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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 studies   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Cannabidiol Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitric Oxide Meta
Ensovibep Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Favipiravir Meta Povidone-Iod.. Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Iota-carragee.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta Zinc Meta
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Other Treatments Global Adoption
COVID-19 early treatment: real-time analysis of 2,311 studies
Analysis of 47 COVID early treatments, approvals in 80 countries, database of 1,914 treatments  
No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis.
Sharif
Vitamin D prophylaxis: 28% lower severe cases [p=0.001]
Levin
1,121 patient tixagevimab/cilgavimab prophylaxis RCT: 75% lower severe cases [p=0.33] and 42% fewer symptomatic cases [p=0.06]
Landsteiner de Sampaio Amêndola
HCQ meta analysis: 24% lower mortality [p=0.01] and 20% lower hospitalization [p=0.04]
Bovard
In Vitro study showing iota-carrageenan inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in reconstituted human airway epithelia. Authors note that the absence of toxicity or..
Marcec
Fluvoxamine meta analysis: 43% lower hospitalization [p=0.03]
Cost per life saved from NNT in
studies to date
c19early.org Nov 2022
Melatonin   $8 9
48%
Vitamin D   $11 59
37%
Vitamin C   $12 33
27%
Ivermectin   $22 48
51%
Colchicine   $26 33
37%
HCQ   $30 227
22%
Zinc   $30 18
28%
Vitamin A   $30 6
42%
Curcumin   $40 7
63%
Aspirin   $45 52
11%
Famotidine   $105 18
17%
Quercetin   $116 4
59%
Probiotics   $145 7
61%
Metformin   $161 42
32%
Antiandrogens   $175 31
40%
Fluvoxamine   $240 5
37%
Nigella Sativa   $279 4
73%
Nitazoxanide   $680 6
42%
Budesonide   $887 7
30%
Favipiravir   $1,015 29
13%
Paxlovid   $69,222 9
64%
Molnupiravir   $88,734 11
28%
Casirivimab/i..   $181,694 8
40%
Remdesivir   $208,615 40
16%
Bamlaniv../e..   $301,549 10
56%
Tixagev../c..   $412,873 4
41%
Sotrovimab   $442,638 7
68%
Conv. Plasma N/A 19
-10%
Acetaminophen N/A 11
-32%
Treatment cost times median NNT - details and limitations
Sotrovimab Evusheld Paxlovid Fluvoxamine Lactoferrin Molnupiravir Quercetin Famotidine Acetaminophen ↑risk Budesonide Bamlanivimab/e.. Curcumin REGEN-COV Povidone-Iodine Probiotics Nigella Sativa Melatonin Aspirin Favipiravir Vitamin D Vitamin C Colchicine Remdesivir Antiandrogens Ivermectin Metformin Zinc HCQ 2020 2021 2022 Pooled outcomes Specific outcome RCT pooled RCT specific Statistically significant ≥10% improvement ≥3 studies c19early.org Nov 2022 Time when COVID-19 studies showed efficacy
Sotrovimab Evusheld Paxlovid Fluvoxamine Lactoferrin Molnupiravir Quercetin Famotidine Acetaminophen ↑risk Budesonide Bamlanivimab/e.. Curcumin REGEN-COV Povidone-Iodine Probiotics Nigella Sativa Melatonin Aspirin Favipiravir Vitamin D Vitamin C Colchicine Remdesivir Antiandrogens Ivermectin Metformin Zinc HCQ 2020 2021 2022 Pooled outcomes Specific outcome RCT pooled RCT specific Statistically significant ≥10% improvement ≥3 studies c19early.org Nov 2022 Time when COVID-19 studies showed efficacy
Timeline for when studies showed efficacy - details and limitations
