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Lactoferrin for COVID-19
6 studies from 131 scientists
1,213 patients in 3 countries
Statistically significant improvement for viral clearance.
2 studies from 2 independent teams (both from the same country) show statistically significant improvements in isolation.
COVID-19 Lactoferrin studies. Jun 2023.
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 24% With exclusions 17% Mortality 37% Recovery -31% Viral clearance 45% RCTs -20% Early 48% Late 19% Favorslactoferrin Favorscontrol
Lactoferrin COVID-19 studies. Recent:
Lactoferrin has been officially adopted in 1 country. Submit updates/corrections.
Jun 3
Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis) Lactoferrin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 6 studies
Statistically significant improvement is seen for viral clearance. 2 studies from 2 independent teams (both from the same country) show statistically significant improvements in isolation (1 for the most serious outcome). • Meta analysi..
Apr 15
Andreu et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v15040972 (In Vitro) Liposomal Lactoferrin Exerts Antiviral Activity against HCoV-229E and SARS-CoV-2 Pseudoviruses In Vitro
In Vitro study showing more potent antiviral activity for SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV229E with liposomal lactoferrin compared with free lactoferrin. Authors note that liposomal encapsulation has been shown to increase permeability, bioavailabilit..
Mar 31
Yazawa et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) (In Vitro) Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 isolation in cell culture from nasal/nasopharyngeal swabs or saliva specimens of patients with COVID-19
Analysis of nasal/nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva specimens, showing significantly lower isolation efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva specimens. In Vitro study showing that lactoferrin and amylase, components of saliva, were found to inhi..
Mar 4
Matino et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15051285 Effect of Lactoferrin on Clinical Outcomes of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: The LAC Randomized Clinical Trial
12% higher mortality [p=0.85], 45% higher ventilation [p=0.39], 6% higher combined mortality/ICU admission [p=0.87], and 34% worse recovery [p=0.12]. RCT 218 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing no significant differences with lactoferrin treatment. Authors note that in several previous studies showing clinical improvement, lactoferrin was given at an earlier stage of disease. Autho..
Dec 7
Navarro et al., BioMetals, doi:10.1007/s10534-022-00477-3 Bovine lactoferrin for the prevention of COVID-19 infection in health care personnel: a double-blinded randomized clinical trial (LF-COVID)
59% more symptomatic cases [p=0.34] and 23% more cases [p=0.65]. Early terminated low-risk patient prophylaxis RCT in Peru, showing no significant difference in cases with lactoferrin. There were no moderate or severe cases.
Aug 3
Rosa et al., BioMetals, doi:10.1007/s10534-022-00427-z (Review) An overview on in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity of lactoferrin: its efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 infection
Review of the antiviral activity of lactoferrin and efficacy for SARS-CoV-2.
May 17
Cutone et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) (In Vitro) Lactoferrin binding to Sars-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein protects host from infection, inflammation and iron dysregulation.
Vero E6, Caco-2, and THP-1 In Vitro study showing lactoferrin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirus. Nutraceutically available bovine lactoferrin was more effective than human lactoferrin.
May 13
Piacentini et al., International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms23105436 (In Vitro) Lactoferrin Inhibition of the Complex Formation between ACE2 Receptor and SARS CoV-2 Recognition Binding Domain
Biolayer interferometry and turbidimetry study showing lactoferrin inhibits ACE2 - SARS-CoV-2 RBD binding.
Nov 20
Ostrov et al., Pathogens, doi:10.3390/pathogens10111514 (In Vitro) Highly Specific Sigma Receptor Ligands Exhibit Anti-Viral Properties in SARS-CoV-2 Infected Cells
Vero E6 and H23 In Vitro study finding SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity associated with agonism of the sigma-1 receptor, ligation of the sigma-2 receptor, and a combination of the two. Authors identify synergistic effects with the combinatio..
