Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All metformin studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchMetforminMetformin (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -16% Improvement Relative Risk Severe case -16% Metformin  Gálvez-Barrón et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with metformin beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 103 patients in Spain (March - May 2020) Higher mortality (p=0.46) and severe cases (p=0.46), not sig. Gálvez-Barrón et al., Gerontology, Apr 2021 Favors metformin Favors control

COVID-19: Clinical Presentation and Prognostic Factors of Severe Disease and Mortality in the Oldest-Old Population: A Cohort Study

Gálvez-Barrón et al., Gerontology, doi:10.1159/000515159
Apr 2021  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Analysis of 103 elderly hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Spain, showing higher mortality with metformin, without statistical significance.
This study includes metformin and acetaminophen.
risk of death, 16.1% higher, RR 1.16, p = 0.46, treatment 20, control 83, odds ratio converted to relative risk, control prevalance approximated with overall prevalence.
risk of severe case, 16.1% higher, RR 1.16, p = 0.46, treatment 20, control 83, odds ratio converted to relative risk, control prevalance approximated with overall prevalence.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Gálvez-Barrón et al., 14 Apr 2021, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, mean age 86.8, 13 authors, study period 12 March, 2020 - 2 May, 2020.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperMetforminAll
COVID-19: Clinical Presentation and Prognostic Factors of Severe Disease and Mortality in the Oldest-Old Population: A Cohort Study
César Gálvez-Barrón, Marta Arroyo-Huidobro, Antonio Miňarro, Gemma Añaños, Antonio Chamero, Mireia Martín, Clara Gris, Jose L Avalos, Anna M Capielo, Ester Ventosa, Gemma Tremosa, Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero
Gerontology, doi:10.1159/000515159
Introduction: The oldest-old population (80 years or older) has the highest lethality from COVID-19. There is little information on the clinical presentation and specific prognostic factors for this group. This trial evaluated the clinical presentation and prognostic factors of severe disease and mortality in the oldest-old population. Methods: This is an ambispective cohort study of oldest-old patients hospitalized for respiratory infection associated with COVID-19 and with a positive test by RT-PCR. The clinical presentation and the factors associated with severe disease and mortality were evaluated (logistic regression). All patients were followed up until discharge or death. Results: A total of 103 patients (59.2% female) were included. The most frequent symptoms were fever (68.9%), dyspnoea (60.2%), and cough (39.8%), and 11.7% presented confusion. Fifty-nine patients (57.3%) presented severe disease, and 59 died, with 43 patients (41.7%) presenting both of these. In the multivariate analysis, female sex (odds ratio [OR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.13-0.73, p 0.0074) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.21-5.37, p 0.0139) were associated with severe disease, and serum sodium was associated with mortality (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.18-8.26, p 0.0222). No chronic disease or pharmacological treatment was associated with worse outcomes. Conclusions: The typical presenting symptoms of respiratory infection in COVID-19 are less frequent in the oldest-old population. Male sex and LDH level are associated with severe disease, and the serum sodium level is associated with mortality in this population.
Statement of Ethics The present study has been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and it was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge (act 12/20, PR 252/20, date June 25, 2020), which approved the study without the need for the informed consent of the patients, given the observational nature of the study and the anonymous nature of the data collected. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. Author Contributions César Gálvez-Barrón and Marta Arroyo-Huidobro analysed and interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript. Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero designed the trial and analysed and interpreted the data. Antonio Miñarro analysed and interpreted the data. Gemma Añaños, Antonio, Chamero, Mireia Martín, Clara Gris, Jose L. Avalos, Anna M. Capielo, Ester Ventosa, and Gemma Tremosa collected and analysed the data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. A preprint version of this article is available on Research Square [38] .
