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Probiotics for COVID-19
26 studies from 289 scientists
19,398 patients in 16 countries
Statistically significant lower risk for mortality, hospitalization, progression, recovery, and cases.
13 studies from 12 teams in 9 countries show significant improvements.
The immune effects of probiotics are strain-specific.
COVID-19 Probiotics studies. Jun 2024. c19early.org
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 28% With exclusions 28% Mortality 61% Hospitalization 13% Recovery 19% Cases 40% Viral clearance 4% RCTs 34% RCT mortality 46% Prophylaxis 38% Early 36% Late 19% Favorsprobiotics Favorscontrol
Home   Post   Share   @CovidAnalysis   Meta AnalysisMeta   The immune effects of probiotics are strain-specific and studies use different strains. Probiotics were adopted in 1 country. Submit updates/corrections. Summary.
Jun 18
Covid Analysis Probiotics for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 26 studies
Statistically significant lower risk is seen for mortality, hospitalization, progression, recovery, and cases. 13 studies from 12 independent teams in 9 countries show significant improvements. Meta analysis using the most serious outcome..
Jan 29
Taufer et al., Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms12020284 Lactobacilli in COVID-19: A Systematic Review Based on Next-Generation Sequencing Studies
Review of nine studies using next generation sequencing to analyze the association between lactobacilli and COVID-19, focusing on the gut and upper respiratory tract microbiota. Studies showed that lactobacilli have reduced abundance in C..
Jan 10
Shimizu et al., Acute Medicine & Surgery, doi:10.1002/ams2.923 Dysbiosis of gut microbiota in patients with severe COVID‐19
Retrospective 30 mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients without prior antibiotic use showing dysbiosis of gut microbiota with decreases in commensals like Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, and Blautia and increases in opportunists like..
Jan 9
Righi et al., Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms12010131 Gut Microbiome Disruption Following SARS-CoV-2: A Review
Review of gut microbiome changes associated with COVID-19 during acute infection and post-acute COVID syndrome (PCS). Authors report increased opportunistic pathogens and reduced beneficial symbionts in acute COVID-19 lead to dysbiosis an..
Jan 5
Petrariu et al., Frontiers in Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2023.1296447 Role of probiotics in managing various human diseases, from oral pathology to cancer and gastrointestinal diseases
Review of the role of probiotics in managing various human diseases including potential benefits for COVID-19. Probiotics may help restore equilibrium in the gut microbiota disrupted by COVID-19. Probiotic consumption can reduce viral loa..
Jan 4
Kolesnyk et al., BMC Nutrition, doi:10.1186/s40795-023-00816-8 The role of nutritional support with probiotics in outpatients with symptomatic acute respiratory tract infections: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary study
60% improved recovery (p=0.02) and 68% lower PASC (p=0.008). RCT 73 outpatients with mild COVID-19 showing improved recovery and increased RBD/spike antibody response with 28 days of a multi-strain probiotic (Bifidobacterium (B.) lactis BI040, B. longum BL020, Lactobacillus (L) rhamnosus LR110, L. ..
Dec 7
2023
Lau et al., The Lancet Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(23)00685-0 A synbiotic preparation (SIM01) for post-acute COVID-19 syndrome in Hong Kong (RECOVERY): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
57% improved recovery (p<0.0001). RCT 463 patients with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) showing that treatment with a synbiotic preparation (SIM01) containing probiotics and prebiotics was associated with alleviation of multiple PACS symptoms including fatigue, memory..
Nov 8
2023
Bondareva et al., Cell Host & Microbe, doi:10.1016/j.chom.2023.10.007 Cross-regulation of antibody responses against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and commensal microbiota via molecular mimicry
Analysis of the role of oral microbiota, particularly Streptococcus salivarius, in enhancing immune response against SARS-CoV-2. Authors show that several commensal bacteria express proteins that mimic the receptor binding domain of the s..