Oct 28
Shousha et al., World Journal of Gastroenterology, doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i40.6951 Hepatic and gastrointestinal disturbances in Egyptian patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019: A multicentre cohort study
79% lower mortality [p=0.11]. Retrospective 547 hospitalized COVID+ patients in Egypt, showing lower mortality with lactoferrin treatment (without statistical significance).
Oct 19
Campione et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph182010985 Lactoferrin as Antiviral Treatment in COVID-19 Management: Preliminary Evidence
47% faster viral clearance [p=0.0001]. Small prospective study in Italy with 32 lactoferrin patients, 32 SOC, and 28 patients with no treatment, showing significantly faster viral clearance and improved recovery with treatment. Oral and intranasal lactoferrin.
Sep 21
Rosa et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10184276 Ambulatory COVID-19 Patients Treated with Lactoferrin as a Supplementary Antiviral Agent: A Preliminary Study
76% lower hospitalization [p=0.32], 40% slower recovery [p=0.5], and 39% faster viral clearance [p=0.02]. Retrospective survey based study in Italy with 82 patients treated with lactoferrin, and 39 control patients, showing significantly faster viral clearance with treatment. There was no significant difference in recovery time overall, howev..
Sep 3
Ali et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.08.019 Lactoferrin reduces the risk of respiratory tract infections: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Meta analysis of 6 RCTs, showing lower risk of respiratory tract infections with lactoferrin.
Aug 19
Mirabelli et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.2105815118 (In Vitro) Morphological cell profiling of SARS-CoV-2 infection identifies drug repurposing candidates for COVID-19
In Vitro study testing 1,425 compounds for SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity, identifying 17 dose-responsive compounds with IC50 values <1μM. Lactoferrin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in the nanomolar range in all cell models with multiple modes of ac..
Aug 19
Algahtani et al., Medicina, doi:10.3390/medicina57080842 The Prospect of Lactoferrin Use as Adjunctive Agent in Management of SARS-CoV-2 Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study
25% improved recovery [p=1]. RCT 54 hospitalized patients in Egypt, showing no significant differences in recovery with lactoferrin treatment. 200mg lactoferrin orally once daily (group 1) or 200mg lactoferrin orally twice daily (group 2).
Apr 14
Mattar et al., PeerJ, doi:10.7717/peerj.11303 (Review) Natural resources to control COVID-19: could lactoferrin amend SARS-CoV-2 infectivity?
Review of the mechanisms of action and evidence for beneficial effects of lactoferrin for COVID-19.
Feb 15
Miotto et al., Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, doi:10.3389/fmolb.2021.607443 Molecular Mechanisms Behind Anti SARS-CoV-2 Action of Lactoferrin
In Silico study of possible molecular mechanisms for anti-SARS-CoV-2 action of lactoferrin.
Jan 23
Salaris et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13020328 (In Vitro) Protective Effects of Lactoferrin against SARS-CoV-2 Infection In Vitro
Caco-2 and Vero E6 In Vitro study showing lactoferrin enhances the antiviral immune response, partially inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, and modulates cytokine production.
Sep 30
Chang et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106118 (Review) Lactoferrin as potential preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19
Review of the antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects of lactoferrin and the potential benefit for COVID-19.
Jul 11
Campione et al., International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms21144903 (Review) Lactoferrin as Protective Natural Barrier of Respiratory and Intestinal Mucosa against Coronavirus Infection and Inflammation
Review of the mechanisms of action and potential benefits of lactoferrin for COVID-19. Authors propose designing a trial combining an intranasal spray and oral administration (which they later performed).
Apr 1
Serrano et al., International Journal of Research in Health Sciences, doi:10.5530/ijrhs.8.1.3 Liposomal Lactoferrin as Potential Preventative and Cure for COVID-19
Prospective study of treatment with lactoferrin, vitamin C, and zinc, reporting recovery for all patients within 5 days. Depending on symptoms, lactoferrin nasal drops, mouth spray, or nebulization was also used.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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