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Metformin for COVID-19
88 studies from 1,099 scientists
273,498 patients in 25 countries
Statistically significant lower risk for mortality, ventilation, ICU, hospitalization, progression, and recovery.
54 studies from 51 independent teams in 18 countries show statistically significant improvements.
COVID-19 Metformin studies. Apr 2024. c19early.org
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 29% With exclusions 30% Mortality 34% Hospitalization 18% Cases 5% Viral clearance 26% RCTs 45% RCT mortality 45% Prophylaxis 26% Early 58% Late 53% Favorsmetformin Favorscontrol
Most studies analyze existing use with diabetic patients, and many results may be subject to confounding by indication — metformin is typically used early in the progression of type 2 diabetes. Prophylaxis results typically include continuing use after infection and hospitalization, and greater benefit is seen for more serious outcomes. Recent:
Akinosoglou
Lockwood
Qiu
Dimnjaković
Silverii
Halma
De Jesús-González.
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Apr 23
Covid Analysis Metformin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 88 studies
Statistically significant lower risk is seen for mortality, ventilation, ICU admission, hospitalization, progression, and recovery. 54 studies from 51 independent teams in 18 countries show statistically significant improvements. Meta ana..
Apr 5
Lockwood, T., BioMetals, doi:10.1007/s10534-024-00590-5 Coordination chemistry suggests that independently observed benefits of metformin and Zn2+ against COVID-19 are not independent
In Silico analysis suggesting potential benefits of metformin and zinc for COVID-19. Author proposes that metformin can form a complex with zinc ions, increasing zinc bioavailability, and that the metformin-zinc complex may slow viral mul..
Mar 30
Qiu et al., Global Epidemiology, doi:10.1016/j.gloepi.2024.100142 Estimating the effect of realistic improvements of metformin adherence on COVID-19 mortality using targeted machine learning
Retrospective 61,180 COVID-19 positive patients with chronic metformin prescriptions showing lower COVID-19 mortality with improved metformin adherence, as measured by proportion of days covered.
Mar 27
Dimnjaković et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0301056 Association of anti-diabetic drugs and covid-19 outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and chronic kidney disease: Nationwide registry analysis
23% lower hospitalization (p=0.004) and 12% fewer cases (p=0.04). Retrospective 7,539 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and chronic kidney disease in Croatia showing lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection with SGLT-2 inhibitors, metformin, and repaglinide use, and lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization..
Mar 24
Silverii et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm13071874 Is Metformin Use Associated with a More Favorable COVID-19 Course in People with Diabetes?
29% lower mortality (p=0.5). Retrospective 524 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes in Italy, showing lower risk of mortality with metformin use, without statistical significance. The results adjusted only for COVID-19 MRS differ between the text and Figure 2.
Mar 7
Lewandowski et al., Biomedicines, doi:10.3390/biomedicines12030605 Insulin and Metformin Administration: Unravelling the Multifaceted Association with Mortality across Various Clinical Settings Considering Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and COVID-19
23% lower mortality (p=0.15). Retrospective 430 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes in Poland showing lower mortality with metformin and higher mortality with remdesivir, convalescent plasma, and aspirin in univariable analysis. These results were not..
Feb 13
De Jesús-González et al., Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms12020383 A Dual Pharmacological Strategy against COVID-19: The Therapeutic Potential of Metformin and Atorvastatin
Review of the therapeutic potential of metformin and atorvastatin against COVID-19. Authors discuss the immunomodulatory and antiviral capabilities of these commonly prescribed diabetes and cholesterol medications. They note metformin's a..
Feb 11
Petakh et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v16020281 Metformin Alters mRNA Expression of FOXP3, RORC, and TBX21 and Modulates Gut Microbiota in COVID-19 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Retrospective 30 COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes showing improved T lymphocyte gene expression, gut microbiota diversity, and lower inflammatory markers with metformin treatment. Metformin-treated patients had a 1.96-fold increase ..
Jan 30
Halma et al., Endocrine and Metabolic Science, doi:10.1016/j.endmts.2024.100163 Exploring autophagy in treating SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-related pathology
Review of autophagy pathways for treating SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-related pathology. Authors note that the spike protein is implicated in long COVID and post-vaccination syndrome through mechanisms like inflammation, vascular damage, and..
Jan 29
Jang et al., Endocrinology and Metabolism, doi:10.3803/EnM.2024.1857 Impact of Antidiabetic Drugs on Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
60% lower mortality (p=0.02), 72% lower ventilation (p=0.008), 39% lower ICU admission (p=0.12), and 30% lower need for oxygen therapy (p=0.23). Retrospective 556 diabetic patients in South Korea with COVID-19 showing lower risk of mechanical ventilation and death with metformin, lower risks of oxygen treatment and death with DPP-4 inhibitors, and increased risk of mechanical vent..
Jan 17
Yang et al., Cell Stem Cell, doi:10.1016/j.stem.2023.12.012 SARS-CoV-2 infection causes dopaminergic neuron senescence
In vitro study suggesting that metformin may protect against SARS-CoV-2-induced neurological disorders. Authors show that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces senescence and inflammation in human pluripotent stem cell-derived midbrain dopamine ne..
Jan 14
Zhang et al., Pathogens, doi:10.3390/pathogens13010075 SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a Protein as a Therapeutic Target against COVID-19 and Long-Term Post-Infection Effects
Review of the ORF3a protein of SARS-CoV-2 as a therapeutic target for COVID-19 due to its role in viral pathogenesis, triggering cytokine storms, tissue damage, and disease severity. Existing drugs doxycycline, metformin, and ibrutinib ar..
Dec 18
2023
Mehrizi et al., Frontiers in Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2023.1280434 Drug prescription patterns and their association with mortality and hospitalization duration in COVID-19 patients: insights from big data
44% lower mortality (p<0.0001). Retrospective study of 917,198 hospitalized COVID-19 cases covered by the Iran Health Insurance Organization over 26 months showing that antithrombotics, corticosteroids, and antivirals reduced mortality while diuretics, antibiotics, and..
