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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Nitazoxanide  COVID-19 treatment studies for Nitazoxanide  C19 studies: Nitazoxanide  Nitazoxanide   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
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Outcomes in COVID-19 nitazoxanide studies
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 33% 13 3,606 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk Mortality 42% 6 1,877 Ventilation 82% 3 588 ICU admission 28% 3 841 Hospitalization 61% 6 1,864 Progression -120% 2 981 Recovery 1% 5 1,309 Cases 17% 1 505 Viral clearance 38% 7 865 RCTs 8% 10 2,955 RCT mortality 28% 4 1,339 Peer-reviewed 54% 10 2,608 Prophylaxis 66% 1 505 Early 29% 8 2,545 Late 12% 4 556 Nitazoxanide for COVID-19 c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Favorsnitazoxanide Favorscontrol after exclusions
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] ICU 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Cadegiani 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.52] death 0/357 2/137 Elalfy 87% 0.13 [0.06-0.27] viral+ 7/62 44/51 CT​2 Silva (SB RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.38-1.41] viral+ 23 (n) 13 (n) Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] death 1/184 0/195 ANTICOV (RCT) -188% 2.88 [1.05-7.85] progression 15/462 5/443 OT​1 CT​2 Medhat (RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.88] viral+ 77 (n) 73 (n) Chandiwana (RCT) -13% 1.13 [0.23-5.46] progression 37 (n) 39 (n) CT​2 Tau​2 = 1.04, I​2 = 78.3%, p = 0.46 Early treatment 29% 0.71 [0.29-1.73] 25/1,396 51/1,149 29% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] death 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 68% 0.32 [0.04-2.49] death 1/17 5/27 OT​1 Fowotade (RCT) -11% 1.11 [0.61-2.03] no recov. 31 (n) 26 (n) CT​2 Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] death 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.03, I​2 = 7.9%, p = 0.65 Late treatment 12% 0.88 [0.52-1.50] 9/275 16/281 12% improvement Sokhela (RCT) 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] death 0/240 1/265 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.52 Prophylaxis 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] 0/240 1/265 66% improvement All studies 33% 0.67 [0.37-1.22] 34/1,911 68/1,695 33% improvement 13 nitazoxanide COVID-19 studies c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Tau​2 = 0.66, I​2 = 69.4%, p = 0.19 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] ICU 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Cadegiani 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.52] death 0/357 2/137 Elalfy 87% 0.13 [0.06-0.27] viral+ 7/62 44/51 CT​2 Silva (SB RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.38-1.41] viral+ 23 (n) 13 (n) Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] death 1/184 0/195 Medhat (RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.88] viral+ 77 (n) 73 (n) Chandiwana (RCT) -13% 1.13 [0.23-5.46] progression 37 (n) 39 (n) CT​2 Tau​2 = 0.67, I​2 = 69.3%, p = 0.12 Early treatment 49% 0.51 [0.22-1.18] 10/934 46/706 49% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] death 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 68% 0.32 [0.04-2.49] death 1/17 5/27 OT​1 Fowotade (RCT) -11% 1.11 [0.61-2.03] no recov. 31 (n) 26 (n) CT​2 Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] death 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.03, I​2 = 7.9%, p = 0.65 Late treatment 12% 0.88 [0.52-1.50] 9/275 16/281 12% improvement Sokhela (RCT) 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] death 0/240 1/265 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.52 Prophylaxis 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] 0/240 1/265 66% improvement All studies 44% 0.56 [0.32-1.01] 19/1,449 63/1,252 44% improvement 12 nitazoxanide COVID-19 studies after exclusions c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Tau​2 = 0.50, I​2 = 63.0%, p = 0.052 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Cadegiani 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.52] 0/357 2/137 