Nov 2
2023
Sarlin et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.40608 Streptococcus salivarius Probiotics to Prevent Acute Otitis Media in Children
33% fewer cases (p=1). RCT 827 children aged 1-6 years in daycare in Finland analyzing the effectiveness of daily Streptococcus salivarius K12 oral probiotic use for 6 months in preventing acute otitis media (AOM). The probiotic group did not have a significant..
Oct 22
2023
Hazan et al., ACG 2023 Probiotics Counterfeit! Study Finds Most Labels Mislead Customers
Analysis of 26 commercially available probiotics with labels indicating Bifidibacteria content, showing only five contained Bifidobacterium in sufficient concentration for a therapeutic effect, and showing presence of a pathogen in one pr..
Oct 22
2023
Hazan et al., ACG 2023 Treatment with Ivermectin Increases the Population of Bifidobacterium in the Gut
Analysis of the effect of ivermectin on the gut microbiome, showing a significant increase in Bifidobacterium. Bifidobacterium plays a key role in the immune system, for example enhancing antibody production, facilitating the induction of..
Oct 20
2023
Kobatake et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15204458 Lactobacillus paragasseri SBT2055 Activates Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells and Improves Subjective Symptoms of Common Cold in Healthy Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Parallel-Group Comparative Trial
RCT showing benefits for the common cold with probiotic LG2055. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined whether Lactobacillus paragasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) could suppress common cold symptoms by activating plasmacy..
Sep 30
2023
Di Pierro et al., Minerva Medica, doi:10.23736/S0026-4806.23.08920-6 Role of S. salivarius K12 in the prevention of URTI and AGE in nursery-aged children
78% fewer cases (p=0.007). Retrospective study of 287 nursery school children in Italy, 186 treated with S. salivarius K12 probiotic. The probiotic group had significantly lower rates of COVID-19, bronchitis, sinusitis, and laryngitis as well as lower antibiotic us..
Aug 31
2023
Taufer et al., Life, doi:10.3390/life13091847 The Role of Bifidobacterium in COVID-19: A Systematic Review
Review of studies investigating the relationship between the gut bacteria genus Bifidobacterium and COVID-19. Observational studies found that lower abundance of Bifidobacterium was associated with more severe COVID-19. Interventional stu..
Jul 15
2023
Graydon et al., Current Research in Immunology, doi:10.1016/j.crimmu.2023.100064 High baseline frequencies of natural killer cells are associated with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection
Analysis of 88 COVID+ patients in the USA showing that a higher frequency of natural killer (NK) cells was associated with asymptomatic infection. Improved NK cell numbers and functioning has been shown for exercise [Oh], better sleep [Ir..
Jun 13
2023
Hassan et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-3049708/v1 The effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and colchicine on the control of symptoms, duration, and disease progression of mild and moderate cases of COVID-19: A randomized controlled clinical trial
80% lower hospitalization (p=0.2) and 18% improved recovery (p=0.42). RCT 150 patients in Egypt showing no significant difference in outcomes with probiotic lactobacillus acidophilus, although hospitalization was 2% versus 10% for control. SOC included vitamin C, D, and zinc.
May 22
2023
Tian et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2023.1179432 Probiotics improve symptoms of patients with COVID-19 through gut-lung axis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Systematic review and meta-analysis of 10 studies (8 RCTs and 2 retrospective studies) with 1,198 COVID-19 patients showing improved overall symptoms, reduced diarrhea duration, lower C-reactive protein levels, and shorter hospital stays ..
Apr 1
2023
Reino-Gelardo et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15071736 Effect of an Immune-Boosting, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Food Supplement in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Prospective Randomized Pilot Study
61% lower mortality (p=0.05). RCT 162 late stage (65% on oxygen) patients in Spain, 78 treated with probiotics, prebiotics, vitamin D, zinc, and selenium, showing lower mortality with treatment, statistically significant only within the patients with high severity at ..
Mar 31
2023
Zhu et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0278356 Safety and efficacy of probiotic supplements as adjunctive therapies in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Systematic review and meta-analysis of 8 RCTs with 1,027 patients showing that early probiotic supplements in COVID-19 patients reduced risk of a composite clinical endpoint of escalation or mortality (ow certainty), diarrhea, and cough/d..