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Iota-carragee.. 80% [11-96%] 1 $1 394 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Proxalutamide 78% [70-83%] 4 $500 1,953 limited data Indomethacin 74% [-20-94%] 4 $5 605 limited data Quercetin 63% [27-81%] 9 $5 1,279 Ivermectin 62% [54-69%] 93 $1 134,223 Casirivimab/i.. 56% [37-69%] 24 $2,100 48,169 variant dependent Bamlaniv../e.. 55% [30-71%] 14 $1,250 24,423 variant dependent Nigella Sativa 53% [27-70%] 11 $5 2,959 Diet 52% [41-61%] 19 $0 607,729 Tixagev../c.. 50% [30-64%] 8 $855 26,460 variant dependent Bromhexine 50% [-8-77%] 6 $5 684 very limited data Povidone-Iod.. 50% [36-61%] 19 $1 2,947 Lactoferrin 48% [30-62%] 4 $5 786 Ensovibep 46% [-173-89%] 2 $2,100 885 limited data Ensitrelvir 45% [19-63%] 1 $500 28 very limited data Spironolactone 45% [18-63%] 10 $5 3,137 Bebtelovimab 44% [-827-97%] 2 $1,200 1,134 intravenous Melatonin 43% [30-54%] 18 $1 14,301 Vitamin A 40% [-10-67%] 11 $2 18,305 Curcumin 39% [31-46%] 21 $5 4,804 Exercise 38% [30-45%] 47 $0 1,619,080 Paxlovid 38% [27-47%] 19 $529 53,931 independent trial refused Colchicine 37% [26-46%] 40 $1 29,991 Vitamin D 37% [31-42%] 100 $1 181,493 Peg.. Lambda 35% [-132-82%] 3 $500 2,116 subcutaneous Budesonide 33% [18-45%] 9 $4 25,919 Sotrovimab 33% [-26-65%] 12 $2,100 18,482 variant dependent Nitazoxanide 33% [-22-63%] 13 $4 3,606 Antiandrogens 31% [21-40%] 45 $5 94,222 Fluvoxamine 31% [17-43%] 13 $4 34,828 Sleep 31% [21-40%] 12 $0 273,377 Nitric Oxide 28% [-10-53%] 8 $11 1,450 Zinc 28% [16-38%] 38 $1 45,372 Metformin 27% [21-31%] 54 $10 205,279 Hydroxychlor.. 25% [21-29%] 371 $1 495,329 Probiotics 22% [12-31%] 20 $5 17,944 Vitamin C 22% [13-30%] 55 $1 57,854 Molnupiravir 21% [-4-41%] 24 $707 67,587 mutagenic/teratogenic Favipiravir 21% [9-31%] 55 $20 25,682 N-acetylcys.. 20% [9-30%] 17 $1 24,853 Famotidine 15% [5-25%] 25 $5 92,443 Remdesivir 15% [6-23%] 44 $3,120 133,239 intravenous Aspirin 11% [5-17%] 60 $1 171,395 Ibuprofen -1% [-10-8%] 12 $1 54,527 Conv. Plasma -10% [-42-14%] 19 $5,000 21,323 Cannabidiol -15% [-114-39%] 5 $25 2,984 Acetaminoph.. -30% [-52--11%] 17 $1 91,239 All studies (pooled effects, all stages) c19early.org Nov 2022 Favors treatment Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Iota-carragee.. 80% 1 very limited data Studies, Improvement Relative Risk Proxalutamide 78% 4 limited data Indomethacin 74% 4 limited data Quercetin 63% 9 Ivermectin 62% 93 Casirivimab/.. 56% 24 variant dependent Bamlaniv../e.. 55% 14 variant dependent Nigella Sativa 53% 11 Diet 52% 19 Tixagev../c.. 50% 8 variant dependent Bromhexine 50% 6 very limited data Povidone-Iod.. 50% 19 Lactoferrin 48% 4 Ensovibep 46% 2 limited data Ensitrelvir 45% 1 very limited data Spironolactone 45% 10 Bebtelovimab 44% 2 intravenous Melatonin 43% 18 Vitamin A 40% 11 Curcumin 39% 21 Exercise 38% 47 Paxlovid 38% 19 independent trial refused Colchicine 37% 40 Vitamin D 37% 100 Peg.. Lambda 35% 3 subcutaneous Budesonide 33% 9 Sotrovimab 33% 12 variant dependent Nitazoxanide 33% 13 Antiandrogens 31% 45 Fluvoxamine 31% 13 Sleep 31% 12 Nitric Oxide 28% 8 Zinc 28% 38 Metformin 27% 54 Hydroxychlor.. 25% 371 Probiotics 22% 20 Vitamin C 22% 55 Molnupiravir 21% 24 mutagenic/teratogenic Favipiravir 21% 55 N-acetylcys.. 20% 17 Famotidine 15% 25 Remdesivir 15% 44 intravenous Aspirin 11% 60 Ibuprofen -1% 12 Conv. Plasma -10% 19 Cannabidiol -15% 5 Acetaminoph.. -30% 17 All studies (pooled effects, all stages) c19early.org Nov 22 Rotate device for details Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of all studies (pooled effects, all stages). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages and outcomes depend on the distribution of stages and outcomes tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage and outcome analyses. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
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Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment studies (pooled effects). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all outcomes are affected by the distribution of outcomes tested, please see detail pages for specific outcome analysis. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