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] 1/184 0/195 Tau​2 = 2.67, I​2 = 51.4%, p = 0.75 Early treatment 41% 0.59 [0.02-13.8] 1/541 2/332 41% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 68% 0.32 [0.04-2.49] 1/17 5/27 OT​1 Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.23 Late treatment 40% 0.60 [0.26-1.39] 9/244 16/255 40% improvement Sokhela (RCT) 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] 0/240 1/265 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.52 Prophylaxis 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] 0/240 1/265 66% improvement All studies 42% 0.58 [0.27-1.24] 10/1,025 19/852 42% improvement 6 nitazoxanide COVID-19 mortality results c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.16 1 OT: comparison with other treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Cadegiani 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.51] 0/357 9/137 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.015 Early treatment 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.51] 0/357 9/137 97% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 62% 0.38 [0.11-1.25] 3/25 8/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] 0/17 4/27 OT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.044 Late treatment 68% 0.32 [0.11-0.97] 3/42 12/52 68% improvement All studies 82% 0.18 [0.04-0.76] 3/399 21/189 82% improvement 3 nitazoxanide COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Tau​2 = 0.50, I​2 = 27.5%, p = 0.019 1 OT: comparison with other treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.3 Early treatment -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] 2/194 0/198 -404% improvement Calderón 59% 0.41 [0.25-0.59] 0/17 16/27 OT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Rocco (DB RCT) 31% 0.69 [0.40-1.17] 20/202 30/203 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.15 Late treatment 32% 0.68 [0.40-1.15] 20/219 46/230 32% improvement All studies 28% 0.72 [0.43-1.21] 22/413 46/428 28% improvement 3 nitazoxanide COVID-19 ICU results c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.22 1 OT: comparison with other treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.30-3.47] hosp. 5/194 5/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Cadegiani 99% 0.01 [0.00-0.17] hosp. 0/357 27/137 Rossignol (DB RCT) 79% 0.21 [0.02-1.80] hosp. 1/184 5/195 Tau​2 = 3.68, I​2 = 78.4%, p = 0.16 Early treatment 83% 0.17 [0.01-2.00] 6/735 37/530 83% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.89] hosp. time 25 (n) 25 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 52% 0.48 [0.29-0.82] hosp. time 17 (n) 27 (n) OT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0004 Late treatment 53% 0.47 [0.31-0.71] 0/42 0/52 53% improvement Sokhela (RCT) 79% 0.21 [0.01-4.31] hosp. 0/240 2/265 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.31 Prophylaxis 79% 0.21 [0.01-4.31] 0/240 2/265 79% improvement All studies 61% 0.39 [0.20-0.78] 6/1,017 39/847 61% improvement 6 nitazoxanide COVID-19 hospitalization results c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Tau​2 = 0.29, I​2 = 47.9%, p = 0.0078 1 OT: comparison with other treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] ICU 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Cadegiani 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.52] death 0/357 2/137 Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] death 1/184 0/195 ANTICOV (RCT) -188% 2.88 [1.05-7.85] progression 15/462 5/443 OT​1 CT​2 Chandiwana (RCT) -13% 1.13 [0.23-5.46] progression 37 (n) 39 (n) CT​2 Tau​2 = 0.18, I​2 = 15.0%, p = 0.2 Early treatment -82% 1.82 [0.73-4.53] 18/1,234 7/1,012 -82% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] death 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 68% 0.32 [0.04-2.49] death 1/17 5/27 OT​1 Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] death 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.23 Late treatment 40% 0.60 [0.26-1.39] 9/244 16/255 40% improvement Sokhela (RCT) 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] death 0/240 1/265 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.52 Prophylaxis 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] 0/240 1/265 66% improvement All studies 2% 0.98 [0.47-2.01] 27/1,718 24/1,532 2% improvement 9 nitazoxanide COVID-19 serious outcomes c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Tau​2 = 0.33, I​2 = 28.9%, p = 0.95 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -16% 1.16 [0.84-1.59] no recov. 