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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Effect of Lactoferrin on Clinical Outcomes of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: The LAC Randomized Clinical Trial

Matino et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15051285, LAC, NCT04847791
Mar 2023  
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Mortality, day 28 -12% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality, day 14 -24% Ventilation -45% Death/ICU -6% Not reaching NEWS2 ≤2 or.. -34% Lactoferrin  LAC  LATE TREATMENT  DB RCT Is late treatment with lactoferrin beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 218 patients in Italy (January - May 2021) Higher ventilation with lactoferrin (not stat. sig., p=0.39) c19early.org Matino et al., Nutrients, March 2023 Favorslactoferrin Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
RCT 218 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing no significant differences with lactoferrin treatment. Authors note that in several previous studies showing clinical improvement, lactoferrin was given at an earlier stage of disease. Authors also note that potential benefits with the late treatment in this study could be masked by other SOC medications - corticosteroids may have masked immunomodulatory effects of lactoferrin, and there may be heparin-dependent reduction in lactoferrin antiviral activity. 800mg oral bovine lactoferrin daily.
risk of death, 11.5% higher, RR 1.12, p = 0.85, treatment 18 of 113 (15.9%), control 15 of 105 (14.3%), day 28.
risk of death, 23.9% higher, RR 1.24, p = 0.69, treatment 16 of 113 (14.2%), control 12 of 105 (11.4%), day 14.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 44.5% higher, RR 1.45, p = 0.39, treatment 14 of 113 (12.4%), control 9 of 105 (8.6%).
risk of death/ICU, 6.2% higher, RR 1.06, p = 0.87, treatment 24 of 113 (21.2%), control 21 of 105 (20.0%).
not reaching NEWS2 ≤2 or discharge within 14 days, 33.6% higher, RR 1.34, p = 0.12, treatment 46 of 113 (40.7%), control 32 of 105 (30.5%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Matino et al., 4 Mar 2023, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, Italy, peer-reviewed, 53 authors, study period January 2021 - May 2021, average treatment delay 6.0 days, trial NCT04847791 (history) (LAC).
This PaperLactoferrinAll
Effect of Lactoferrin on Clinical Outcomes of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: The LAC Randomized Clinical Trial
Erica Matino, Elena Tavella, Manuela Rizzi, Gian Carlo Avanzi, Danila Azzolina, Antonio Battaglia, Paolo Becco, Mattia Bellan, Giovanni Bertinieri, Massimo Bertoletti, Giuseppe Francesco Casciaro, Luigi Mario Castello, Umberto Colageo, Donato Colangelo, Davide Comolli, Martina Costanzo, Alessandro Croce, Davide D’onghia, Francesco Della Corte, Luigi De Mitri, Valentina Dodaro, Filippo Givone, Alessia Gravina, Luca Grillenzoni, Graziano Gusmaroli, Raffaella Landi, Anna Lingua, Roberto Manzoni, Vito Marinoni, Bianca Masturzo, Rosalba Minisini, Marina Morello, Anna Nelva, Elena Ortone, Rita Paolella, Giuseppe Patti, Anita Pedrinelli, Mario Pirisi, Lidia Ravizzi, Eleonora Rizzi, Daniele Sola, Mariolina Sola, Nadir Tonello, Stelvio Tonello, Gigliola Topazzo, Aldo Tua, Piera Valenti, Rosanna Vaschetto, Veronica Vassia, Erika Zecca, Nicoletta Zublena, Paolo Manzoni, Pier Paolo Sainaghi
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15051285
As lactoferrin is a nutritional supplement with proven antiviral and immunomodulatory abilities, it may be used to improve the clinical course of COVID-19. The clinical efficacy and safety of bovine lactoferrin were evaluated in the LAC randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. A total of 218 hospitalized adult patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 were randomized to receive 800 mg/die oral bovine lactoferrin (n = 113) or placebo (n = 105), both given in combination with standard COVID-19 therapy. No differences in lactoferrin vs. placebo were observed in the primary outcomes: the proportion of death or intensive care unit admission (risk ratio of 1.06 (95% CI 0.63-1.79)) or proportion of discharge or National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) ≤ 2 within 14 days from enrollment (RR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.70-1.04)). Lactoferrin showed an excellent safety and Nutrients 2023, 15, 1285. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051285 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients tolerability profile. Even though bovine lactoferrin is safe and tolerable, our results do not support its use in hospitalized patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 27]], 'date-time': '2024-03-27T18:28:55Z', 'timestamp': 1711564135547}, 'reference-count': 84, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'issue': '5', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 4]], 'date-time': '2023-03-04T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1677888000000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'abstract': '<jats:p>As lactoferrin is a nutritional supplement with proven antiviral and immunomodulatory ' 'abilities, it may be used to improve the clinical course of COVID-19. The clinical efficacy ' 'and safety of bovine lactoferrin were evaluated in the LAC randomized double-blind ' 'placebo-controlled trial. A total of 218 hospitalized adult patients with moderate-to-severe ' 'COVID-19 were randomized to receive 800 mg/die oral bovine lactoferrin (n = 113) or placebo ' '(n = 105), both given in combination with standard COVID-19 therapy. No differences in ' 'lactoferrin vs. placebo were observed in the primary outcomes: the proportion of death or ' 'intensive care unit admission (risk ratio of 1.06 (95% CI 0.63–1.79)) or proportion of ' 'discharge or National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) ≤ 2 within 14 days from enrollment (RR of ' '0.85 (95% CI 0.70–1.04)). Lactoferrin showed an excellent safety and tolerability profile. ' 'Even though bovine lactoferrin is safe and tolerable, our results do not support its use in ' 'hospitalized patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19.