Dec 1
2023
Al-kuraishy et al., European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, doi:10.26355/eurrev_202312_34583 The potential therapeutic effect of metformin in type 2 diabetic patients with severe COVID-19
78% lower mortality (p=0.01) and 41% improved recovery (p=0.0002). Prospective study of 60 hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients with COVID-19 on metformin monotherapy compared to 40 patients on other diabetes treatments, showing significantly lower inflammatory biomarkers, oxidative stress, and mortalit..
Nov 30
2023
Mamari et al., Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, doi:10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00831 The effect of Chronic treatments of Type 2-diabetes mellitus on COVID-19 Morbidity and Symptoms Severity
50% lower mortality (p=0.01). Retrospective 109 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Syria, 68 with diabetes, showing significantly lower mortality with metformin vs. sulfonylureas, and significantly higher mortality with discontinuation of metformin.
Nov 17
2023
Miguel et al., Redox Biology, doi:10.1016/j.redox.2023.102957 Enhanced fatty acid oxidation through metformin and baicalin as therapy for COVID-19 and associated inflammatory states in lung and kidney
37% lower ICU admission (p=0.24). Mouse models showing reduced lung and kidney injury with metformin. Metformin minimized lung damage and fibrosis in a mouse model of LPS-induced ARDS, and reduced UUO and FAN-induced kidney fibrosis. In Vitro study showing that metformin ..
Nov 7
2023
Avula et al., Journal of Clinical and Translational Science, doi:10.1017/cts.2023.668 Strategies used for the COVID-OUT decentralized trial of outpatient treatment of SARS-CoV-2
Report on the operation of the COVID-OUT trial noting several issues affecting the reliability of the results: - Use of home pulse oximeters for measuring oxygen saturation: authors note that the FDA warned about inaccuracies with home pu..
Oct 19
2023
Bidari et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.47354 Development of a Scoring Method Based on a Chest CT Scan to Determine the Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients
10% lower severe cases (p=0.53). Retrospective 406 COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing lower risk of severe cases with metformin use in unadjusted results, without statistical significance.
Oct 10
2023
Petakh et al., Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, doi:10.3389/fmolb.2023.1260633 Unveiling the potential pleiotropic effects of metformin in treating COVID-19: a comprehensive review
Review of the potential pleiotropic effects of metformin in treating COVID-19. Authors explore the potential of metformin, a medication commonly used for type 2 diabetes, as an antiviral and anti-inflammatory agent in COVID-19. Metformin ..
Sep 28
2023
Wang et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2023.1215307 Effects of metformin on acute respiratory distress syndrome in preclinical studies: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Systematic review and meta-analysis of 15 non-COVID-19 preclinical studies of metformin for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or acute lung injury (ALI), showing that metformin inhibits pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress..
Sep 28
2023
Lee et al., Heliyon, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e20284 Metformin reduces the risk of developing influenza A virus related cardiovascular disease
Retrospective clinical study, in vitro study, and mouse study of metformin for influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Authors performed a retrospective analysis of 654 diabetic patients, finding that metformin treatment was associated with a ..
Sep 20
2023
Farah et al., Journal of International Medical Research, doi:10.1177/03000605231198413 Prevalence and risk factors of COVID-19 infection, mortality, and post-infection lung fibrosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study
3% more cases (p=0.87). Retrospective 1,039 diabetes patients in Jordan, showing no significant difference in COVID-19 cases with metformin use in unadjusted results. Severity outcomes are not provided for metformin.
Sep 10
2023
Zihono et al., Folia Medica Indonesiana, doi:10.20473/fmi.v59i3.46944 Metformin Effectiveness in Reducing Mortality among Covid-19 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at a Tertiary Hospital in Indonesia
49% lower mortality (p=0.02). Retrospective 137 hospitalized mild to moderate COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes in Indonesia, showing a significantly lower mortality with metformin treatment.
Aug 30
2023
Petrelli et al., Acta Biomedica Atenei Parmensis, doi:10.23750/abm.v94iS3.14405 Metformin and Covid-19: a systematic review of systematic reviews with meta-analysis
31% lower mortality (p<0.0001) and 20% lower severe cases (p=0.03). Systematic review and meta analysis of 36 studies showing significantly lower COVID-19 mortality and severity with metformin use.
Aug 24
2023
Guo et al., Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity, doi:10.2147/DMSO.S417925 Effects of Metformin on COVID-19 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Study
62% lower combined mortality/intubation (p=0.03) and 81% lower progression (p=0.003). Retrospective 571 type 2 diabetes patients with COVID-19 in China, showing lower combined mortality/mechanical ventilation with metformin.
Aug 18
2023
Greco et al., Biomedicines, doi:10.3390/biomedicines11082292 The Impact of GLP-1 RAs and DPP-4is on Hospitalisation and Mortality in the COVID-19 Era: A Two-Year Observational Study
22% lower hospitalization (p=0.11). Retrospective 76,764 diabetes patients in Italy, showing that patients on metformin had lower rates of COVID-19 hospitalization compared to those on insulin/insulin secretagogues, GLP-1 receptor agonists, and DPP-4 inhibitors. Metformin v..
Aug 12
2023
Zhou et al., Frontiers in Endocrinology, doi:10.3389/fendo.2023.1237832 Clinical characteristics and acute complication of COVID-19 patients with diabetes: a multicenter, retrospective study in Southern China
Retrospective 298 hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients in China showing metformin use associated with not having COVID-19, however the analysis considers treatment during hospitalization, and authors note that in this population metformi..
Aug 1
2023
Tseng, K., 內科學誌, doi:10.6314/JIMT.202308_34(4).04 Metformin and Coronavirus Disease 2019: A New Deal for an Old Drug
Review of metformin for COVID-19, particularly in patients with preexisting type 2 diabetes. Author summarizes the evidence that metformin has broad anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antiviral, and endothelial protective effects, in ad..