Jan 17
2023
Catinean et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15030488 Ongoing Treatment with a Spore-Based Probiotic Containing Five Strains of Bacillus Improves Outcomes of Mild COVID-19
40% improved recovery (p=0.008). Retrospective 60 patients in Romania taking probiotics and 60 matched controls, showing faster symptom resolution with the use of probiotics. Spore-based probiotic containing five strains of Bacillus.
Oct 6
2022
Su et al., Gut Microbes, doi:10.1080/19490976.2022.2128603 Antibiotics and probiotics impact gut antimicrobial resistance gene reservoir in COVID-19 patients
Analysis of 142 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing antibiotics further expanded the gut antimicrobial resistance gene (AMR) reservoir while probiotics (synbiotic formula SIM01) reduced AMR genes. At admission, antibiotic-naive COVID-1..
Sep 30
2022
Neris Almeida Viana et al., Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, doi:10.1080/10408398.2022.2128713 Benefits of probiotic use on COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
51% improved recovery (p<0.0001). Systematic review and meta analysis showing significant improvement in symptoms with priobiotic treatment.
Sep 28
2022
Di Pierro et al., Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms10101926 Clinical Effects of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: Results of a Preliminary Study
62% lower mortality (p=0.17) and no change in ICU admission (p=1). RCT 50 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, 25 treated with S. salivarius K12, showing lower mortality with treatment, without statistical significance. There were more patients with higher oxygen requirements at baseline in the control gro..
Aug 24
2022
Navarro-López et al., Medicine in Microecology, doi:10.1016/j.medmic.2022.100061 Oral intake of Kluyveromyces marxianus B0399 plus lactobacillus rhamnosus CECT 30579 to mitigate symptoms in COVID-19 patients: A randomized open label clinical trial
33% improved recovery (p=0.08). RCT with 24 probiotics and 15 control patients in Spain, showing lower overall symptoms and lower digestive symptoms with treatment. Kluyveromyces marxianus B0399 plus lactobacillus rhamnosus CECT 30579.
Aug 3
2022
Rodriguez-Blanque et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.962566 Evaluation of the effect of Loigolactobacillus coryniformis K8 CECT 5711 consumption in health care workers exposed to COVID-19
9% fewer cases (p=0.92). Prophylaxis RCT with 127 probiotics and 128 control healthcare workers in Spain, showing no significant difference in cases. There were only 4 cases. Severity information by arm is not provided. L. coryniformis K8 CECT 5711. Treatment may..
Aug 1
2022
Trinchieri et al., Biomedicines, doi:10.3390/biomedicines10081851 Exploiting Bacteria for Improving Hypoxemia of COVID-19 Patients
78% lower mortality (p=0.28) and 78% improvement (p=0.0001). Retrospective COVID-19 patients requiring CPAP, 21 treated with SLAB51 probiotics and 15 control patients, showing improved outcomes with treatment, despite significantly lower blood oxygenation at baseline in the treatment group.
Jun 28
2022
Saviano et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm11133758 COVID-19 Pneumonia and Gut Inflammation: The Role of a Mix of Three Probiotic Strains in Reducing Inflammatory Markers and Need for Oxygen Support
86% lower ICU admission (p=0.24) and 26% shorter hospitalization (p=0.52). RCT 80 COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia patients in Italy, 40 treated with probiotics, showing significantly reduced gut inflammatory markers with treatment, and lower ICU admission and mortality, without statistical significance. Bifidoba..
Mar 2
2022
Zhang et al., Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, doi:10.1111/jgh.15796 Gut microbiota-derived synbiotic formula (SIM01) as a novel adjuvant therapy for COVID-19: An open-label pilot study
67% improvement (p=0.06). Pilot study of probiotic SIM01 with 25 consecutive COVID-19 patients in Hong Kong and 30 control patients treated by a different team during the same time period, showing improved antibody formation, reduced viral load and pro-inflammator..