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Random effects meta-analysis of all mortality results (all stages). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <25 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages depend on the distribution of stages tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage analyses. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
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Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment mortality results. Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <25 control events are shown in grey. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
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Random effects meta-analysis of prophylaxis studies (pooled effects). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all outcomes are affected by the distribution of outcomes tested, please see detail pages for specific outcome analysis. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
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Random effects meta-analysis of prophylaxis mortality results. Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <25 control events are shown in grey. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
LATE TREATMENT
Physician / TeamLocationPatients HospitalizationHosp. MortalityDeath
Dr. David Uip (*) Brazil 2,200 38.6% (850) Ref. 2.5% (54) Ref.
EARLY TREATMENT - 36 physicians/teams
Physician / TeamLocationPatients HospitalizationHosp. ImprovementImp. MortalityDeath ImprovementImp.
Dr. Roberto Alfonso Accinelli
0/360 deaths for treatment within 3 days
Peru 1,265 0.6% (7) 77.5%
Dr. Mohammed Tarek Alam
patients up to 84 years old
Bangladesh 100 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Oluwagbenga Alonge Nigeria 310 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Raja Bhattacharya
up to 88yo, 81% comorbidities
India 148 1.4% (2) 44.9%
Dr. Flavio Cadegiani Brazil 3,450 0.1% (4) 99.7% 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Alessandro Capucci Italy 350 4.6% (16) 88.2%
Dr. Shankara Chetty South Africa 8,000 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Deborah Chisholm USA 100 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Ryan Cole USA 400 0.0% (0) 100.0% 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Marco Cosentino
vs. 3-3.8% mortality during period; earlier treatment better
Italy 392 6.4% (25) 83.5% 0.3% (1) 89.6%
Dr. Jeff Davis USA 6,000 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Dhanajay India 500 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Bryan Tyson & Dr. George Fareed USA 4,375 0.2% (9) 99.5% 0.1% (3) 97.2%
Dr. Heather Gessling USA 1,500 0.1% (1) 97.3%
Dr. Ellen Guimarães Brazil 500 1.6% (8) 95.9% 0.4% (2) 83.7%
Dr. Syed Haider USA 4,000 0.1% (5) 99.7% 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Mark Hancock USA 24 0.0% (0) 100.0%
IppocrateOrg Italy 392 6.4% (25) 83.5% 0.3% (1) 89.6%
Dr. Mollie James USA 3,500 1.1% (40) 97.0% 0.0% (1) 98.8%
Dr. Roberta Lacerda Brazil 550 1.5% (8) 96.2% 0.4% (2) 85.2%
Dr. Katarina Lindley USA 100 5.0% (5) 87.1% 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Ben Marble USA 150,000 0.0% (4) 99.9%
Dr. Edimilson Migowski Brazil 2,000 0.3% (7) 99.1% 0.1% (2) 95.9%
Dr. Abdulrahman Mohana Saudi Arabia 2,733 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Carlos Nigro Brazil 5,000 0.9% (45) 97.7% 0.5% (23) 81.3%
Dr. Benoit Ochs Luxembourg 800 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Ortore Italy 240 1.2% (3) 96.8% 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Valerio Pascua