59/194 52/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Rossignol (DB RCT) -7% 1.07 [0.46-2.49] recov. time 184 (n) 195 (n) Chandiwana (RCT) -23% 1.23 [0.73-2.08] recov. time 37 (n) 39 (n) CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.23 Early treatment -17% 1.17 [0.91-1.51] 59/415 52/432 -17% improvement Fowotade (RCT) -11% 1.11 [0.61-2.03] no recov. 31 (n) 26 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Rocco (DB RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.58-0.90] no disch. 202 (n) 203 (n) Tau​2 = 0.04, I​2 = 45.6%, p = 0.33 Late treatment 17% 0.83 [0.57-1.21] 0/233 0/229 17% improvement All studies 1% 0.99 [0.76-1.30] 59/648 52/661 1% improvement 5 nitazoxanide COVID-19 recovery results c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Tau​2 = 0.04, I​2 = 51.6%, p = 0.95 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Sokhela (RCT) 17% 0.83 [0.50-1.40] symp. case 23/240 37/265 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.47 Prophylaxis 17% 0.83 [0.50-1.40] 23/240 37/265 17% improvement All studies 17% 0.83 [0.51-1.36] 23/240 37/265 17% improvement 1 nitazoxanide COVID-19 case result c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.47 Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.80-0.96] viral+ 194 (n) 198 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Elalfy 87% 0.13 [0.06-0.27] viral+ 7/62 44/51 CT​1 Silva (SB RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.38-1.41] viral+ 23 (n) 13 (n) Medhat (RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.88] viral+ 77 (n) 73 (n) Chandiwana (RCT) -67% 1.67 [0.85-3.23] viral+ 27/37 25/38 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.37, I​2 = 91.9%, p = 0.11 Early treatment 38% 0.62 [0.35-1.11] 34/393 69/373 38% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 90% 0.10 [0.01-1.78] viral+ 0/23 4/19 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Fowotade (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.34-2.64] viral load 31 (n) 26 (n) CT​1 Tau​2 = 1.31, I​2 = 52.6%, p = 0.48 Late treatment 53% 0.47 [0.06-3.59] 0/54 4/45 53% improvement All studies 38% 0.62 [0.37-1.05] 34/447 73/418 38% improvement 7 nitazoxanide COVID-19 viral clearance results c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Tau​2 = 0.35, I​2 = 88.3%, p = 0.076 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] ICU 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Silva (SB RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.38-1.41] viral+ 23 (n) 13 (n) Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] death 1/184 0/195 ANTICOV (RCT) -188% 2.88 [1.05-7.85] progression 15/462 5/443 OT​1 CT​2 Medhat (RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.88] viral+ 77 (n) 73 (n) Chandiwana (RCT) -13% 1.13 [0.23-5.46] progression 37 (n) 39 (n) CT​2 Tau​2 = 0.39, I​2 = 56.0%, p = 0.87 Early treatment -7% 1.07 [0.51-2.23] 18/977 5/961 -7% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] death 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Fowotade (RCT) -11% 1.11 [0.61-2.03] no recov. 31 (n) 26 (n) CT​2 Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] death 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.03, I​2 = 8.5%, p = 0.86 Late treatment 5% 0.95 [0.55-1.63] 8/258 11/254 5% improvement Sokhela (RCT) 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] death 0/240 1/265 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.52 Prophylaxis 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] 0/240 1/265 66% improvement All studies 8% 0.92 [0.59-1.43] 26/1,475 17/1,480 8% improvement 10 nitazoxanide COVID-19 Randomized Controlled Trials c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Tau​2 = 0.16, I​2 = 36.1%, p = 0.72 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] 1/184 0/195 