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Remdesivir-ivermectin combination displays synergistic interaction with improved in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2

Jeffreys et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2022.106542 (date from preprint)
Dec 2020  
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Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 103 studies, recognized in 22 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19ivm.org
In Vitro study showing enhanced antiviral activity of ivermectin and remdesivir in combination.
Ivermectin, better known for antiparasitic activity, is a broad spectrum antiviral with activity against many viruses including H7N7 Götz, Dengue Jitobaom, Tay, Wagstaff, HIV-1 Wagstaff, Simian virus 40 Wagstaff (B), Zika Barrows, Jitobaom, Yang, West Nile Yang, Yellow Fever Mastrangelo, Varghese, Japanese encephalitis Mastrangelo, Chikungunya Varghese, Semliki Forest virus Varghese, Human papillomavirus Li, Epstein-Barr Li, BK Polyomavirus Bennett, and Sindbis virus Varghese.
Ivermectin inhibits importin-α/β-dependent nuclear import of viral proteins Götz, Kosyna, Wagstaff, Wagstaff (B), shows spike-ACE2 disruption at 1nM with microfluidic diffusional sizing Fauquet, binds to glycan sites on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein preventing interaction with blood and epithelial cells and inhibiting hemagglutination Boschi, Scheim, shows dose-dependent inhibition of wildtype and omicron variants Shahin, exhibits dose-dependent inhibition of lung injury Abd-Elmawla, Ma, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 via IMPase inhibition Jitobaom, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 induced formation of fibrin clots resistant to degradation Vottero, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro Mody, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 RdRp activity Parvez (B), may minimize viral myocarditis by inhibiting NF-κB/p65-mediated inflammation in macrophages Gao, may be beneficial for COVID-19 ARDS by blocking GSDMD and NET formation Liu (C), shows protection against inflammation, cytokine storm, and mortality in an LPS mouse model sharing key pathological features of severe COVID-19 DiNicolantonio, Zhang, may be beneficial in severe COVID-19 by binding IGF1 to inhibit the promotion of inflammation, fibrosis, and cell proliferation that leads to lung damage Zhao, may minimize SARS-CoV-2 induced cardiac damage Liu, Liu (B), increases Bifidobacteria which play a key role in the immune system Hazan, has immunomodulatory Munson and anti-inflammatory DiNicolantonio (B), Yan properties, and has an extensive and very positive safety profile Descotes.
Study covers ivermectin and remdesivir.
Jeffreys et al., 24 Dec 2020, peer-reviewed, 17 authors.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Remdesivir–ivermectin combination displays synergistic interaction with improved in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2
Laura N Jeffreys, Shaun H Pennington, Jack Duggan, Claire H Caygill, Rose C Lopeman, Alastair F Breen, Jessica B Jinks, Alison Ardrey, Samantha Donnellan, Edward I Patterson, Grant L Hughes, David W Hong, Paul M O'neill, Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Andrew Owen, Stephen A Ward, Giancarlo A Biagini
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2022.106542
This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
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References
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Kaptein, Jacobs, Langendries, Seldeslachts, Horst et al., Favipiravir at high doses has potent antiviral activity in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters, whereas hydroxychloroquine lacks activity, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
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Pizzorno, Padey, Dubois, Julien, Traversier et al., In vitro evaluation of antiviral activity of single and combined repurposable drugs against SARS-CoV-2, Antiviral Res
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Who, WHO Coronovirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard
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