Jul 13
2023
Taher et al., Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, doi:10.3892/etm.2023.12114 Anti‑inflammatory effect of metformin against an experimental model of LPS‑induced cytokine storm
Mouse study showing that metformin attenuated LPS-induced increases in inflammatory cytokines, demonstrating an anti-inflammatory effect that may be useful against cytokine storm. 60 female mice were pretreated with oral or intraperitonea..
Jun 24
2023
Piarulli et al., Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2023.06.016 Association of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors with best COVID-19 outcomes in a diabetic population of the Veneto Region (north-east Italy): a lesson for endemic phase?
53% lower combined mortality/ICU admission (p=0.08) and 45% lower hospitalization (p=0.0002). Retrospective diabetic COVID-19 patients in Italy, showing lower risk of hospitalization with metformin use.
Jun 8
2023
Obiri-Yeboah et al., Endocrine Practice, doi:10.1016/j.eprac.2023.06.001 Association of metformin, dipeptidyl dipeptidase-4 inhibitors, and insulin with COVID-19-related hospital outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes
1% higher mortality (p=0.98), 4% higher ventilation (p=0.87), and 8% lower ICU admission (p=0.72). Retrospective 529 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes, showing no significant difference in outcomes with metformin use. This does not account for the different risk of being hospitalized based on metformin use. Authors no..
Jun 6
2023
Alieva et al., Obesity and metabolism, doi:10.14341/omet12801 Factors influencing the severity of COVID-19 course for patients with diabetes mellitus in tashkent: a retrospective cohort study
15% lower hospitalization (p=0.56). Retrospective 763 COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes in Uzbekistan, showing lower hospitalization with metformin use in unadjusted results, without statistical significance.
May 27
2023
Akinosoglou et al., Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms11061416 COVID-19 Outcomes and Diabetes Mellitus: A Comprehensive Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study
37% lower mortality (p=0.12), 39% higher ICU admission (p=0.26), and 3% higher ARDS (p=0.92). Prospective multicenter study of 354 hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients with COVID-19 in Greece showing increased risk with DPP4 inhibitor use as part of chronic diabetes treatment. There was no significant difference with metformin us..
May 19
2023
Araldi et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2023.05.19.23290214 Effects of antidiabetic drugs on mortality risks in individuals with type 2 diabetes: A prospective cohort study of UK Biobank participants
60% lower mortality (p<0.0001). UK Biobank retrospective including 43,610 type 2 diabetes patients, showing lower mortality with metformin use within matched type 2 diabetes patients.
May 19
2023
Schlesinger et al., Diabetologia, doi:10.1007/s00125-023-05928-1 Risk phenotypes of diabetes and association with COVID-19 severity and death: an update of a living systematic review and meta-analysis
31% lower mortality (p<0.0001) and 22% lower severe cases (p<0.0001). Systematic review and meta analysis showing significantly lower COVID-19 mortality and severity with metformin use. Authors analyze 169 studies of diabetes patients, with 23 reporting mortality results and 34 reporting severity results fo..
May 15
2023
Petakh et al., Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2023.114892 The F/B ratio as a biomarker for inflammation in COVID-19 and T2D: Impact of metformin
Analysis of 115 pateints in Ukraine, providing evidence that the gut microbiome may play a role in the inflammatory response of COVID-19 patients, that the firmicutes/bacteroidetes ratio may be a potential biomarker for inflammation, and ..
May 6
2023
Yen et al., Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2023.110692 Metformin use before COVID-19 vaccination and the risks of COVID-19 incidence, medical utilization, and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
25% lower mortality (p=0.001), 25% lower ventilation (p=0.01), 19% lower ICU admission (p=0.005), and 15% lower hospitalization (p<0.0001). TriNetX retrospective 123,709 vaccinated patients with type 2 diabetes, showing significantly lower risk of COVID-19 mortality, mechanical ventilation, and hospitalization with metformin use. There was no significant difference for cases...
Apr 28
2023
Petakh et al., MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1127.v1 Metformin Therapy Changes Gut Microbiota Alpha-Diversity in COVID-19 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of SARS-CoV-2 Variants and Antibiotic Treatment
Retrospective 120 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing lower alpha diversity of gut microbiota associated with antibiotic use, type 2 diabetes, longer hospital stays, higher CRP levels, and higher NLR. Metformin therapy was associated w..
Mar 31
2023
Sandhu et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0282961 Outpatient medications associated with protection from COVID-19 hospitalization
3% lower hospitalization (p=0.004). Retrospective 3,974,272 COVID-19 patients in the USA, showing 3% lower risk of hospitalization with pre-existing metformin use.
Feb 23
2023
Ma et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0282210 Is metformin use associated with low mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus hospitalized for COVID-19? a multivariable and propensity score-adjusted meta-analysis
Meta analysis of 22 metformin studies, showing significantly lower mortality with metformin use prior to hospitalization.
Jan 31
2023
Parveen et al., Annals of the National Academy of Medical Sciences (India), doi:10.1055/s-0042-1760353 Association of Metformin with Mortality in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
37% lower mortality (p<0.0001). Systematic review and meta analysis showing significantly lower mortality with metformin.
Jan 20
2023
Chertok Shacham et al., Medicine, doi:10.1097/md.0000000000032650 Blood glucose control with different treatment regimens in type 2 diabetes patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection: A retrospective study
45% lower mortality (p=0.0001) and 7% shorter hospitalization (p=0.5). Retrospective 359 COVID-19 patients with diabetes in Israel, showing lower mortality in the other treatments group compared to the insulin group, with 80% of the other treatments group receiving metformin. Groups refer to use during hospi..
Jan 6
2023
Pinchera et al., Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms11010145 Diabetes and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The Potential Role of Antidiabetic Therapy in the Evolution of COVID-19
15% lower severe cases (p=0.05). Retrospective 43 diabetes patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Italy, showing lower risk of severe cases with metformin vs. insulin.
Dec 31
2022
Khafri et al., Current Research in Medical Sciences, doi:10.22088/crms.6.2.32 Comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 in diabetic patients using different glucose-lowering drugs: a retrospective study
Retrospective 157 diabetic patients in Iran reporting shorter hospitalization with metformin, however numbers in this paper are inconsistent. The counts and percentages for death in Table 1 are not possible - 11 (13.92%) for metformin cou..
Dec 24
2022
Bramante et al., The Lancet Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(23)00299-2 Outpatient treatment of COVID-19 and incidence of post-COVID-19 condition over 10 months (COVID-OUT): a multicentre, randomised, quadruple-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 trial
41% lower PASC (p=0.01). Long-term 10 month followup for NCT04510194, showing significantly lower incidence of PASC with metformin treatment. Adjusted results are provided for metformin but not for ivermectin or fluvoxamine. For many issues with this trial, see [..
Dec 7
2022
Servais et al., Annals of Endocrinology, doi:10.1016/j.ando.2023.08.002 Mortality-related risk factors of inpatients with diabetes and COVID-19: a multicenter retrospective study in Belgium
49% lower mortality (p=0.002). Retrospective 375 hospitalized diabetes patients in Belgium, showing lower risk of COVID-19 mortality with metformin use.
Nov 9
2022
Miao et al., Frontiers in Endocrinology, doi:10.3389/fendo.2022.1002834 Metformin use and mortality and length of stay among hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes and COVID-19: A multiracial, multiethnic, urban observational study
1% lower mortality (p=0.91) and 5% shorter hospitalization (p=0.23). Retrospective 4,462 COVID+ diabetes patients in the USA, showing no significant difference in outcomes with metformin use.
Nov 9
2022
Milosavljevic et al., Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives, doi:10.55729/2000-9666.1127 Evaluation of Glycemic Control and Predictors of Severe Illness and Death in Patients With Diabetes Hospitalized With COVID-19
33% lower severe cases (p=0.03). Retrospective 733 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes in the USA, showing lower risk of severity with metformin use.
Oct 31
2022
Mannucci et al., Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, doi:10.2147/DMSO.S385646 Infection Rates and Impact of Glucose Lowering Medications on the Clinical Course of COVID-19 in People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Observational Study
38% lower mortality (p=0.02) and 15% lower hospitalization (p=0.25). Retrospective 54,009 diabetes patients in Italy, showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Oct 10
2022
Morrison et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0275787 COVID-19 outcomes in patients taking cardioprotective medications
41% lower mortality (p=0.003), 16% higher ventilation (p=0.49), 3% lower ICU admission (p=0.85), and 4% higher hospitalization (p=0.72). Retrospective 13,585 COVID+ patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with metformin use, but no significant difference for ventilation, ICU admission, and hospitalization.
Oct 4
2022
Ouchi et al., Primary Care Diabetes, doi:10.1016/j.pcd.2022.10.001 Antidiabetic treatment and COVID-19 Outcomes: A population-based cohort study in primary health care in Catalonia during the first wave of the pandemic
10% lower mortality (p=0.19) and 8% lower combined mortality/hospitalization (p=0.12). Retrospective 31,006 diabetic COVID-19 patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with metformin treatment, without statistical significance. Authors provide results for metformin compared with untreated patients rather than all non-metfo..
Oct 1
2022
Petakh et al., Medical Archives, doi:10.5455/medarh.2022.76.329-332 Effects of Metformin, Insulin on Hematological Parameters of COVID-19 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Analysis of hematologic parameters in COVID-19 patients with diabetes in Ukraine, showing significantly lower CRP for patients taking metformin.
Sep 21
2022
Yip et al., SSRN Electronic Journal, doi:10.2139/ssrn.4225660 Metformin Does Not Reduce Hospitalisation for COVID-19
7% lower combined mortality/hospitalization (p=0.61) and 15% lower progression (p=0.16). Retrospective 12,331 diabetes patients in Hong Kong, showing no significant difference in outcomes with metformin use.
Sep 13
2022
Zaccardi et al., Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, doi:10.1111/dom.14872 Ethnicity and risks of severe COVID-19 outcomes associated with glucose-lowering medications: A cohort study
34% lower mortality (p<0.0001) and 31% lower hospitalization (p<0.0001). Retrospective 624,771 people with type 2 diabetes in the UK, showing lower COVID-19 mortality and hospitalization with metformin use.
Aug 31
2022
Ventura-López et al., Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113223 Treatment with metformin glycinate reduces SARS-CoV-2 viral load: An in vitro model and randomized, double-blind, Phase IIb clinical trial
44% lower need for oxygen therapy (p=0.03), 10% shorter hospitalization (p=0.35), and 41% faster viral clearance (p=0.03). RCT 20 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing faster viral load reduction and lower oxygen use with metformin glycinate 620mg twice daily for 14 days compared to placebo. The in vitro portion demonstrated inhibition of viral replication a..
Aug 30
2022
Chan et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.08.29.22279355 Metformin is Associated with Reduced COVID-19 Severity in Patients with Prediabetes
59% lower mortality (p=0.66), 54% lower severe cases (p=0.37), and 42% lower progression (p=0.37). Retrospective 3,136 patients with prediabetes and 282 with PCOS, showing metformin associated with reduced COVID-19 severity.
Aug 18
2022
Bramante et al., NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2201662 Randomized Trial of Metformin, Ivermectin, and Fluvoxamine for Covid-19
52% lower combined mortality/hospitalization (p=0.09), 40% lower progression (p=0.03), and 37% improved viral clearance (p=0.0008). COVID-OUT remotely operated RCT, showing lower combined ER/hospitalization/death with metformin. Results for other treatments are listed separately - ivermectin , fluvoxamine . The "control" group includes patients receiving active treatm..
