Analgesics..
Antiandrogens..
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Cannabidiol
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Ensovibep
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Iota-carragee..
Ivermectin
Lactoferrin
Lifestyle..
Melatonin
Metformin
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Nitric Oxide
Paxlovid
Peg.. Lambda
Povidone-Iod..
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Vitamins..
Zinc

Other
Feedback
Home
Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Metformin  COVID-19 treatment studies for Metformin  C19 studies: Metformin  Metformin   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Cannabidiol Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitric Oxide Meta
Ensovibep Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Favipiravir Meta Povidone-Iod.. Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Iota-carragee.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta Zinc Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

Other Treatments Global Adoption
 
    
  
Metformin for COVID-19
55 studies from 659 scientists
206,012 patients in 13 countries
Statistically significant improvement for mortality, ventilation, ICU, and hospitalization.
33 studies from 31 independent teams in 10 countries show statistically significant improvements in isolation.
COVID-19 Metformin studies. Dec 2022. c19early.org/mf
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 27% With exclusions 27% Mortality 32% Hospitalization 19% Recovery 38% Cases 0% Viral clearance 1% RCTs 24% RCT mortality 24% Prophylaxis 24% Early 58% Late 86% Favorsmetformin Favorscontrol
Metformin COVID-19 studies. Most studies analyze existing use with diabetic patients. Many results are subject to confounding by indication — metformin is typically used early in the progression of type 2 diabetes. Prophylaxis results typically include continuing use after infection and hospitalization, and greater benefit is seen for more serious outcomes. The beneficial effect of metformin may be more related to later stages of COVID-19. Recent:
Milosavljevic
Ouchi
Gálvez-Barrón
Ma
Li
Zaccardi
Morrison.
Submit updates/corrections.
Dec 2
Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis) Metformin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 55 studies
Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality, ventilation, ICU admission, and hospitalization. 33 studies from 31 independent teams in 10 different countries show statistically significant improvements in isolation (29 ..
Nov 9
Milosavljevic et al., Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives, doi:10.55729/2000-9666.1127 Evaluation of Glycemic Control and Predictors of Severe Illness and Death in Patients With Diabetes Hospitalized With COVID-19
33% lower severe cases [p=0.03]. Retrospective 733 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes in the USA, showing lower risk of severity with metformin use.
Oct 10
Morrison et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0275787 COVID-19 outcomes in patients taking cardioprotective medications
41% lower mortality [p=0.003], 16% higher ventilation [p=0.49], 3% lower ICU admission [p=0.85], and 4% higher hospitalization [p=0.72]. Retrospective 13,585 COVID+ patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with metformin use, but no significant difference for ventilation, ICU admission, and hospitalization.
Oct 4
Ouchi et al., Primary Care Diabetes, doi:10.1016/j.pcd.2022.10.001 Antidiabetic treatment and COVID-19 Outcomes: A population-based cohort study in primary health care in Catalonia during the first wave of the pandemic
10% lower mortality [p=0.19] and 8% lower combined mortality/hospitalization [p=0.12]. Retrospective 31,006 diabetic COVID-19 patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with metformin treatment, without statistical significance. Authors provide results for metformin compared with untreated patients rather than all non-metfo..
Sep 21
Yip et al., SSRN Electronic Journal, doi:10.2139/ssrn.4225660 Metformin Does Not Reduce Hospitalisation for COVID-19
7% lower combined mortality/hospitalization [p=0.61] and 15% lower progression [p=0.16]. Retrospective 12,331 diabetes patients in Hong Kong, showing no significant difference in outcomes with metformin use.
Sep 13
Zaccardi et al., Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, doi:10.1111/dom.14872 Ethnicity and risks of severe COVID ‐19 outcomes associated with glucose‐lowering medications: A cohort study
34% lower mortality [p<0.0001] and 31% lower hospitalization [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 624,771 people with type 2 diabetes in the UK, showing lower COVID-19 mortality and hospitalization with metformin use.
Aug 30
Chan et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.08.29.22279355 (Preprint) Metformin is Associated with Reduced COVID-19 Severity in Patients with Prediabetes
59% lower mortality [p=0.66], 54% lower severe cases [p=0.37], and 42% lower progression [p=0.37]. Retrospective 3,136 patients with prediabetes and 282 with PCOS, showing metformin associated with reduced COVID-19 severity.
Aug 18
Bramante et al., NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2201662 Randomized Trial of Metformin, Ivermectin, and Fluvoxamine for Covid-19
52% lower combined mortality/hospitalization [p=0.09] and 40% lower progression [p=0.03]. COVID-OUT remotely operated RCT, showing lower combined ER/hospitalization/death with metformin. Results for other treatments are listed separately - ivermectin , fluvoxamine . The "control" group includes patients receiving active treatm..
Aug 16
Loucera et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.08.14.22278751 (Preprint) Real-world evidence with a retrospective cohort of 15,968 Andalusian COVID-19 hospitalized patients suggests 21 new effective treatments and one drug that increases death risk
30% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 15,968 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with existing use of several medications including metformin, HCQ, aspirin, vitamin D, vitamin C, and budesonide.
Aug 9
Shestakova et al., Frontiers in Endocrinology, doi:10.3389/fendo.2022.909874 Risk factors for COVID-19 case fatality rate in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: A nationwide retrospective cohort study of 235,248 patients in the Russian Federation
22% lower mortality [p=0.001]. Retrospective 224,190 type 2 diabetes patients in Russia, showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Jul 6
Cousins et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.07.02.22277181 (Preprint) Integrative analysis of viral entry networks and clinical outcomes identifies a protective role for spironolactone in severe COVID-19
54% lower ventilation [p=0.007] and 56% lower ICU admission [p<0.0001]. PSM retrospective 64,349 COVID-19 patients in the USA, showing metformin associated with lower ICU admission and mechanical ventilation.
Jun 29
Hunt et al., Journal of General Internal Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11606-022-07701-3 Medications Associated with Lower Mortality in a SARS-CoV-2 Positive Cohort of 26,508 Veterans
67% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 26,508 consecutive COVID+ veterans in the USA, showing lower mortality with multiple treatments including metformin. Treatment was defined as drugs administered ≥50% of the time within 2 weeks post-COVID+, and may be a cont..
Apr 1
Ma et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-09639-2 Metformin is associated with favorable outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes mellitus
74% lower mortality [p=0.03] and 25% lower ventilation [p=0.44]. PSM/IPTW retrospective 1,356 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes in China, showing lower mortality/hospice with metformin use.
Mar 29
MacFadden et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofac156 Screening Large Population Health Databases for Potential COVID-19 Therapeutics: A Pharmacopeia-Wide Association Study (PWAS) of Commonly Prescribed Medications
1% fewer cases [p=0.45]. Retrospective 26,121 cases and 2,369,020 controls ≥65yo in Canada, showing no significant differences in cases with chronic use of metformin.
Mar 7
Wong et al., Frontiers in Endocrinology, doi:10.3389/fendo.2022.810914 Metformin Use in Relation to Clinical Outcomes and Hyperinflammatory Syndrome Among COVID-19 Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Propensity Score Analysis of a Territory-Wide Cohort
59% lower mortality [p=0.01], 61% improved recovery [p=0.005], 64% better improvement [p=0.009], and 56% higher hospital discharge [p=0.009]. Retrospective 1,214 COVID+ type 2 diabetes patients in Hong Kong, showing lower mortality and improved recovery with metformin use.
Feb 24
Wong et al., Diabetes Care, doi:10.2337/dc21-2186 Glycemic Control and Clinical Outcomes in U.S. Patients With COVID-19: Data From the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) Database
51% lower mortality [p<0.0001], 41% lower ventilation [p<0.0001], and 40% lower hospitalization [p<0.0001]. N3C retrospective 39,616 COVID-19 patients with diabetes in the USA, showing lower mortality, ventilation, and hospitalization with metformin use.
