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c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchCetylpyridinium ChlorideCetylpyridin.. (more..)
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0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rengifo (DB RCT) 68% 0.32 [0.01-7.20] hosp. 0/12 1/11 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.49 Late treatment 68% 0.32 [0.01-7.20] 0/12 1/11 68% lower risk All studies 68% 0.32 [0.01-7.20] 0/12 1/11 68% lower risk 1 cetylpyridinium chloride COVID-19 study c19early.org July 2024 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.49 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors CPC Favors control
Apr 25
Onozuka et al., BMC Oral Health, doi:10.1186/s12903-024-04246-1 Oral mouthwashes for asymptomatic to mildly symptomatic adults with COVID-19 and salivary viral load: a randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label clinical trial
RCT 90 low-risk asymptomatic to mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients showing no significant difference in salivary viral load with cetylpyridinium chloride or on-demand aqueous chlorine dioxide mouthwash. Both treatments increased Ct valu..
Feb 19
Brito-Reia et al., Current Oral Health Reports, doi:10.1007/s40496-024-00368-1 Antiviral Mechanism and Clinical Benefits of Mouthwash Active Against SARS-CoV-2
Review of antiviral mechanisms and clinical benefits of mouthwashes for SARS-CoV-2, including chlorhexidine (CHX), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), ethyl lauroyl arginate (ELA), hydrogen peroxide (HP), povidone-iodine (PVP-I), and anionic..
Feb 16
Rius-Salvador et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0297291 Cetylpyridinium chloride and chlorhexidine show antiviral activity against Influenza A virus and Respiratory Syncytial virus in vitro
In Vitro study showing antiviral activity against influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Authors found CPC and CHX decreased infectivity of both viruses by 90-99.9% d..
Dec 18
2023
Bezinelli et al., PeerJ, doi:10.7717/peerj.15080 Reduction of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva after rinsing with mouthwashes containing cetylpyridinium chloride: a randomized clinical study
RCT 95 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing reduced salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load after rinsing with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) or CPC plus zinc mouthwashes. CPC plus zinc mouthwash reduced viral load by 6.3-fold at 5 minutes, 3.6-..
Dec 7
2023
Giulia et al., Journal of Clinical Periodontology, doi:10.1111/jcpe.13905 Eligibility and efficacy of a CPC‐ and CHX‐based antiviral mouthwash for the elimination of SARS‐CoV‐2 from the saliva: A randomized, double‐blind, controlled clinical trial
RCT 20 patients rinsing with CPC-CHX compared with 20 patients rinsing with water, showing no significant difference in short-term viral load via PCR and ELISA. Results are not clear. Figure 3 shows an increase in ELISA I/T between all ti..
Nov 30
2023
Brookes et al., International Dental Journal, doi:10.1016/j.identj.2023.08.010 Mouthwash Effects on the Oral Microbiome: Are They Good, Bad, or Balanced?
Review of the effects of commonly used mouthwashes on the oral microbiome, which includes bacteria, viruses, bacteriophages, and fungi. While certain mouthwashes have proven antimicrobial actions and clinical effectiveness, more recent me..
Oct 11
2023
Sbricoli et al., Japanese Dental Science Review, doi:10.1016/j.jdsr.2023.09.003 Efficacy of different mouthwashes against COVID-19: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Systematic review and network meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of antiseptic mouthwashes in reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva based on data from 14 randomized clinical trials and 21 in vitro studies. The study found that ..
Oct 11
2023
Zhang et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-023-08669-z Efficacy of mouthwash on reducing salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load and clinical symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Systematic review and meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials with a total of 832 participants analyzing the efficacy of mouthwash on reducing salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load and clinical symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Authors fou..
Aug 4
2023
Perussolo et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-39308-x Efficacy of three antimicrobial mouthwashes in reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the saliva of hospitalized patients: a randomized controlled pilot study
RCT 40 late stage (mean 8 days from onset) patients, showing no significant difference in short-term viral load measured by PCR with cetylpyridinium chloride mouthwash.
Jun 30
2023
Jacox et al., NCT05178173 Efficacy of Oral Rinses for Inactivation of COVID-19 (MOR2)
Estimated 150 patient cetylpyridinium chloride early treatment RCT with results not reported over 1 year after estimated completion.