Aug 16
2022
Loucera et al., Virology Journal, doi:10.1186/s12985-023-02195-9 (date from preprint) Real-world evidence with a retrospective cohort of 15,968 COVID-19 hospitalized patients suggests 21 new effective treatments
30% lower mortality (p<0.0001). Retrospective 15,968 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with existing use of several medications including metformin, HCQ, azithromycin, aspirin, vitamin D, vitamin C, and budesonide. Since only hospitalized ..
Aug 9
2022
Shestakova et al., Frontiers in Endocrinology, doi:10.3389/fendo.2022.909874 Risk factors for COVID-19 case fatality rate in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: A nationwide retrospective cohort study of 235,248 patients in the Russian Federation
22% lower mortality (p=0.001). Retrospective 224,190 type 2 diabetes patients in Russia, showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Jul 6
2022
Cousins et al., Cell Reports Methods, doi:10.1016/j.crmeth.2023.100503 (date from preprint) Integrative analysis of functional genomic screening and clinical data identifies a protective role for spironolactone in severe COVID-19
50% lower ventilation (p=0.01) and 51% lower ICU admission (p<0.0001). PSM retrospective 64,349 COVID-19 patients in the USA, showing metformin associated with lower ICU admission and mechanical ventilation.
Jul 2
2022
Shaseb et al., Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, doi:10.34172/apb.2023.066 Long and Short-term Metformin Consumption as a Potential Therapy to Prevent Complications of COVID-19
74% lower mortality (p=0.06), 79% lower ventilation (p=0.05), 63% lower ICU admission (p=0.07), and 5% shorter hospitalization (p=0.52). RCT 189 hospitalized patients showing lower mortality, ICU admission, and intubation with metformin, statistically significant only for intubation. Treatment patients may have also taken metformin prior to admission. Authors note that pat..
Jun 29
2022
Hunt et al., Journal of General Internal Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11606-022-07701-3 Medications Associated with Lower Mortality in a SARS-CoV-2 Positive Cohort of 26,508 Veterans
67% lower mortality (p<0.0001). Retrospective 26,508 consecutive COVID+ veterans in the USA, showing lower mortality with multiple treatments including metformin. Treatment was defined as drugs administered ≥50% of the time within 2 weeks post-COVID+, and may be a cont..
Jun 9
2022
Yeh et al., BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2022-002774 Hospitalization and mortality in patients with COVID-19 with or at risk of type 2 diabetes: data from five health systems in Pennsylvania and Maryland
44% lower progression (p<0.0001) and 37% lower hospitalization (p<0.0001). Retrospective 4,944 COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes in the USA, showing lower risk of hospitalization and combined ICU/intubation/death with metformin use.
Apr 1
2022
Ma et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-09639-2 Metformin is associated with favorable outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes mellitus
74% lower mortality (p=0.03) and 25% lower ventilation (p=0.44). PSM/IPTW retrospective 1,356 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes in China, showing lower mortality/hospice with metformin use.
Mar 29
2022
MacFadden et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofac156 Screening Large Population Health Databases for Potential COVID-19 Therapeutics: A Pharmacopeia-Wide Association Study (PWAS) of Commonly Prescribed Medications
1% fewer cases (p=0.45). Retrospective 26,121 cases and 2,369,020 controls ≥65yo in Canada, showing no significant difference in cases with chronic use of metformin.
Mar 7
2022
Wong et al., Frontiers in Endocrinology, doi:10.3389/fendo.2022.810914 Metformin Use in Relation to Clinical Outcomes and Hyperinflammatory Syndrome Among COVID-19 Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Propensity Score Analysis of a Territory-Wide Cohort
59% lower mortality (p=0.01), 61% improved recovery (p=0.005), 64% greater improvement (p=0.009), and 56% higher hospital discharge (p=0.009). Retrospective 1,214 COVID+ type 2 diabetes patients in Hong Kong, showing lower mortality and improved recovery with metformin use.
Feb 24
2022
Wong et al., Diabetes Care, doi:10.2337/dc21-2186 Glycemic Control and Clinical Outcomes in U.S. Patients With COVID-19: Data From the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) Database
51% lower mortality (p<0.0001), 41% lower ventilation (p<0.0001), and 40% lower hospitalization (p<0.0001). N3C retrospective 39,616 COVID-19 patients with diabetes in the USA, showing lower mortality, ventilation, and hospitalization with metformin use.
Jan 18
2022
Usman et al., Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, doi:10.1007/s11239-022-02631-7 Metformin use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19: lower inflammation, oxidative stress, and thrombotic risk markers and better clinical outcomes
60% lower mortality (p=0.21), 76% lower ventilation (p=0.05), and 34% shorter hospitalization (p=0.13). Retrospective 75 diabetes patients, 34 on metformin, showing improved clinical outcomes with treatment, without statistical significance.
Jan 17
2022
Fu et al., International Journal of Endocrinology, doi:10.1155/2022/9322332 Prognostic Factors for COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients with Preexisting Type 2 Diabetes
72% improved recovery (p=0.03). Retrospective 108 T2D patients hospitalized with COVID-19, showing lower risk of unfavorable outcomes with metformin use vs. other diabetic medications.
Jan 10
2022
Ojeda-Fernández et al., Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, doi:10.1111/dom.14648 Metformin use is associated with a decrease in risk of hospitalization and mortality in COVID-19 diabetic patients: a population-based study in Lombardy
16% lower mortality (p<0.0001), 22% lower ICU admission (p=0.01), and 3% lower hospitalization (p=0.11). Retrospective 31,966 COVID+ patients using anti-hyperglycemic drugs in Italy, showing lower mortality and ICU admission with metformin use.
Dec 31
2021
Wallace et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050051 Association of the patterns of use of medications with mortality of COVID-19 infection: a hospital-based observational study
72% lower mortality (p<0.0001). Retrospective 9,532 hospitalized COVID+ veterans in the USA, showing lower mortality with metformin use. The study provides results for use before, after, and before+after. Before+after should more accurately represent prophylaxis up to C..