Jan 18
Usman et al., Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, doi:10.1007/s11239-022-02631-7 Metformin use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19: lower inflammation, oxidative stress, and thrombotic risk markers and better clinical outcomes
60% lower mortality [p=0.21], 76% lower ventilation [p=0.05], and 34% shorter hospitalization [p=0.13]. Retrospective 75 diabetes patients, 34 on metformin, showing improved clinical outcomes with treatment, without statistical significance.
Jan 10
Ojeda-Fernández et al., Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, doi:10.1111/dom.14648 Metformin use is associated with a decrease in risk of hospitalization and mortality in COVID-19 diabetic patients: a population-based study in Lombardy
16% lower mortality [p<0.0001], 22% lower ICU admission [p=0.01], and 3% lower hospitalization [p=0.11]. Retrospective 31,966 COVID+ patients using anti-hyperglycemic drugs in Italy, showing lower mortality and ICU admission with metformin use.
Dec 31
2021
Wallace et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050051 Association of the patterns of use of medications with mortality of COVID-19 infection: a hospital-based observational study
72% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 9,532 hospitalized COVID+ veterans in the USA, showing lower mortality with metformin use. The study provides results for use before, after, and before+after. Before+after should more accurately represent prophylaxis up to C..
Nov 30
2021
Al-Salameh et al., Diabetes & Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.diabet.2021.101297 The association between metformin treatment and COVID-19 outcomes according to metformin continuation during hospitalisation
55% lower combined mortality/ICU admission [p=0.04]. Retrospective 140 diabetic patients in France, showing lower mortality for patients where metformin use was continued after hospitalization.
Nov 19
2021
Parthasarathy et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.18.469078 (Preprint) (In Vitro) Metformin Suppresses SARS-CoV-2 in Cell Culture
In Vitro study showing metformin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in Caco2 cells. Metformin reduced viral titers by nearly 99%, and by about 90% when cells were treated prior to infection.
Nov 8
2021
Bliden et al., Circulation, 144:A12228 (Preprint) Metformin Use in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19: Lower Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Thrombotic Risk Markers and Better Clinical Outcomes
60% lower mortality [p=0.21] and 76% lower ventilation [p=0.05]. Retrospective 75 diabetes patients, 34 on metformin, showing lower mortality with treatment in unadjusted results with minimal group details.
Oct 30
2021
Ong et al., Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, doi:10.15605/jafes.036.02.20 Association Between Metformin Use and Mortality Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Hospitalized for COVID-19 Infection
47% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Retrospective 355 diabetic hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the Philippines, showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Oct 29
2021
Saygili et al., Irish Journal of Medical Science, doi:10.1007/s11845-021-02823-9 Preadmission usage of metformin and mortality in COVID-19 patients including the post-discharge period
42% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Retrospective 586 diabetic hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Turkey, showing lower mortality with existing metformin use.
Oct 6
2021
Wander et al., Diabetes Care, doi:10.2337/dc21-1351 Prior Glucose-Lowering Medication Use and 30-Day Outcomes Among 64,892 Veterans With Diabetes and COVID-19
15% lower mortality [p<0.0001], 2% lower ICU admission [p=0.62], and 3% lower hospitalization [p=0.09]. Retrospective 64,892 veterans with diabetes in the USA, showing lower mortality with existing metformin use.
Sep 29
2021
Li et al., Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, doi:10.1002/edm2.301 Inpatient use of metformin and acarbose is associated with reduced mortality of COVID‐19 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
76% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Retrospective 131 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes, showing lower mortality with metformin treatment and acarbose treatment.
Sep 9
2021
Ando et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-96720-x Impact of overlapping risks of type 2 diabetes and obesity on coronavirus disease severity in the United States
39% lower hospitalization [p=0.04]. Retrospective 28,093 COVID+ patients in the USA, showing lower risk of hospitalization with metformin use.
Sep 7
2021
Wang et al., BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002299 Evaluation and management of COVID-19-related severity in people with type 2 diabetes
12% lower ICU admission [p=0.005]. Retrospective 16,504 COVID-19 type 2 diabetes patients, showing lower risk of ICU admission with existing metformin use.
Aug 31
2021
Yang et al., Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108977 (meta analysis) The effect of metformin on mortality and severity in COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus
36% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. Meta analysis of 17 studies including 20,719 COVID-19 patients with diabetes, showing lower risk of mortality and severity with metformin.
Aug 31
2021
Reis et al., The Lancet Regional Health - Americas, doi:10.1016/j.lana.2021.100142 (date from earlier preprint) Effect of early treatment with metformin on risk of emergency care and hospitalization among patients with COVID-19: The TOGETHER randomized platform clinical trial
27% lower mortality [p=0.53], 6% lower hospitalization [p=0.88], 14% more combined hospitalization/ER visits [p=0.58], and 31% lower progression [p=0.48]. Data for the primary outcome in this trial appears to be impossible [doyourownresearch.substack.com]. For example, considering the metformin arm and the ITT population: 24 were hospitalized and 8 had an ER visit (tables S2/S3), therefore ..
Aug 20
2021
Cheng et al., Cell Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2020.08.013 Metformin Is Associated with Higher Incidence of Acidosis, but Not Mortality, in Individuals with COVID-19 and Pre-existing Type 2 Diabetes
65% higher mortality [p=0.25]. Retrospective 1,213 hospitalized diabetic COVID-19 patients in China, showing no significant difference in mortality with pre-existing metformin use.
Jul 18
2021
Boye et al., Diabetes Therapy, doi:10.1007/s13300-021-01110-1 Risk Factors Associated with COVID-19 Hospitalization and Mortality: A Large Claims-Based Analysis Among People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the United States
10% lower hospitalization [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 9531 COVID+ diabetes patients in the USA, showing lower risk of hospitalization with existing biguanides treatment (defined as mainly metformin in the abstract and entirely metformin in the text).
Jul 17
2021
Blanc et al., GeroScience, doi:10.1007/s11357-021-00397-z Therapeutic prevention of COVID-19 in elderly: a case–control study
79% lower mortality [p=0.06] and 44% more cases [p=0.12]. Retrospective 179 patients in France exposed to COVID-19 showing, without statistical significance, a higher risk of cases, and a lower risk of mortality among cases with existing metformin treatment.
Jul 13
2021
Tamura et al., Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, doi:10.1186/s13098-021-00695-8 Outcome and death risk of diabetes patients with Covid-19 receiving pre-hospital and in-hospital metformin therapies
97% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Retrospective 188 hospitalized patients in Brazil, showing lower risk of mortality with metformin use. Authors note that, although pre-hospital metformin use improved clinical parameters at admission, continuous use during hospitalization..
May 5
2021
Ravindra et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.20.21255792 Retrospective Assessment of Treatments of Hospitalized Covid-19 Patients
30% lower mortality [p=0.42]. Retrospective 1,035 hospitalized patients in India. Of 366 diabetic patients, there was lower mortality for the 53 that were on metformin.
Apr 14
2021
Gálvez-Barrón et al., Gerontology, doi:10.1159/000515159 COVID-19: Clinical Presentation and Prognostic Factors of Severe Disease and Mortality in the Oldest-Old Population: A Cohort Study
16% higher mortality [p=0.46] and 16% higher severe cases [p=0.46]. Analysis of 103 elderly hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Spain, showing higher mortality with metformin, without statistical significance.
Apr 6
2021
Alamgir et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.22.21254110 (Preprint) Drug repositioning candidates identified using in-silico quasi-quantum molecular simulation demonstrate reduced COVID-19 mortality in 1.5M patient records
27% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. In Silico study followed by PSM analysis of the National COVID Cohort Collaborative data in the USA, showing 27% lower mortality with metformin use.