Jun 12
2023
Ting et al., Biomedicines, doi:10.3390/biomedicines11061694 Preprocedural Viral Load Effects of Oral Antiseptics on SARS-CoV-2 in Patients with COVID-19: A Systematic Review
Systematic review of 14 RCTs, showing significant reductions in short-term viral load with mouth rinses cetylpyridinium chloride, β-cyclodextrin and citrox, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, povidone-iodine, hypochlorous acid, saline, and..
May 22
2023
Rengifo et al., Revista Estomatologia, doi:10.25100/re.v31i1.12669 A Mouthwash with Cetylpyridinium Chloride is reducing salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load in +COVID-19
83% improved viral clearance (p=0.06). RCT 23 patients in Colombia, showing improved viral clearance with cetylpyridinium chloride plus chlorhexidine mouthwash.
Nov 28
2022
Tarragó‐Gil et al., Journal of Clinical Periodontology, doi:10.1111/jcpe.13746 Randomized clinical trial to assess the impact of oral intervention with cetylpyridinium chloride to reduce salivary SARS‐CoV‐2 viral load
80 patient RCT testing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthwash, showing significantly increased detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, indicating viral lysis. CPC inactivates SARS-CoV-2 by degrading its membrane, exposing the nucl..
Sep 10
2022
Gansky et al., NCT04409873 Antiseptic Mouthwash /​ Pre-Procedural Rinse on SARS-CoV-2 Load (COVID-19) (AMPoL)
54 patient cetylpyridinium chloride early treatment RCT with results not reported over 1.5 years after completion.
Jul 31
2022
Ting et al., International Journal of Translational Medicine, doi:10.3390/ijtm2030030 The In Vitro Virucidal Effects of Mouthwashes on SARS-CoV-2
Review of In Vitro studies of mouthwashes, showing antiviral activity for SARS-CoV-2 with many compounds including PVP-I, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorohexidine gluconate, dequalinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, and anionic phthalo..
Jul 27
2022
Sánchez Barrueco et al., Emerging Microbes % Infections, doi:10.1080/22221751.2022.2098059 Effect of oral antiseptics in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity: evidence from a randomized double-blind clinical trial
73% improved viral load. RCT hospitalized patients testing viral load shortly after a single mouthwash with PVP-I, hydrogen peroxide, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, and water. For CPC, there was significantly lower culture-based viral load one hour late..
Jun 30
2022
Saud et al., Journal of Lipid Research, doi:10.1016/j.jlr.2022.100208 The SARS-CoV2 envelope differs from host cells, exposes procoagulant lipids, and is disrupted in vivo by oral rinses
In Vitro study and small RCT of mouthwashes. The in vitro study characterized the lipid composition of the SARS-CoV-2 envelope and showed that oral rinses containing lipid-disrupting chemicals can reduce infectivity, meeting European viru..
Jun 21
2022
Alemany et al., Journal of Dental Research, doi:10.1177/00220345221102310 Cetylpyridinium Chloride Mouthwash to Reduce Shedding of Infectious SARS-CoV-2: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial
118 patient RCT testing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthwash, showing significantly increased detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, indicating viral lysis. CPC inactivates SARS-CoV-2 by degrading its membrane, exposing the nuc..
Feb 28
2022
Xie et al., NCT04931004 Oral Rinse to Reduced Expelled Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) During COVID-19 Infection
Estimated 90 patient cetylpyridinium chloride early treatment RCT with results not reported over 2 years after estimated completion.
Jan 28
2022
Basu et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.01.26.22269854 A model-based approach to improve intranasal sprays for respiratory viral infections
Computational fluid dynamics study of nasal spray administration in 2 subjects showing a 2 orders of magnitude improvement in nasopharyngeal drug delivery using a new "Improved Use" (IU) spray placement protocol compared to the ..
Oct 30
2021
Correa et al., NCT04902976 Evaluation of SARS-COV-2 Viral Load of Covid-19 Patients After Rinsing With Oral Antimicrobial Mouthwashes
105 patient cetylpyridinium chloride late treatment RCT with results not reported over 2 years after completion.
Oct 20
2021
Jacox et al., NCT04584684 Mouth Rinses for Inactivation of COVID-19 (MOR)
129 patient cetylpyridinium chloride early treatment RCT with results not reported over 2 years after completion.
Dec 14
2020
Seneviratne et al., Infection, doi:10.1007/s15010-020-01563-9 Efficacy of commercial mouth-rinses on SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva: randomized control trial in Singapore
Small mouthwash RCT with 4 PVP-I patients and 2 water patients concluding that PVP-I may have a sustained effect on reducing the salivary SARS-CoV-2 level in COVID-19 patients. ISRCTN95933274.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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