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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 62% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 0% Probiotics  Di Pierro et al.  LATE TREATMENT  RCT Is late treatment with probiotics beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 50 patients in Pakistan (August - November 2021) Lower mortality with probiotics (not stat. sig., p=0.17) Di Pierro et al., Microorganisms, September 2022 Favors probiotics Favors control

Clinical Effects of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: Results of a Preliminary Study

Di Pierro et al., Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms10101926, NCT05043376
Sep 2022  
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Probiotics for COVID-19
17th treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2021
*, now known with p = 0.0000013 from 26 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
RCT 50 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, 25 treated with S. salivarius K12, showing lower mortality with treatment, without statistical significance. There were more patients with higher oxygen requirements at baseline in the control group - 18 vs. 6 with O2 ≥ 8 L/min.
The immune effects of probiotics are strain-specific.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted differences between groups.
risk of death, 62.5% lower, RR 0.38, p = 0.17, treatment 3 of 25 (12.0%), control 8 of 25 (32.0%), NNT 5.0.
risk of ICU admission, no change, RR 1.00, p = 1.00, treatment 8 of 25 (32.0%), control 8 of 25 (32.0%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Di Pierro et al., 28 Sep 2022, Randomized Controlled Trial, Pakistan, peer-reviewed, mean age 48.5, 7 authors, study period 11 August, 2021 - 18 November, 2021, trial NCT05043376 (history). Contact: (corresponding author).
This PaperProbioticsAll
Clinical Effects of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: Results of a Preliminary Study
Francesco Di Pierro, Somia Iqtadar, Sami Ullah Mumtaz, Alexander Bertuccioli, Martino Recchia, Nicola Zerbinati, Amjad Khan
Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms10101926
Anatomical and physiological considerations indicate that the oral cavity is a primary source of the lung microbiota community, and recent studies have shown that the microbiota in the lungs contributes to immunological homeostasis, potentially altering the organ's susceptibility to viral infection, including SARS-CoV-2. It has been proposed that, in the case of viral infection, lung Gram-negative bacteria could promote the cytokine cascade with a better performance than a microbiota mainly constituted by Gram-positive bacteria. Recent observations also suggest that Prevotella-rich oral microbiotas would dominate the oral cavity of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. In comparison, Streptococcus-rich microbiotas would dominate the oral cavity of healthy people. To verify if the modulation of the oral microbiota could have an impact on the current coronavirus disease, we administered for 14 days a well-recognized and oral-colonizing probiotic (S. salivarius K12) to hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The preliminary results of our randomized and controlled trial seem to prove the potential role of this oral strain in improving the course of the main markers of pathology, as well as its ability to apparently reduce the death rate from COVID-19. Although in a preliminary and only circumstantial way, our results seem to confirm the hypothesis of a direct involvement of the oral microbiota in the construction of a lung microbiota whose taxonomic structure could modulate the inflammatory processes generated at the pulmonary and systemic level by a viral infection.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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