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.5 Early treatment -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] 1/184 0/195 -206% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.19, I​2 = 28.2%, p = 0.46 Late treatment 35% 0.65 [0.22-1.98] 8/227 11/228 35% improvement Sokhela (RCT) 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] 0/240 1/265 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.52 Prophylaxis 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] 0/240 1/265 66% improvement All studies 28% 0.72 [0.31-1.70] 9/651 12/688 28% improvement 4 nitazoxanide COVID-19 RCT mortality results c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.46 Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] ICU 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Cadegiani 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.52] death 0/357 2/137 Elalfy 87% 0.13 [0.06-0.27] viral+ 7/62 44/51 CT​2 Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] death 1/184 0/195 Medhat (RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.88] viral+ 77 (n) 73 (n) Chandiwana (RCT) -13% 1.13 [0.23-5.46] progression 37 (n) 39 (n) CT​2 Tau​2 = 0.85, I​2 = 66.6%, p = 0.16 Early treatment 52% 0.48 [0.17-1.34] 10/911 46/693 52% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] death 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 68% 0.32 [0.04-2.49] death 1/17 5/27 OT​1 Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] death 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.23 Late treatment 40% 0.60 [0.26-1.39] 9/244 16/255 40% improvement Sokhela (RCT) 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] death 0/240 1/265 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.52 Prophylaxis 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.41] 0/240 1/265 66% improvement All studies 54% 0.46 [0.23-0.93] 19/1,395 63/1,213 54% improvement 10 nitazoxanide COVID-19 peer reviewed trials c19early.org/n Nov 2022 Tau​2 = 0.52, I​2 = 51.7%, p = 0.03 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] ICU 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Rocco (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.30-3.47] hosp. 5/194 5/198 Rocco (RCT) -16% 1.16 [0.84-1.59] no recov. 59/194 52/198 Rocco (RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.80-0.96] viral+ 194 (n) 198 (n) Rocco (RCT) 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] viral+ 136/194 162/198 Cadegiani 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.52] death 0/357 2/137 Cadegiani 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.51] ventilation 0/357 9/137 Cadegiani 99% 0.01 [0.00-0.17] hosp. 0/357 27/137 Elalfy 87% 0.13 [0.06-0.27] viral+ 7/62 44/51 CT​2 Elalfy 58% 0.42 [0.31-0.56] viral+ 26/62 51/51 CT​2 Silva (SB RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.38-1.41] viral+ 23 (n) 13 (n) Silva (SB RCT) 38% 0.62 [0.36-1.05] viral+ 12/23 11/13 Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] death 1/184 0/195 Rossignol (DB RCT) 79% 0.21 [0.02-1.80] hosp. 1/184 5/195 Rossignol (DB RCT) 85% 0.15 [0.02-1.22] severe case 1/184 7/195 Rossignol (DB RCT) 84% 0.16 [0.02-1.29] severe case 1/112 7/126 Rossignol (DB RCT) -7% 1.07 [0.46-2.49] recov. time 184 (n) 195 (n) ANTICOV (RCT) -188% 2.88 [1.05-7.85] progression 15/462 5/443 OT​1 CT​2 Medhat (RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.88] viral+ 77 (n) 73 (n) Chandiwana (RCT) -13% 1.13 [0.23-5.46] progression 37 (n) 39 (n) CT​2 Chandiwana (RCT) -23% 1.23 [0.73-2.08] recov. time 37 (n) 39 (n) CT​2 Chandiwana (RCT) -67% 1.67 [0.85-3.23] viral+ 27/37 25/38 CT​2 Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] death 2/25 6/25 Blum (DB RCT) 62% 0.38 [0.11-1.25] ventilation 3/25 8/25 Blum (DB RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.89] hosp. time 25 (n) 25 (n) Blum (DB RCT) 90% 0.10 [0.01-1.78] viral+ 0/23 4/19 Calderón 68% 0.32 [0.04-2.49] death 1/17 5/27 OT​1 Calderón 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] ventilation 0/17 4/27 OT​1 Calderón 59% 0.41 [0.25-0.59] ICU 0/17 16/27 OT​1 Calderón 52% 0.48 [0.29-0.82] hosp. time 17 (n) 27 (n) OT​1 Fowotade (RCT) -11% 1.11 [0.61-2.03]