one death for a patient presenting on the 5th day in need of supplemental oxygen
Honduras 415 6.3% (26) 83.8% 0.2% (1) 90.2%
Dr. Sebastian Pop Romania 300 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Brian Proctor USA 869 2.3% (20) 94.0% 0.2% (2) 90.6%
Dr. Anastacio Queiroz Brazil 700 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Didier Raoult France 8,315 2.6% (214) 93.3% 0.1% (5) 97.6%
Dr. Karin Ried
up to 99yo, 73% comorbidities, av. age 63
Turkey 237 0.4% (1) 82.8%
Dr. Roman Rozencwaig
patients up to 86 years old
Canada 80 0.0% (0) 100.0%
Dr. Vipul Shah India 8,000 0.1% (5) 97.5%
Dr. Vladimir Zelenko USA 2,200 0.5% (12) 98.6% 0.1% (2) 96.3%
Mean improvement with early treatment protocols 220,045 HospitalizationHosp. 94.1% MortalityDeath 94.2%
Physician results with early treatment protocols compared to no early treatment. These results are subject to selection and ascertainment bias and more accurate analysis requires details of the patient populations and followup, however results are consistently better across many teams, and consistent with the extensive controlled trial evidence that shows a significant reduction in risk with many early treatments, and improved results with the use of multiple treatments in combination.
Treatment
Improvement
  (early)
Studies
  (early)
BUBudesonide 82% 1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PXProxalutamide 71% 3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
BLBamlaniv../e.. 69% 8
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
V.DVitamin D 65% 9
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(H)CQHydroxychlor.. 62% 36
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IVMIvermectin 62% 37
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RDRemdesivir 61% 4
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
FVFluvoxamine 56% 6
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CICasirivimab/i.. 51% 18
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PLPaxlovid 44% 18
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ZnZinc 41% 6
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SSotrovimab 37% 11
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
FPVFavipiravir 30% 16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MPMolnupiravir 26% 21
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
V.CVitamin C 24% 5
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ACEAcetaminophen -17% 3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IBIbuprofen -52% 2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Early treatments approved by >2 countries. 80 countries have officially approved treatments. Details.
Sharif
Prophylaxis: 28% lower severe cases [p=0.001]
Gibbons
398,996 patients prophylaxis PSM: 33% lower mortality [p<0.0001] and 20% fewer cases [p<0.0001]
Sharif
Prophylaxis: 40% lower severe cases [p=0.0001]
Sharif
Prophylaxis: 46% lower severe cases [p=0.001]
Doocy
144 patients late treatment: 63% lower mortality [p=0.22]
Levin
1,121 patient prophylaxis RCT: 75% lower severe cases [p=0.33] and 42% fewer symptomatic cases [p=0.06]
Landsteiner de Sampaio Amêndola
Meta analysis: 24% lower mortality [p=0.01] and 20% lower hospitalization [p=0.04]
Bubenek-Turconi
ICU: 22% lower mortality [p=0.01]
Sukumar
116 patients prophylaxis: 38% fewer cases [p=0.3]
Bovard
In Vitro study showing iota-carrageenan inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in reconstituted human airway epithelia. Authors note that the absence of toxicity or..
Marcec
Meta analysis: 43% lower hospitalization [p=0.03]
Sidky
N3C retrospective 17,933 COVID-19 patients in the USA, showing lower risk of PASC for SSRIs with or without S1R agonist activity.