Nov 30
2021
Al-Salameh et al., Diabetes & Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.diabet.2021.101297 The association between metformin treatment and COVID-19 outcomes according to metformin continuation during hospitalisation
55% lower combined mortality/ICU admission (p=0.04). Retrospective 140 diabetic patients in France, showing lower mortality for patients where metformin use was continued after hospitalization.
Nov 19
2021
Parthasarathy et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.18.469078 Metformin Suppresses SARS-CoV-2 in Cell Culture
In Vitro study showing metformin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in Caco2 cells. Metformin reduced viral titers by nearly 99%, and by about 90% when cells were treated prior to infection.
Nov 8
2021
Bliden et al., Circulation, 144:A12228 Metformin Use in Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19: Lower Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Thrombotic Risk Markers and Better Clinical Outcomes
60% lower mortality (p=0.21) and 76% lower ventilation (p=0.05). Retrospective 75 diabetes patients, 34 on metformin, showing lower mortality with treatment in unadjusted results with minimal group details.
Oct 30
2021
Ong et al., Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies, doi:10.15605/jafes.036.02.20 Association Between Metformin Use and Mortality Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Hospitalized for COVID-19 Infection
47% lower mortality (p=0.02). Retrospective 355 diabetic hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the Philippines, showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Oct 29
2021
Saygili et al., Irish Journal of Medical Science, doi:10.1007/s11845-021-02823-9 Preadmission usage of metformin and mortality in COVID-19 patients including the post-discharge period
42% lower mortality (p=0.02). Retrospective 586 diabetic hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Turkey, showing lower mortality with existing metformin use.
Oct 6
2021
Wander et al., Diabetes Care, doi:10.2337/dc21-1351 Prior Glucose-Lowering Medication Use and 30-Day Outcomes Among 64,892 Veterans With Diabetes and COVID-19
15% lower mortality (p<0.0001), 2% lower ICU admission (p=0.62), and 3% lower hospitalization (p=0.09). Retrospective 64,892 veterans with diabetes in the USA, showing lower mortality with existing metformin use.
Sep 29
2021
Li et al., Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, doi:10.1002/edm2.301 Inpatient use of metformin and acarbose is associated with reduced mortality of COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
76% lower mortality (p=0.02). Retrospective 131 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes, showing lower mortality with metformin treatment and acarbose treatment.
Sep 16
2021
Kan et al., Frontiers in Endocrinology, doi:10.3389/fendo.2021.708494 Mortality Risk of Antidiabetic Agents for Type 2 Diabetes With COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
31% lower mortality (p=0.001). Meta analysis of 14 studies showing significantly lower COVID-19 mortality with metformin use.
Sep 9
2021
Ando et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-96720-x Impact of overlapping risks of type 2 diabetes and obesity on coronavirus disease severity in the United States
39% lower hospitalization (p=0.04). Retrospective 28,093 COVID+ patients in the USA, showing lower risk of hospitalization with metformin use.
Sep 7
2021
Wang et al., BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002299 Evaluation and management of COVID-19-related severity in people with type 2 diabetes
12% lower ICU admission (p=0.005). Retrospective 16,504 COVID-19 type 2 diabetes patients, showing lower risk of ICU admission with existing metformin use.
Aug 31
2021
Yang et al., Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108977 The effect of metformin on mortality and severity in COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus
36% lower mortality (p<0.0001). Meta analysis of 17 studies including 20,719 COVID-19 patients with diabetes, showing lower risk of mortality and severity with metformin.
Aug 31
2021
Reis et al., The Lancet Regional Health - Americas, doi:10.1016/j.lana.2021.100142 (date from preprint) Effect of early treatment with metformin on risk of emergency care and hospitalization among patients with COVID-19: The TOGETHER randomized platform clinical trial
27% lower mortality (p=0.53), 6% lower hospitalization (p=0.88), 14% more combined hospitalization/ER visits (p=0.58), and 31% lower progression (p=0.48). Data for the primary outcome in this trial appears to be impossible [doyourownresearch.substack.com]. For example, considering the metformin arm and the ITT population: 24 were hospitalized and 8 had an ER visit (tables S2/S3), therefore ..
Aug 20
2021
Cheng et al., Cell Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2020.08.013 Metformin Is Associated with Higher Incidence of Acidosis, but Not Mortality, in Individuals with COVID-19 and Pre-existing Type 2 Diabetes
65% higher mortality (p=0.25). Retrospective 1,213 hospitalized diabetic COVID-19 patients in China, showing no significant difference in mortality with pre-existing metformin use.
Aug 19
2021
Li et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.704666 Metformin in Patients With COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
34% lower mortality (p<0.0001). Meta analysis of 19 studies showing metformin use associated with lower COVID-19 mortality and hospitalization.
Aug 9
2021
Poly et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10163507 Metformin Use Is Associated with Decreased Mortality in COVID-19 Patients with Diabetes: Evidence from Retrospective Studies and Biological Mechanism
34% lower mortality (p<0.0001). Meta analysis of 16 studies of diabetic patients showing significantly lower COVID-19 mortality with metformin use.
Jul 18
2021
Boye et al., Diabetes Therapy, doi:10.1007/s13300-021-01110-1 Risk Factors Associated with COVID-19 Hospitalization and Mortality: A Large Claims-Based Analysis Among People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the United States
10% lower hospitalization (p<0.0001). Retrospective 9531 COVID+ diabetes patients in the USA, showing lower risk of hospitalization with existing biguanides treatment (defined as mainly metformin in the abstract and entirely metformin in the text).
Jul 17
2021
Blanc et al., GeroScience, doi:10.1007/s11357-021-00397-z Therapeutic prevention of COVID-19 in elderly: a case–control study
79% lower mortality (p=0.06) and 44% more cases (p=0.12). Retrospective 179 patients in France exposed to COVID-19 showing, without statistical significance, a higher risk of cases, and a lower risk of mortality among cases with existing metformin treatment.
Jul 13
2021
Tamura et al., Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, doi:10.1186/s13098-021-00695-8 Outcome and death risk of diabetes patients with Covid-19 receiving pre-hospital and in-hospital metformin therapies
97% lower mortality (p=0.02). Retrospective 188 hospitalized patients in Brazil, showing lower risk of mortality with metformin use. Authors note that, although pre-hospital metformin use improved clinical parameters at admission, continuous use during hospitalization..
May 24
2021
Oscanoa et al., Clinical Diabetology, doi:10.5603/DK.a2021.0035 Metformin therapy and severity and mortality of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a meta-analysis
44% lower mortality (p<0.0001) and 15% lower severe cases (p=0.08). Meta analysis of 32 studies showing significantly lower COVID-19 mortality with metformin use.
May 5
2021
Ravindra et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.20.21255792 Retrospective Assessment of Treatments of Hospitalized Covid-19 Patients
30% lower mortality (p=0.42). Retrospective 1,035 hospitalized patients in India. Of 366 diabetic patients, there was lower mortality for the 53 that were on metformin.
Apr 14
2021
Gálvez-Barrón et al., Gerontology, doi:10.1159/000515159 COVID-19: Clinical Presentation and Prognostic Factors of Severe Disease and Mortality in the Oldest-Old Population: A Cohort Study
16% higher mortality (p=0.46) and 16% higher severe cases (p=0.46). Analysis of 103 elderly hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Spain, showing higher mortality with metformin, without statistical significance.
Apr 6
2021
Alamgir et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.22.21254110 Drug repositioning candidates identified using in-silico quasi-quantum molecular simulation demonstrate reduced COVID-19 mortality in 1.5M patient records
27% lower mortality (p<0.0001). In Silico study followed by PSM analysis of the National COVID Cohort Collaborative data in the USA, showing 27% lower mortality with metformin use.
Mar 31
2021
Ghany et al., Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.02.022 Metformin is associated with lower hospitalizations, mortality and severe coronavirus infection among elderly medicare minority patients in 8 states in USA
66% lower mortality (p=0.0002), 29% lower hospitalization (p=0.008), and 68% lower ARDS (p<0.0001). Retrospective 1,139 elderly COVID+ patients in the USA, 392 with pre-existing metformin use, showing significantly lower mortality, hospitalization, and ARDS with treatment.
Mar 31
2021
Jiang et al., Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108619 Association of metformin with mortality or ARDS in patients with COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes: A retrospective cohort study
46% lower mortality (p=0.4) and 80% lower progression (p=0.02). Retrospective 328 COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes in China, showing significantly lower risk of ARDS with existing metformin use.
Mar 30
2021
Khunti et al., The Lacent Diabetes & Endocrinology, doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00050-4 Prescription of glucose-lowering therapies and risk of COVID-19 mortality in people with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide observational study in England
23% lower mortality (p<0.0001). Retrospective 2,851,465 people with type 2 diabetes in the UK, showing lower mortality with existing metformin use. Results are subject to confounding by indication because metformin is typically used early in the progression of type 2 di..
Mar 30
2021
Holt et al., Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-217487 Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
27% more cases (p=0.42). Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistica..
Mar 23
2021
Bramante et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26873 Outpatient metformin use is associated with reduced severity of COVID‐19 disease in adults with overweight or obesity
62% lower mortality (p=0.03), 9% higher ICU admission (p=0.78), and 22% lower hospitalization (p=0.1). Retrospective 17,396 PCR+ patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Feb 17
2021
Wargny et al., Diabetologia, doi:10.1007/s00125-020-05351-w Predictors of hospital discharge and mortality in patients with diabetes and COVID-19: updated results from the nationwide CORONADO study
28% lower mortality (p=0.03) and 15% higher hospital discharge (p=0.02). Retrospective 2,796 hospitalized diabetes patients with COVID-19 in France, showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Feb 13
2021
Oh et al., Acta Diabetologica, doi:10.1007/s00592-020-01666-7 Metformin use and risk of COVID-19 among patients with type II diabetes mellitus: an NHIS-COVID-19 database cohort study
26% higher mortality (p=0.3) and 28% fewer cases (p<0.0001). Retrospective 27,493 type II diabetes patients in the USA, 7,204 on metformin, showing significantly lower COVID-19 cases, but no significant difference in mortality.
Jan 31
2021
Lally et al., Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2020.10.031 Metformin is Associated with Decreased 30-Day Mortality Among Nursing Home Residents Infected with SARS-CoV2
52% lower mortality (p=0.009). Retrospective 775 nursing home residents in the USA, showing lower mortality with existing metformin use.
Jan 13
2021
Crouse et al., Front. Endocrinol., doi:10.3389/fendo.2020.600439 Metformin Use Is Associated With Reduced Mortality in a Diverse Population With COVID-19 and Diabetes
61% lower mortality (p=0.02). Retrospective 219 COVID-19+ diabetes patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with existing metformin treatment.
Dec 28
2020
Ramos-Rincón et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-133358/v1 Association between prior cardiometabolic therapy and in-hospital mortality in very old patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus hospitalized due to COVID-19. A nationwide observational study in Spain
1% lower mortality (p=0.78). Retrospective 790 hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients ≥80 years old in Spain, showing no significant difference in mortality with existing metformin use.
Dec 19
2020
Huh et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.041 Association of prescribed medications with the risk of COVID-19 infection and severity among adults in South Korea
1% higher progression (p=0.11) and 4% fewer cases (p=0.82). Retrospective database analysis showing no significant differences with pre-existing metformin use.
Dec 10
2020
Lalau et al., Diabetes & Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.diabet.2020.101216 Metformin use is associated with a reduced risk of mortality in patients with diabetes hospitalised for COVID-19
22% lower mortality (p=0.16), 18% lower combined mortality/intubation (p=0.21), and 7% lower ventilation (p=0.72). Retrospective 2,449 hospitalized COVID-19 diabetes patients in France, 1,496 with existing metformin use, showing lower mortality with treatment. Statistical significance was reached in model 1 but not in models 2-4 which also adjust for ..