Jan 12
2022
Santinelli et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.756177 Oral Bacteriotherapy Reduces the Occurrence of Chronic Fatigue in COVID-19 Patients
54% improved recovery (p<0.0001). Retrospective 58 hospitalized patients, 24 receiving probiotics during hospitalization, showing significantly lower fatigue six months post discharge with treatment.
Jan 5
2022
Wischmeyer et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.01.04.21268275 Daily Lactobacillus Probiotic versus Placebo in COVID-19-Exposed Household Contacts (PROTECT-EHC): A Randomized Clinical Trial
33% fewer moderate/severe cases (p=0.15), 38% fewer symptomatic cases (p=0.02), 27% faster recovery (p=0.37), and 43% fewer cases (p=0.17). RCT 182 COVID-19 exposed patients, 91 treated with daily probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG starting a median of 3 days from exposure, showing lower symptomatic COVID-19 with treatment. There were no hospitalizations or deaths.
Dec 31
2021
Wang et al., Annals of Palliative Medicine, doi:10.21037/apm-21-3373 The efficacy of probiotics in patients with severe COVID-19
Retrospective 156 COVID-19 patients in China, showing that diarrhea was significantly more common in severe/critical cases, and for severe/critical patients experiencing diarrhea, the duration of diarrhea was shorter with probiotic treatm..
Nov 25
2021
Bozkurt et al., International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, doi:10.1177/20587384211059677 Oral booster probiotic bifidobacteria in SARS-COV-2 patients
Small retrospective 44 hospitalized patients in Turkey, showing improved outcomes with probiotic bifidobacterium, however minimal group details are provided (for example, the age of the control patients is unknown), and no adjustments wer..
Oct 25
2021
Leal-Martínez et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19031172 (date from preprint) Effect of a Nutritional Support System to Increase Survival and Reduce Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in Stage III and Comorbidities: A Blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
86% lower mortality (p=0.03) and 57% lower ventilation (p=0.31). 80 patient RCT with 40 patients treated with a comprehensive regimen of nutritional support, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment. Treatment contained cholecalciferol, vitamin C, zinc, spirulina maxima, folic acid, glutami..
Oct 13
2021
Ivashkin et al., Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins, doi:10.1007/s12602-021-09858-5 Efficacy of a Probiotic Consisting of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus PDV 1705, Bifidobacterium bifidum PDV 0903, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis PDV 1911, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum PDV 2301 in the Treatment of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: a Randomized Controlled Trial
2% higher mortality (p=1), 18% lower ventilation (p=1), 27% lower ICU admission (p=0.77), and 5% faster recovery (p=0.47). RCT 200 patients, 99 treated with a probiotic (Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus PDV 1705, Bifidobacterium bifidum PDV 0903, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis PDV 1911, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum PDV 2301). There was no sign..
Aug 30
2021
Rathi et al., Medicines, doi:10.3390/medicines8090047 A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Efficacy of Systemic Enzymes and Probiotics in the Resolution of Post-COVID Fatigue
89% improved recovery (p<0.0001). RCT 200 long-COVID patients in India, 100 treated with ImmunoSEB and ProbioSEB CSC3, showing improved recovery of post-COVID-19 fatigue with treatment. CTRI/2021/05/033576.
Aug 23
2021
Ceccarelli et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13082898 Oxygen Sparing Effect of Bacteriotherapy in COVID-19
82% lower ICU admission (p=0.15). Prospective analysis of 69 severe COVID-19 patients requiring non-invasive oxygen therapy, 40 treated with probiotic formulation SLAB51, showing lower oxygen requirements and higher blood levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2 with treatment. Autho..
Aug 4
2021
Zhang et al., Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, doi:10.1177/17562848211035670 Probiotics use is associated with improved clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients with COVID-19
14% shorter hospitalization (p=0.009), 14% faster recovery (p=0.02), and 17% faster viral clearance (p=0.001). Retrospective 375 patients in China, 179 treated with probiotics (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus), showing improved clinical outcomes with treatment.
