Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin B12Vitamin B12 (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Azvudine Meta Metformin Meta
Bromhexine Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Famotidine Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Favipiravir Meta Paxlovid Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Jang 78% 0.22 [0.05-0.94] no recov. 1/6 10/13 ECMO patients Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Erfani (RCT) 75% 0.25 [0.03-2.01] ICU 1/17 4/17 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.035 Late treatment 77% 0.23 [0.06-0.91] 2/23 14/30 77% lower risk Bejan 34% 0.66 [0.30-1.44] death 617 (n) 8,589 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Nimer 24% 0.76 [0.52-1.10] hosp. 35/395 184/1,753 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.065 Prophylaxis 26% 0.74 [0.54-1.02] 35/1,012 184/10,342 26% lower risk All studies 30% 0.70 [0.52-0.95] 37/1,035 198/10,372 30% lower risk 4 vitamin B12 COVID-19 studies December 2023 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.023 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome, see appendix) Favors vitamin B12 Favors control
Dec 3
Covid Analysis Vitamin B12 for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 4 studies
Meta analysis using the most serious outcome reported shows 30% [5‑48%] lower risk. • No treatment or intervention is 100% effective. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. Mul..
Nov 15
Moatasim et al., Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms11112777 Potent Antiviral Activity of Vitamin B12 against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, and Human Coronavirus 229E
In Vitro and In Silico analysis finding that methylcobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, and cyanocobalamin forms of vitamin B12 showed broad-spectrum inhibition against SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-229E. Methylcobalamin had the highest activity..
Sep 14
Erfani et al., Health Science Reports, doi:10.1002/hsr2.1509 Vitamin B12 effectiveness in the management of hospitalized COVID‐19 and its clinical outcomes and complications: A randomized clinical trial
75% lower ICU admission (p=0.34) and 1% longer hospitalization (p=0.97). Small RCT 34 hospitalized patients in Iran showing improved imflammatory markers and lower ICU admission with vitamin B12 treatment, without statistical significance. There was no mortality.
Jun 20
Mahjoub et al., Explore, doi:10.1016/j.explore.2023.06.009 Melatonin, vitamins and minerals supplements for the treatment of Covid-19 and Covid-like illness: a prospective, randomized, double-blind multicenter study.
67% improved recovery (p=0.32). RCT 164 low-risk (no hospitalizations) patients in Tunisia, showing improved recovery with zinc, melatonin, and vitamins A-E. This study includes COVID-19 and COVID-like illness, with 49% of 128 patients receiving a PCR test being COVID-1..
May 27
Galmés et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14112254 Suboptimal Consumption of Relevant Immune System Micronutrients Is Associated with a Worse Impact of COVID-19 in Spanish Populations
Ecological study in Spain, showing lower intake of vitamin D, A, B9, and zinc in regions with the highest COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Vitamin D intake was associated with lower prevalence, incidence, and a combined incidence+mortali..
Apr 26
Valecha et al., International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 14:5 The Effect of Vitamin B12, Magnesium and Vitamin D in COVID-19 among Geriatric Patients
87% lower ICU admission (p=0.09) and 38% shorter hospitalization (p<0.0001). Prospective study of 30 patients treated with vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12, and 25 control patients, showing shorter hospitalization and lower oxygen and ICU requirements with treatment. Cholecalciferol 1000IU, magnesium oxide 15..
Apr 20
Pandya et al., Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, doi:10.1016/j.imu.2022.100951 Unravelling Vitamin B12 as a potential inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2: A computational approach
In Silico study showing significant interaction with SARS-CoV-2 targets for multiple vitamins.
Feb 28
Nimer et al., Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.7009 The impact of vitamin and mineral supplements usage prior to COVID-19 infection on disease severity and hospitalization
24% lower hospitalization (p=0.15) and 27% lower severe cases (p=0.06). Retrospective 2,148 COVID-19 recovered patients in Jordan, showing lower risk of severity and hospitalization with vitamin B12 prophylaxis, without statistical significance.
Feb 5
Batista et al., Nutrition Reviews, doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuab092 The role of vitamin B12 in viral infections: a comprehensive review of its relationship with the muscle–gut–brain axis and implications for SARS-CoV-2 infection
Review of the benefits of vitamin B12 for viral infections, including immune modulation, metabolic effects, and symptom relief, summary of previous research, and implications for use with COVID-19.
Aug 18
Shakeri et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27277 Evaluation of the relationship between serum levels of zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19
Retrospective 293 hospitalized patients in Iran showing lower levels of zinc, vitamin B12, and vitamin D in patients that died, with statistical significance reached only for zinc.
Feb 28
Bejan et al., Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, doi:10.1002/cpt.2376 (date from preprint) DrugWAS: Drug‐wide Association Studies for COVID‐19 Drug Repurposing
34% lower mortality (p=0.3), 35% lower ventilation (p=0.26), 16% lower ICU admission (p=0.61), and 10% lower hospitalization (p=0.6). Retrospective 9,748 COVID-19 patients in the USA showing lower risk with vitamin B12 use, without statistical significance.
Dec 16
Jang et al., Heart & Lung, doi:10.1016/j.hrtlng.2020.10.010 Clinical course of COVID-19 patients treated with ECMO: A multicenter study in Daegu, South Korea
78% improved recovery (p=0.04). Retrospective 19 COVID-19 ECMO patients in South Korea, showing a higher rate of weaning from ECMO with vitamin B12 treatment, without statistical significance. Authors perform multivariate analysis but do not provide full results, only r..
Sep 8
Galmés et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12092738 Current State of Evidence: Influence of Nutritional and Nutrigenetic Factors on Immunity in the COVID-19 Pandemic Framework
Ecological study of European countries analyzing 10 vitamins and minerals endorsed by the European Food Safety Authority as having sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between intake and optimal immune system function: vitamins D..
Jun 30
Kandeel et al., Life Sciences, doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117627 Virtual screening and repurposing of FDA approved drugs against COVID-19 main protease
In Silico study of 1,500 FDA-approved drugs finding that vitamin B12 had strong binding affinity with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, and may be beneficial for COVID-19 treatment.
Jun 10
Tan et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111017 (date from preprint) Cohort study to evaluate the effect of combination Vitamin D, Magnesium and Vitamin B12 (DMB) on progression to severe outcome in older COVID-19 patients
80% lower need for oxygen therapy (p=0.04) and 81% lower ICU admission (p=0.07). Observational study of 43 patients >= 50 years old, with 17 patients receiving vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12 (DMB); and 26 control patients, showing a significantly lower need for oxygen therapy and ICU admission with treatment. D..
Oct 1
EFSA, EFSA Journal, doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1223 Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B12 and red blood cell formation (ID 92, 101), cell division (ID 93), energy-yielding metabolism (ID 99, 190) and function of the immune system (ID 107) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
European Food Safety Administration review concluding that there is a causal relationship between the intake of vitamin B12 and immune system function.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of over 100,000 datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Thanks for your feedback! Please search before submitting papers and note that studies are listed under the date they were first available, which may be the date of an earlier preprint.