</jats:p>', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu15051285', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 6]], 'date-time': '2023-03-06T06:35:30Z', 'timestamp': 1678084530000}, 'page': '1285', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 7, 'title': 'Effect of Lactoferrin on Clinical Outcomes of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: The LAC ' 'Randomized Clinical Trial', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'volume': '15', 'author': [ { 'given': 'Erica', 'family': 'Matino', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Internal Medicine and COVID-19 Unit, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 ' 'Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine and COVID-19 Sub-Intensive Unit, ' 'Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, ' '28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3396-0609', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Elena', 'family': 'Tavella', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Maternal-Infant Medicine, Ospedale degli Infermi, ' '13875 Ponderano, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Internal Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) Città della Salute e della ' 'Scienza, University of Turin School of Medicine, 10126 Turin, ' 'Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6174-7111', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Manuela', 'family': 'Rizzi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale ' '(UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Gian Carlo', 'family': 'Avanzi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine and COVID-19 Sub-Intensive Unit, ' 'Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, ' '28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8185-5742', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Danila', 'family': 'Azzolina', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Antonio', 'family': 'Battaglia', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Dermatology, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Paolo', 'family': 'Becco', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Oncology, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 Ponderano, ' 'Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1488-8736', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Mattia', 'family': 'Bellan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine and COVID-19 Sub-Intensive Unit, ' 'Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, ' '28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'CAAD, Center for Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases, Università ' 'del Piemonte Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Giovanni', 'family': 'Bertinieri', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Internal Medicine, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Massimo', 'family': 'Bertoletti', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Pneumology, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Giuseppe Francesco', 'family': 'Casciaro', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Internal Medicine and COVID-19 Unit, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 ' 'Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine and COVID-19 Sub-Intensive Unit, ' 'Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, ' '28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8248-1976', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Luigi Mario', 'family': 'Castello', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Internal Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliera “SS. Antonio ' 'e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo”, 15121 Alessandria, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Umberto', 'family': 'Colageo', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Intensive Care Unit, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 Ponderano, ' 'Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2277-3226', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Donato', 'family': 'Colangelo', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale ' '(UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Davide', 'family': 'Comolli', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Martina', 'family': 'Costanzo', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Internal Medicine and COVID-19 Unit, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 ' 'Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine and COVID-19 Sub-Intensive Unit, ' 'Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, ' '28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Alessandro', 'family': 'Croce', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Internal Medicine and COVID-19 Unit, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 ' 'Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine and COVID-19 Sub-Intensive Unit, ' 'Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, ' '28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3196-940X', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Davide', 'family': 'D’Onghia', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, 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'family': 'Givone', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Pneumology, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Alessia', 'family': 'Gravina', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Luca', 'family': 'Grillenzoni', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Graziano', 'family': 'Gusmaroli', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Neurology, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 Ponderano, ' 'Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Raffaella', 'family': 'Landi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Internal Medicine and COVID-19 Unit, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 ' 'Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine and COVID-19 Sub-Intensive Unit, ' 'Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, ' '28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Anna', 'family': 'Lingua', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Infectious Disease, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Roberto', 'family': 'Manzoni', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Dermatology, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Vito', 'family': 'Marinoni', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Geriatric Care, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5243-0940', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Bianca', 'family': 'Masturzo', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ospedale degli 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Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5404-3968', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Giuseppe', 'family': 'Patti', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Medical Department, Division of Cardiology, AOU “Maggiore della ' 'Carità”, 28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Anita', 'family': 'Pedrinelli', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Internal Medicine and COVID-19 Unit, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 ' 'Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine and COVID-19 Sub-Intensive Unit, ' 'Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, ' '28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Mario', 'family': 'Pirisi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Internal Medicine and COVID-19 Unit, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 ' 'Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine and COVID-19 Sub-Intensive Unit, ' 'Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, ' '28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'CAAD, Center for Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases, Università ' 'del Piemonte Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Lidia', 'family': 'Ravizzi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Pneumology, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9615-2452', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Eleonora', 'family': 'Rizzi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Internal Medicine and COVID-19 Unit, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 ' 'Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine and COVID-19 Sub-Intensive Unit, ' 'Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, ' '28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7863-8192', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Daniele', 'family': 'Sola', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Internal Medicine and COVID-19 Unit, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 ' 'Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Mariolina', 'family': 'Sola', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Nadir', 'family': 'Tonello', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0836-0890', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Stelvio', 'family': 'Tonello', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'CAAD, Center for Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases, Università ' 'del Piemonte Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Gigliola', 'family': 'Topazzo', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Ospedale degli ' 'Infermi, 13875 Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Aldo', 'family': 'Tua', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Piera', 'family': 'Valenti', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, University ' 'of Rome, La Sapienza, 00185 Rome, Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4625-4367', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Rosanna', 'family': 'Vaschetto', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, AOU ' '“Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7097-0710', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Veronica', 'family': 'Vassia', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Internal Medicine and COVID-19 Unit, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 ' 'Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine and COVID-19 Sub-Intensive Unit, ' 'Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, ' '28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2134-6986', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Erika', 'family': 'Zecca', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Internal Medicine and COVID-19 Unit, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 ' 'Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine and COVID-19 Sub-Intensive Unit, ' 'Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, ' '28100 Novara, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Nicoletta', 'family': 'Zublena', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Division of Palliative Care, Ospedale degli Infermi, 13875 ' 'Ponderano, Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1340-3493', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Paolo', 'family': 'Manzoni', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Maternal-Infant Medicine, Ospedale degli Infermi, ' '13875 Ponderano, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Internal Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) Città della Salute e della ' 'Scienza, University of Turin School of Medicine, 10126 Turin, ' 'Italy'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8322-9158', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Pier Paolo', 'family': 'Sainaghi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte ' 'Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Internal Medicine and COVID-19 Unit, Azienda ' 'Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, 28100 ' 'Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Division of Emergency Medicine and COVID-19 Sub-Intensive Unit, ' 'Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU) “Maggiore della Carità”, ' '28100 Novara, Italy'}, { 'name': 'CAAD, Center for Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases, Università ' 'del Piemonte Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy'}]}], 'member': '1968', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 4]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': 'ref_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '270', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41579-022-00713-0', 'article-title': 'SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis', 'volume': '20', 'author': 'Lamers', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Nat. 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Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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