Jun 30
2021
Veterini et al., Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15:2 Probiotics Intake as Adjunct Therapy for Infected Health-Care with SARS COV-2
29% faster viral clearance (p=0.22). Small case control analysis with 15 probiotics patients and 15 contol patients, showing no significant differences. PCR tests were only done weekly. Dosage is unknown. 115/LOE/301.4.2/IX/2020.
Jun 24
2021
Wang et al., Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol., doi:10.3389/fbioe.2021.646184 Oropharyngeal Probiotic ENT-K12 Prevents Respiratory Tract Infections Among Frontline Medical Staff Fighting Against COVID-19: A Pilot Study
Prophylaxis RCT in China with 98 healthcare workers in close contact with COVID-19 patients treated with Bactoblis oropharyngeal probiotic containing S. thermophilus ENT-K12, and 95 control patients, showing lower incidence of respiratory..
Jun 1
2021
Meskina et al., Therapeutic Archive, doi:10.26442/00403660.2021.04.200835 Efficiency of application of sorbed probiotics in complex therapy of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2
RCT 100 pneumonia patients in Russia, showing faster symptom resolution with probiotic treatment (B. bifidum 1).
May 31
2021
Ahanchian et al., Open Journal of Nursing, doi:10.4236/ojn.2021.115025 Synbiotic for Prevention of SARS-Cov2 Infection in High Risk Hospital Staffs: A Randomized Controlled Trial
73% fewer symptomatic cases (p=0.35) and 85% fewer cases (p=0.24). Small RCT 60 healthcare workers in Iran, showing lower cases with treatment but without statistical significance. Once daily oral synbiotic capsule (Lactocare®) containing 1 billion CFU L. (Lactobacillus) casei, L. rhamnosus, Streptococcu..
May 24
2021
Gutiérrez-Castrellón et al., Gut Microbes, doi:10.1080/19490976.2021.2018899 (date from preprint) Probiotic improves symptomatic and viral clearance in Covid19 outpatients: a randomized, quadruple-blinded, placebo-controlled trial
35% improved recovery (p<0.0001). RCT 293 outpatients in Mexico, 147 treated with a probiotic composed of three L. plantarum strains (KABP022, KABP023 and KABP033) and one P. acidilacti strain (KABP021), showing improved recovery with treatment. There were no hospitalizat..
Apr 7
2021
Di Pierro, F., Minerva Medica, doi:10.23736/S0026-4806.20.06570-2 A possible probiotic (S. salivarius K12) approach to improve oral and lung microbiotas and raise defenses against SARS-CoV-2
Review of the potential use of S. salivarius K12 for COVID-19. Author notes that strain K12 of streptococcus salivarius may reduce occurrence of viral upper respiratory tract infections, possibly due to its ability to stimulate IFN-γ rele..
Mar 30
2021
Holt et al., Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-217487 Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
30% fewer cases (p=0.11). Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistica..
Mar 29
2021
Haran et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.26.21254422 Targeting the Microbiome With KB109 in Outpatients with Mild to Moderate COVID-19 Reduced Medically Attended Acute Care Visits and Improved Symptom Duration in Patients With Comorbidities
50% fewer combined hospitalization/ER visits (p=0.13) and 20% faster recovery (p=0.1). RCT 350 COVID+ outpatients in the USA, 174 treated with prebiotic KB109 (a microbiome metabolic therapy candidate), showing lower combined hospitalization, ER, and urgent care visits with treatment. NCT04414124.
Mar 19
2021
Kurian et al., Archives of Medical Research, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2021.03.002 Probiotics in Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: Current Perspective and Future Prospects
Review of probiotics role in regulating the immune system and use in viral infections, and studies on the association of microbiota with COVID-19 patients. Authors suggest that probiotics supplementation could reduce COVID-19 morbidity an..
Mar 12
2021
Di Pierro et al., Minerva Medica, doi:10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07487-5 The administration of S. salivarius K12 to children may reduce the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection
98% fewer cases (p<0.0001). Interim report on an RCT for prophylactic treatment with S. salivarius K12, showing significantly lower cases with treatment. Only patients with symptoms or known positive contacts were tested. Trial identification/registration details ar..
Mar 5
2021
Li et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107531 The role of probiotics in coronavirus disease-19 infection in Wuhan: A retrospective study of 311 severe patients
12% lower hospital discharge (p=0.68) and 35% slower viral clearance (p=0.001). Retrospective 311 severe condition hospitalized patients in China, 123 treated with probiotics, showing slower viral clearance and recovery with treatment. Authors note that probiotics were able to moderate immunity and decrease the incid..
Feb 13
2021
Singh et al., Nutrition Research, doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2020.12.014 Probiotics: A potential immunomodulator in COVID-19 infection management
Review of studies supporting the use of probiotics for respiratory infections and identification of microbial strains potentially beneficial for COVID-19.
Feb 2
2021
Shah et al., Advances in Clinical Toxicology, doi:10.23880/act-16000204 Potential of the Combination of a Systemic Enzyme Complex and Probiotics administration to Combat COVID-19: A Randomized Open Label Prospective Analysis
11% faster recovery (p=0.19) and 11% shorter hospitalization (p=0.18). Small RCT 60 patients in India, 30 treated with ImmunoSEB and ProbioSEB CSC3, showing faster recovery with treatment. CTRI/2020/09/027685, CTRI/2020/08/027168.
Jan 11
2021
Ceccarelli et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fnut.2020.613928 Oral Bacteriotherapy in Patients With COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study
64% lower mortality (p=0.003) and 15% lower ICU admission (p=0.6). Retrospective 200 severe condition hospitalized patients in Italy, 88 treated with probiotic Sivomixx, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Dec 15
2020
Stavropoulou et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2020.614986 Probiotics as a Weapon in the Fight Against COVID-19
Review of the potential benefits of probiotics for COVID-19.
Nov 30
2020
Louca et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000250 (date from preprint) Modest effects of dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from 445 850 users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app
8% fewer cases (p=0.03). Survey analysis of dietary supplements showing probiotic usage associated with lower incidence of COVID-19. These results are for PCR+ cases only, they do not reflect potential benefits for reducing the severity of cases. A number of bias..
Oct 5
2020
Olaimat et al., npj Science of Food, doi:10.1038/s41538-020-00078-9 The potential application of probiotics and prebiotics for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19
Review of the immune benefits of probiotics and clinical studies for the preventation and treatment of respiratory infections, recommending trials of probiotics for COVID-19.
Jul 7
2020
d'Ettorre et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2020.00389 Challenges in the Management of SARS-CoV2 Infection: The Role of Oral Bacteriotherapy as Complementary Therapeutic Strategy to Avoid the Progression of COVID-19
87% lower mortality (p=0.14) and 88% lower progression (p=0.01). Retrospective 70 hospitalized patients in Italy, 28 treated with probiotic Sivomixx, showing lower risk of respiratory failure and faster recovery with treatment.
May 8
2020
Baud et al., Frontiers in Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.00186 Using Probiotics to Flatten the Curve of Coronavirus Disease COVID-2019 Pandemic
Review of data supporting the use of probiotics for COVID-19 and mechanisms of action.
Jul 31
2019
Finamore et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2019.02.005 Supplementation with Bifidobacterium longum Bar33 and Lactobacillus helveticus Bar13 mixture improves immunity in elderly humans (over 75 years) and aged mice
RCT 98 adults, showing that probiotics improved immune function including increased natural killer (NK) cell activity. showed that a lower frequency of natural killer cells was associated with symptomatic COVID-19 infection.
Feb 3
2015
Hao et al., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006895.pub3 Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections
Meta analysis of 12 RCTs with 3,720 patients showing probiotics reduced acute upper respiratory tract infections.
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