Pitanga
4,476 patients: 33% fewer cases [p=0.05]
Ali
1,645 patients prophylaxis: 28% lower mortality [p=0.07]
Zekri-Nechar
201 patients late treatment: 16% higher mortality [p=0.57] and 16% higher ICU admission [p=0.57]
Ameri
226 patient ICU RCT: 29% lower mortality [p<0.0001], 28% lower ventilation [p=0.003], 25% improved recovery [p=0.001], and 29% shorter hospitalization [p=0.03]
Quek
Safety analysis of 42 day treatment with a povidone-iodine throat spray in 117 patients compared with 60 controls, showing no significant..
Zheng
6,020 patients early treatment: 100% higher combined mortality/hospitalization [p=0.005]
Sinha
1,218 patient early treatment RCT: 65% lower hospitalization [p=0.005], 53% better improvement [p=0.01], and 48% improved viral clearance [p<0.0001]
Zheng
6,020 patients early treatment: 50% lower combined mortality/hospitalization [p=0.005]
Sitasuwan
Retrospective 1,940 outpatients in Thailand, showing lower risk of clinical deterioration with early vs. late favipiravir treatment.
Abdulrahman
1,699 patients ICU: 3% lower mortality [p=0.81]
Rahman
292 patient late treatment RCT: 71% lower mortality [p=0.04] and 71% lower progression [p=0.04]
Pandit
170 patients early treatment: 1% improved recovery [p=0.9], 3% improved viral clearance [p=0.73], and 171% worse results [p=0.06]
Rahmati
Meta analysis: 62% lower hospitalization [p=0.004] and 28% fewer cases [p<0.0001]
Recent studies (see the individual treatment pages for all studies):

Nov 26
Sharif et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14235029 Impact of Zinc, Vitamins C and D on Disease Prognosis among Patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study
77% higher mortality [p=0.74]. Retrospective COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh, showing higher mortality with acetaminophen use in unadjusted results.
Nov 22
Levin et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciac899 AZD7442 (Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab) for Post-exposure Prophylaxis of Symptomatic COVID-19
75% lower severe cases [p=0.33] and 42% fewer symptomatic cases [p=0.06]. 1,121 patient PEP RCT showing lower symptomatic cases with tixagevimab/cilgavimab, without statistical significance.
Nov 21
Landsteiner de Sampaio Amêndola et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm11226865 (meta analysis) COVID-19 Infection in Rheumatic Patients on Chronic Antimalarial Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
24% lower mortality [p=0.01] and 20% lower hospitalization [p=0.04]. Systematic review and meta analysis of 20 studies on HCQ use in rheumatic disease patients, showing significantly lower mortality and hospitalization with HCQ prophylaxis.
Nov 19
Ameri et al., Inflammopharmacology, doi:10.1007/s10787-022-01096-7 Efficacy and safety of oral melatonin in patients with severe COVID-19: a randomized controlled trial
29% lower mortality [p<0.0001], 28% lower ventilation [p=0.003], 25% improved recovery [p=0.001], and 29% shorter hospitalization [p=0.03]. RCT 226 ICU patients in Iran, showing lower mortality with melatonin treatment.
Nov 19
Ali et al., Chest, doi:10.1016/j.chest.2022.11.013 Cardiovascular complications are the primary drivers of mortality in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 community-acquired pneumonia
28% lower mortality [p=0.07]. Retrospective 1,645 hospitalized patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with aspirin use, without statistical significance.
Nov 18
Quek et al., Annals of Medicine, doi:10.1080/07853890.2022.2108132 Stable thyroid function despite regular use of povidone-iodine throat spray for SARS-CoV-2 prophylaxis
Safety analysis of 42 day treatment with a povidone-iodine throat spray in 117 patients compared with 60 controls, showing no significant differences in thyroid function. Authors note the study included relatively young and healthy patien..
Nov 17
Planas et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.11.17.516888 (Preprint) (In Vitro) Resistance of Omicron subvariants BA.2.75.2, BA.4.6 and BQ.1.1 to neutralizing antibodies
In Vitro study suggesting a lack of efficacy for bebtelovimab with BQ.1.1.
Nov 17
Marcec et al., Journal of Infection, doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2022.11.011 A meta-analysis regarding fluvoxamine and hospitalization risk of COVID-19 patients: TOGETHER making a difference
43% lower hospitalization [p=0.03]. Meta analysis of 7 fluvoxamine outpatient studies showing significantly lower hospitalization with treatment.
Nov 17
Bubenek-Turconi et al., European Journal of Anaesthesiology, doi:10.1097/EJA.0000000000001776 Clinical characteristics and factors associated with ICU mortality during the first year of the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic in Romania
22% lower mortality [p=0.01]. Prospective study of 9,058 COVID-19 ICU patients in Romania, showing lower mortality with HCQ treatment.
Nov 16
Zheng et al., BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj-2022-071932 Comparative effectiveness of sotrovimab and molnupiravir for prevention of severe covid-19 outcomes in patients in the community: observational cohort study with the OpenSAFELY platform
50% lower combined mortality/hospitalization [p=0.005]. Retrospective 3,331 sotrovimab and 2,689 molnupiravir patients in the UK, showing lower risk of combined hospitalization/death with sotrovimab.
Nov 16
Rahman et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0277790 Efficacy of colchicine in patients with moderate COVID-19: A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
71% lower mortality [p=0.04] and 71% lower progression [p=0.04]. RCT 300 patients in Bangladesh, published 2 years after completion, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment at 28 days (not significant at 14 days). 1.2mg colchicine on day 1 followed by 0.6mg for 13 days.
Nov 15
Pandit et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.11.14.22282195 (Preprint) The Paxlovid Rebound Study: A Prospective Cohort Study to Evaluate Viral and Symptom Rebound Differences Between Paxlovid and Untreated COVID-19 Participants
1% improved recovery [p=0.9], 3% improved viral clearance [p=0.73], and 171% worse results [p=0.06]. Prospective study of 170 COVID-19 patients in the USA, showing no significant difference in symptomatic and viral recovery times, and higher risk of symptomatic rebound, without statistical significance. There were more elderly patients i..
Nov 15
Zekri-Nechar et al., Medicina, doi:10.3390/medicina58111649 Analysis of Prior Aspirin Treatment on in-Hospital Outcome of Geriatric COVID-19 Infected Patients
16% higher mortality [p=0.57] and 16% higher ICU admission [p=0.57]. Retrospective 201 consecutive elderly hospitalized patients in Spain, showing higher mortality with aspirin use in unadjusted results. The aspirin group was older and had higher prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia. Table 1 shows t..
Nov 14
Sinha et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.31508 Efficacy and Safety of Molnupiravir in Mild COVID-19 Patients in India
65% lower hospitalization [p=0.005], 53% better improvement [p=0.01], and 48% improved viral clearance [p<0.0001]. RCT 1,218 outpatients in India, showing lower hospitalization, better clinical improvement, and improved viral clearance with molnupiravir.
Nov 14
Sukumar et al., F1000Research, doi:10.12688/f1000research.109023.1 The Frontline War: A Case-control study of risk factors for COVID-19 among health care workers
38% fewer cases [p=0.3]. Case control study of healthcare workers in India, showing lower risk of cases with HCQ prophylaxis, without statistical significance. While authors comment negatively, as may be required for publication, and this study alone is not stati..
Nov 12
Gibbons et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-24053-4 Association between vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19 infection and mortality
33% lower mortality [p<0.0001] and 20% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. PSM retrospective in the USA, showing lower COVID-19 mortality and cases with vitamin D prophylaxis.
Nov 11
Rahmati et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.28298 The effect of adherence to high‐quality dietary pattern on COVID‐19 outcomes: A systematic review and meta‐analysis