Monoterpenes to Treat COVID-19
83% lower mortality [p=0.11] and 35% shorter hospitalization [p=0.0001]. RCT with 60 patients treated with colchicine and phenolic monoterpenes and 60 control patients in Iran, showing lower mortality with treatment. NCT04392141.
Mar 24
Manenti et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0248276 Reduced mortality in COVID-19 patients treated with colchicine: Results from a retrospective, observational study
76% lower mortality [p=0.005] and 44% improved recovery [p=0.05]. IPTW retrospective 141 COVID-19 patients (83% hospitalized), 71 treated with colchicine and 70 matched control patients, showing lower mortality and faster recovery with treatment.
Mar 14
Hariyanto et al., Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, doi:10.1111/1440-1681.13488 (meta analysis) Colchicine treatment can improve outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19): A systematic review and meta‐analysis
Meta analysis concluding that colchicine can reduce severity and mortality in COVID‐19 patients, mortality OR 0.43 [0.32-0.58].
Mar 6
García-Posada et al., Journal of Infection and Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.02.013 Clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and evidence-based on the pharmacological management reduce mortality in a region of the Colombian Caribbean
57% lower mortality [p=0.01]. Retrospective 209 hospitalized patients in Colombia, showing lower mortality with antibiotics + LMWH + corticosteroids + colchicine in multivariable analysis.
Feb 28
Mareev et al., Kardiologiia, doi:10.18087/cardio.2021.2.n1560 Proactive anti-inflammatory therapy with colchicine in the treatment of advanced stages of new coronavirus infection. The first results of the COLORIT study
50% improved recovery [p=0.06] and 26% shorter hospitalization [p=0.08]. Small trial with 21 colchicine patients and 22 control patients in Russia, showing improved recovery with treatment. The trial was originally an RCT, however randomization to the control arm was stopped after 5 patients, and 17 retrospect..
Jan 27
Tardif et al., The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00222-8 (date from earlier preprint) Colchicine for community-treated patients with COVID-19 (COLCORONA): a phase 3, randomised, double-blinded, adaptive, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial
44% lower mortality [p=0.3], 20% lower combined mortality/hospitalization [p=0.08], 47% lower ventilation [p=0.09], and 20% lower hospitalization [p=0.09]. RCT for relatively low risk outpatients, 2235 treated with colchicine a mean of 5.3 days after the onset of symptoms, and 2253 controls, showing lower mortality, ventilation, and hospitalization with treatment.
Jan 7
Valerio Pascua et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0245025 A multi-mechanism approach reduces length of stay in the ICU for severe COVID-19 patients
23% lower mortality [p=0.6] and 40% shorter ICU admission [p=0.03]. Retrospective 65 ICU patients in the USA and Honduras, showing shorter ICU stay with combined treatment including colchicine, LMWH, tocilizumab, dexamethasone, and methylprednisolone.
Dec 31
Mahale et al., Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine, doi:10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23599 A Retrospective Observational Study of Hypoxic COVID-19 Patients Treated with Immunomodulatory Drugs in a Tertiary Care Hospital
7% higher mortality [p=0.83]. Retrospective 134 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in India, showing no significant difference with colchicine treatment in unadjusted results.
Nov 5
Rodriguez-Nava et al., Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes Clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in a community hospital: A retrospective cohort study
6% lower mortality [p=0.87]. Retrospective 313 patients, mostly critical stage and mostly requiring respiratory support. Confounding by indication likely.
Oct 27
Sandhu et al., Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, doi:10.1155/2020/8865954 A Case Control Study to Evaluate the Impact of Colchicine on Patients Admitted to the Hospital with Moderate to Severe COVID-19 Infection
42% lower mortality [p=0.0006], 53% lower ventilation [p<0.0001], 42% higher hospital discharge [p=0.0006], and 5% shorter hospitalization. Prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients in the USA, 34 treated with colchicine, showing lower mortality and intubation with treatment.
Oct 23
Pinzón et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) Clinical Outcome of Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia Treated with Corticosteroids and Colchicine in Colombia
35% lower mortality [p=0.18]. Retrospective 301 pneumonia patients in Colombia showing lower mortality with colchicine treatment.
Sep 21
Salehzadeh et al., Mediterranean Journal of Rheumatology, doi:10.31138/mjr.33.2.232 (date from earlier preprint) The Impact of Colchicine on COVID-19 patients: A Clinical Trial Study
23% shorter hospitalization [p=0.001]. Open label RCT with 100 hospitalized patients in Iran, 50 treated with colchicine, showing shorter hospitalization time with treatment. There were no deaths.
Sep 14
Scarsi et al., Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217712 Association between treatment with colchicine and improved survival in a single-centre cohort of adult hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome
85% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 122 colchicine patients and 140 control patients in Italy, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Sep 14
Brunetti et al., J. Clin. Med., 9:9, 2961, doi:10.3390/jcm9092961 Colchicine to Weather the Cytokine Storm in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19
73% lower mortality [p=0.03] and 73% higher hospital discharge [p=0.03]. PSM matched analysis from consecutive hospitalized patients, with 33 colchicine and 33 control matched patients, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Aug 12
Lopes et al., RMD Open, doi:10.1136/rmdopen-2020-001455 (date from earlier preprint) Beneficial effects of colchicine for moderate to severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial
22% shorter hospitalization [p=0.01]. RCT with 36 colchicine and 36 control patients, showing reduced length of hospitalization and oxygen therapy with treatment.
Jun 24
Deftereos et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.13136 Effect of Colchicine vs Standard Care on Cardiac and Inflammatory Biomarkers and Clinical Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized With Coronavirus Disease 2019: The GRECCO-19 Randomized Clinical Trial
77% lower mortality [p=0.19], 82% lower ventilation [p=0.1], and 87% lower progression [p=0.05]. RCT with 55 patients treated with colchicine and 50 control patients, showing lower mortality and ventilation with treatment.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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