Annweiler, Sacco, Salles, Aquino, Gautier et al., National French survey of COVID-19 symptoms in people aged 70 and over, Clin Infect Dis
Argenziano, Bruce, Slater, Tiao, Baldwin et al., Characterization and clinical course of 1000 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in New York: retrospective case series, BMJ
Benjamini, Hochberg, Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing, J Roy Statist Soc Ser B
Berlin, Gulick, Martinez, Severe Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Berry, Ngo, Samelson, Kiel, Competing risk of death: an important consideration in studies of older adults, J Am Geriatr Soc
Bonanad, García-Blas, Tarazona-Santabalbina, Sanchis, Bertomeu-González et al., The effect of age on mortality in patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis with 611,583 subjects, J Am Med Dir Assoc
Covino, Matteis, Santoro, Sabia, Simeoni et al., Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in COVID-19 patients aged ≥80 years, Geriatr Gerontol Int
Ding, Karp, Emadi, Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) can be a marker of immune suppression in cancer: interplay between hematologic and solid neoplastic clones and their microenvironments, Cancer Biomark
Guo, Liu, Deng, Liu, Li et al., Epidemiology of COVID-19 in older persons, Wuhan, China, Age Ageing
Gupta, Madhavan, Sehgal, Nair, Mahajan et al., Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19, Nat Med
Gálvez-Barrón, Arroyo-Huidobro, Miñarro, Añaños, Chamero et al., COVID 19: clinical presentation and prognostic factors of severe disease and mortality in the oldest-old population. A cohort study
Han, Zhang, Mu, Wei, Jin et al., Lactate dehydrogenase, an independent risk factor of severe COVID-19 patients: a retrospective and observational study, Aging
Henry, De Oliveira, Benoit, Plebani, Lippi, Hematologic, biochemical and immune biomarker abnormalities associated with severe illness and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a metaanalysis, Clin Chem Lab Med
High, Bradley, Gravenstein, Mehr, Quagliarello et al., Clinical practice guideline for the evaluation of fever and infection in older adult residents of long-term care facilities: 2008 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, J Am Geriatr Soc
Izcovich, Ragusa, Tortosa, Marzio, Agnoletti et al., Prognostic factors for severity and mortality in patients infected with COVID-19: a systematic review, PLoS One
Jiménez, Vela, Valencia, Fernandez-Jimenez, Álvaro-Alonso et al., Characteristics, complications and outcomes among 1549 patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in a secondary hospital in Madrid, Spain: a retrospective case series study, BMJ Open
Kuang, Yang, Wei, Wang, Long et al., Clinical characteristics and prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia in autoimmune disease-induced immunocompromised host: a retrospective observational study, World J Emerg Med
Liang, Guan, Li, Li, Liang et al., Clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalised patients with CO-VID-19 treated in Hubei (epicentre) and outside Hubei (non-epicentre): a nationwide analysis of China, Eur Respir J
Lithander, Neumann, Tenison, Lloyd, Welsh et al., COVID-19 in older people: a rapid clinical review, Age Ageing
Malik, Patel, Mehta, Patel, Kelkar et al., Biomarkers and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalisations: systematic review and meta-analysis, BMJ Evid Based Med
Mostaza, García-Iglesias, González-Alegre, Blanco, Varas et al., Clinical course and prognostic factors of COVID-19 infection in an elderly hospitalized population, Arch Gerontol Geriatr
Norman, Yoshikawa, Fever in the elderly, Infect Dis Clin North Am
Núñez, Steyerberg, Núñez, Regression modeling strategies
Ou, Zhu, Li, Zhong, Li, Risk factors of severe cases with COVID-19: a meta-analysis, Epidemiol Infect
Quintrec, Bussy, Golmard, Hervé, Baulon et al., Randomized controlled drug trials on very elderly subjects: descriptive and methodological analysis of trials published between 1990 and 2002 and comparison with trials on adults, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
Ramos-Rincon, Buonaiuto, Ricci, Martín-Carmona, Paredes-Ruíz et al., Clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality in very old patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
Rodríguez, Muñoz, Muela, García-Prendes, Rivera et al., Variables associated with mortality in a selected sample of patients older than 80 years and with some degree of functional dependence hospitalized for COVID-19 in a Geriatrics Service, Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol
Rodríguez-Molinero, Gálvez-Barrón, Miñarro, Macho, López et al., Association between COVID-19 prognosis and disease presentation, comorbidities and chronic treatment of hospitalized patients, PLoS One
Samaras, Chevalley, Samaras, Gold, Older patients in the emergency department: a review, Ann Emerg Med
Shahid, Kalayanamitra, Mcclafferty, Kepko, Ramgobin et al., CO-VID-19 and older adults: what we know, J Am Geriatr Soc
Shenoy, Harugeri, Elderly patients' participation in clinical trials, Perspect Clin Res
Smet, Mellaerts, Vandewinckele, Lybeert, Frans et al., Frailty and mortality in hospitalized older adults with COVID-19: retrospective observational study, J Am Med Dir Assoc
Tibshirani, Regression shrinkage and selection via the Lasso, J Roy Statist Soc Ser B
Zerah, Baudouin, Pépin, Mary, Krypciak et al., Clinical characteristics and outcomes of 821 older patients with SARS-Cov-2 infection admitted to acute care geriatric wards, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
Zhang, Lee, Ang, Leo, Young, Risk factors of severe disease and efficacy of treatment in patients infected with CO-VID-19: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis, Clin Infect Dis
Zhao, Huang, Huang, Mortality in older patients with COVID-19, J Am Geriatr Soc
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop