Protective Effects of Lactoferrin against SARS-CoV-2 Infection In Vitro
Salaris et al.
, Protective Effects of Lactoferrin against SARS-CoV-2 Infection In Vitro
, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13020328 (In Vitro)
Caco-2 and Vero E6 In Vitro
study showing lactoferrin enhances the antiviral immune response, partially inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, and modulates cytokine production.5 In Vitro studies
support the efficacy of lactoferrin [Cutone, Mirabelli, Ostrov, Piacentini, Salaris]
Salaris et al., 23 Jan 2021, peer-reviewed, 9 authors.
email@example.com (corresponding author), firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
Protective Effects of Lactoferrin against SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Claudio Salaris 1,† , Melania Scarpa 2,† , Marina Elli 3 , Alice Bertolini 1 , Simone Guglielmetti 4 ,
Fabrizio Pregliasco 5 , Corrado Blandizzi 6 , Paola Brun 1, * and Ignazio Castagliuolo 1
Citation: Salaris, C.; Scarpa, M.; Elli,
M.; Bertolini, A.; Guglielmetti, S.;
Pregliasco, F.; Blandizzi, C.; Brun, P.;
Castagliuolo, I. Protective Effects of
Lactoferrin against SARS-CoV-2
Infection In Vitro. Nutrients 2021, 13,
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, 35121 Padua, Italy;
firstname.lastname@example.org (C.S.); email@example.com (A.B.);
Laboratory of Advanced Translational Research, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, 35128 Padua, Italy;
AAT-Advanced Analytical Technologies S.r.l., Fiorenzuola d’Arda, 29122 Piacenza, Italy;
Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), University of Milan,
20122 Milan, Italy; firstname.lastname@example.org
IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, University of Milan, 20136 Milan, Italy; email@example.com
Unit of Pharmacology and Pharmacovigilance, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine,
University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy; firstname.lastname@example.org
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus that currently lacks curative treatments. Lactoferrin
(LF) is a naturally occurring non-toxic glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we assessed the potential of LF in the prevention
of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Antiviral immune response gene expression was analyzed by
qRT-PCR in uninfected Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells treated with LF. An infection assay for
SARS-CoV-2 was performed in Caco-2 cells treated or not with LF. SARS-CoV-2 titer was determined
by qRT-PCR, plaque assay and immunostaining. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine
production was determined by qRT-PCR. LF significantly induced the expression of IFNA1, IFNB1,
TLR3, TLR7, IRF3, IRF7 and MAVS genes. Furthermore, LF partially inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection
and replication in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Our in vitro data support LF as an immune
modulator of the antiviral immune response with moderate effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Keywords: lactoferrin; SARS-CoV-2; antiviral immunity; COVID-19
Received: 16 December 2020
Accepted: 21 January 2021
Published: 23 January 2021
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