Mar 31
2021
Ghany et al., Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.02.022 Metformin is associated with lower hospitalizations, mortality and severe coronavirus infection among elderly medicare minority patients in 8 states in USA
66% lower mortality [p=0.0002], 29% lower hospitalization [p=0.008], and 68% lower ARDS [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 1,139 elderly COVID+ patients in the USA, 392 with pre-existing metformin use, showing significantly lower mortality, hospitalization, and ARDS with treatment.
Mar 31
2021
Jiang et al., Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108619 Association of metformin with mortality or ARDS in patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes: A retrospective cohort study
46% lower mortality [p=0.4] and 80% lower progression [p=0.02]. Retrospective 328 COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes in China, showing significantly lower risk of ARDS with existing metformin use.
Mar 30
2021
Khunti et al., The Lacent Diabetes & Endocrinology, doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00050-4 Prescription of glucose-lowering therapies and risk of COVID-19 mortality in people with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide observational study in England
23% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 2,851,465 people with type 2 diabetes in the UK, showing lower mortality with existing metformin use. Results are subject to confounding by indication because metformin is typically used early in the progression of type 2 di..
Mar 30
2021
Holt et al., Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-217487 Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
27% more cases [p=0.42]. Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistica..
Feb 17
2021
Wargny et al., Diabetologia, doi:10.1007/s00125-020-05351-w Predictors of hospital discharge and mortality in patients with diabetes and COVID-19: updated results from the nationwide CORONADO study
28% lower mortality [p=0.03] and 15% higher hospital discharge [p=0.02]. Retrospective 2,796 hospitalized diabetes patients with COVID-19 in France, showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Feb 13
2021
Oh et al., Acta Diabetologica, doi:10.1007/s00592-020-01666-7 Metformin use and risk of COVID-19 among patients with type II diabetes mellitus: an NHIS-COVID-19 database cohort study
26% higher mortality [p=0.3] and 28% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 27,493 type II diabetes patients in the USA, 7,204 on metformin, showing significantly lower COVID-19 cases, but no significant difference in mortality.
Jan 31
2021
Lally et al., Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2020.10.031 Metformin is Associated with Decreased 30-Day Mortality Among Nursing Home Residents Infected with SARS-CoV2
52% lower mortality [p=0.009]. Retrospective 775 nursing home residents in the USA, showing lower mortality with existing metformin use.
Jan 13
2021
Crouse et al., Front. Endocrinol., doi:10.3389/fendo.2020.600439 Metformin Use Is Associated With Reduced Mortality in a Diverse Population With COVID-19 and Diabetes
61% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Retrospective 219 COVID-19+ diabetes patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with existing metformin treatment.
Dec 19
2020
Huh et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.041 Association of prescribed medications with the risk of COVID-19 infection and severity among adults in South Korea
1% higher progression [p=0.11] and 4% fewer cases [p=0.82]. Retrospective database analysis showing no significant differences with pre-existing metformin use.
Dec 10
2020
Lalau et al., Diabetes & Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.diabet.2020.101216 Metformin use is associated with a reduced risk of mortality in patients with diabetes hospitalised for COVID-19
22% lower mortality [p=0.16], 18% lower combined mortality/intubation [p=0.21], and 7% lower ventilation [p=0.72]. Retrospective 2,449 hospitalized COVID-19 diabetes patients in France, 1,496 with existing metformin use, showing lower mortality with treatment. Statistical significance was reached in model 1 but not in models 2-4 which also adjust for ..
Dec 3
2020
Bramante et al., The Lancet Healthy Longevity, doi:10.1016/S2666-7568(20)30033-7 Metformin and risk of mortality in patients hospitalised with COVID-19: a retrospective cohort analysis
7% lower mortality [p=0.15]. Retrospective 6,256 COVID-19+ diabetes patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with existing metformin treatment, statistically significant only for women.