Dec 4
2020
Sourij et al., Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, doi:10.1111/dom.14256 COVID‐19 fatality prediction in people with diabetes and prediabetes using a simple score upon hospital admission
37% lower mortality (p=0.13). Retrospective 247 hospitalized COVID-19 diabetes patients, showing lower mortality with metformin use in unadjusted results.
Dec 3
2020
Bramante et al., The Lancet Healthy Longevity, doi:10.1016/S2666-7568(20)30033-7 Metformin and risk of mortality in patients hospitalised with COVID-19: a retrospective cohort analysis
12% lower mortality (p=0.65). Retrospective 6,256 COVID-19+ diabetes patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with existing metformin treatment, statistically significant only for women.
Nov 17
2020
Kolin et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0241264 Clinical, regional, and genetic characteristics of Covid-19 patients from UK Biobank
30% more cases (p=0.08). 397,064 patient UK Biobank retrospective showing higher risk of COVID-19 with metformin use, without statistical significance. Metformin is typically prescribed for diabetes, diabetes patients have significantly higher COVID-19 risk, and ..
Nov 16
2020
Pérez-Belmonte et al., BMC Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12916-020-01832-2 Mortality and other adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted for COVID-19 in association with glucose-lowering drugs: a nationwide cohort study
10% higher mortality (p=0.48). Retrospective 2,666 type 2 diabetes COVID-19 patients in Spain, showing higher mortality with existing metformin use (not statistically significant).
Nov 11
2020
Lukito et al., Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.11.006 The Effect of Metformin Consumption on Mortality in Hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
36% lower mortality (p=0.03). Meta analysis of 9 studies showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Oct 19
2020
Gao et al., Clinical and Translational Science, doi:10.1111/cts.12897 Risk of Metformin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes With COVID-19: A Preliminary Retrospective Report
225% higher progression (p=0.05). Retrospective 110 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes in China, showing increased risk of severity with metformin.
Oct 13
2020
Goodall et al., Epidemiology and Infection, doi:10.1017/S0950268820002472 Risk factors for severe disease in patients admitted with COVID-19 to a hospital in London, England: a retrospective cohort study
3% lower mortality (p=0.81). Retrospective 981 hospitalized patients in the UK, showing no significant difference with metformin use.
Oct 6
2020
Mirani et al., Diabetes Care, doi:10.2337/dc20-1340 Impact of Comorbidities and Glycemia at Admission and Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitors in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes With COVID-19: A Case Series From an Academic Hospital in Lombardy, Italy
45% lower mortality (p=0.1). Retrospective 90 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes in Italy, showing lower mortality with metformin use, without statistical significance.
Oct 1
2020
Li et al., Endocrine Practice, doi:10.4158/EP-2020-0466 Metformin Use in Diabetes Prior to Hospitalization: Effects on Mortality in Covid-19
78% lower mortality (p=0.02). Retrospective 131 type II diabetes patients with COVID pneumonia, showing lower mortality with existing metformin use. Acarbose (commonly used in China as an initial therapy for diabetes) did not have a similar association with mortality,..
Sep 30
2020
Kow et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26498 Mortality risk with preadmission metformin use in patients with COVID-19 and diabetes: A meta-analysis
Meta analysis of 5 studies showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Aug 23
2020
Abu-Jamous et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.08.20.20174169 Associations of comorbidities and medications with COVID-19 outcome: A retrospective analysis of real-world evidence data
65% lower mortality (p=0.04). Retrospective diabetes patients in the UK, showing lower mortality for metformin treatment (administered within 21 days after a positive PCR test).
Aug 18
2020
Hariyanto et al., Obesity Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.obmed.2020.100290 Metformin use is associated with reduced mortality rate from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection
Meta analysis of 5 studies showing lower mortality with metformin use.
Aug 12
2020
Kim et al., Diabetes & Metabolism Journal, doi:10.4093/dmj.2020.0146 The Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection and Diabetes in Daegu, South Korea
64% lower mortality (p=0.1) and 52% lower progression (p=0.13). Retrospective 235 hospitalized diabetes patients in South Korea, showing lower mortality and lower progression to severe disease with metformin.
Jul 31
2020
Chen et al., Diabetes Care, doi:10.2337/dc20-0660 Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Diabetes and COVID-19 in Association With Glucose-Lowering Medication
33% lower mortality (p=0.46). Retrospective 120 COVID-19 diabetes patients, showing non-statistically significantly lower mortality with existing metformin treatment.
Jul 14
2020
Wang et al., Journal of Hematology & Oncology, doi:10.1186/s13045-020-00934-x A tertiary center experience of multiple myeloma patients with COVID-19: lessons learned and the path forward
58% lower mortality (p=0.43). Retrospective 58 multiple myeloma COVID-19 patients in the USA, showing non-statistically significant lower mortality with metformin treatment.
Jun 23
2020
Choi et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm9061959 Clinical Characteristics and Disease Progression in Early-Stage COVID-19 Patients in South Korea
120% higher progression (p=0.26). Retrospective 293 patients in South Korea, showing higher risk of progression with metformin use, without statistical significance.
May 29
2020
Cariou et al., Diabetologia, doi:10.1007/s00125-020-05180-x Phenotypic characteristics and prognosis of inpatients with COVID-19 and diabetes: the CORONADO study
20% lower mortality (p=0.46). Analysis of 1,317 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes showing lower mortality with metformin use, without statistical significance.
May 21
2020
Luo et al., The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.20-0375 Metformin Treatment Was Associated with Decreased Mortality in COVID-19 Patients with Diabetes in a Retrospective Analysis
75% lower mortality (p=0.02). Retrospective 283 COVID-19+ diabetes patients in China, showing lower mortality with existing metformin treatment.
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