Nov 17
2020
Kolin et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0241264 Clinical, regional, and genetic characteristics of Covid-19 patients from UK Biobank
30% more cases [p=0.08]. 397,064 patient UK Biobank retrospective showing higher risk of COVID-19 with metformin use, without statistical significance.
Nov 16
2020
Pérez-Belmonte et al., BMC Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12916-020-01832-2 Mortality and other adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted for COVID-19 in association with glucose-lowering drugs: a nationwide cohort study
10% higher mortality [p=0.48]. Retrospective 2,666 type 2 diabetes COVID-19 patients in Spain, showing higher mortality with existing metformin use (not statistically significant).
Nov 11
2020
Lukito et al., Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.11.006 (meta analysis) The Effect of Metformin Consumption on Mortality in Hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Meta analysis of 9 studies showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Oct 19
2020
Gao et al., Clinical and Translational Science, doi:10.1111/cts.12897 Risk of Metformin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes With COVID‐19: A Preliminary Retrospective Report
225% higher progression [p=0.05]. Retrospective 110 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes in China, showing increased risk of severity with metformin.
Oct 13
2020
Goodall et al., Epidemiology and Infection, doi:10.1017/S0950268820002472 Risk factors for severe disease in patients admitted with COVID-19 to a hospital in London, England: a retrospective cohort study
3% lower mortality [p=0.81]. Retrospective 981 hospitalized patients in the UK, showing no significant difference with metformin use.
Oct 1
2020
Li et al., Endocrine Practice, doi:10.4158/EP-2020-0466 Metformin Use in Diabetes Prior to Hospitalization: Effects on Mortality in Covid-19
78% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Retrospective 131 type II diabetes patients with COVID pneumonia, showing lower mortality with existing metformin use. Acarbose (commonly used in China as an initial therapy for diabetes) did not have a similar association with mortality,..
Sep 30
2020
Kow et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26498 (meta analysis) Mortality risk with preadmission metformin use in patients with COVID‐19 and diabetes: A meta‐analysis
Meta analysis of 5 studies showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Aug 18
2020
Hariyanto et al., Obesity Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.obmed.2020.100290 (meta analysis) Metformin use is associated with reduced mortality rate from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection
Meta analysis of 5 studies showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Aug 12
2020
Kim et al., Diabetes & Metabolism Journal, doi:10.4093/dmj.2020.0146 The Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection and Diabetes in Daegu, South Korea
64% lower mortality [p=0.1] and 52% lower progression [p=0.13]. Retrospective 235 hospitalized diabetes patients in South Korea, showing lower mortality and lower progression to severe disease with metformin.
Jul 31
2020
Chen et al., Diabetes Care, doi:10.2337/dc20-0660 Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Diabetes and COVID-19 in Association With Glucose-Lowering Medication
33% lower mortality [p=0.46]. Retrospective 120 COVID-19 diabetes patients, showing non-statistically significantly lower mortality with existing metformin treatment.
Jul 14
2020
Wang et al., Journal of Hematology & Oncology, doi:10.1186/s13045-020-00934-x A tertiary center experience of multiple myeloma patients with COVID-19: lessons learned and the path forward
58% lower mortality [p=0.43]. Retrospective 58 multiple myeloma COVID-19 patients in the USA, showing non-statistically significant lower mortality with metformin treatment.
Jun 23
2020
Choi et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm9061959 Clinical Characteristics and Disease Progression in Early-Stage COVID-19 Patients in South Korea
120% higher progression [p=0.26]. Retrospective 293 patients in South Korea, showing higher risk of progression with metformin use, without statistical significance.
May 21
2020
Luo et al., The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.20-0375 Metformin Treatment Was Associated with Decreased Mortality in COVID-19 Patients with Diabetes in a Retrospective Analysis
75% lower mortality [p=0.02]. Retrospective 283 COVID-19+ diabetes patients in China, showing lower mortality with existing metformin treatment.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Thanks for your feedback! Please search before submitting papers and note that studies are listed under the date they were first available, which may be the date of an earlier preprint.
Submit