Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Nitric Oxide
Peg.. Lambda

Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Convalescent Plasma  COVID-19 treatment studies for Conv. Plasma  C19 studies: Conv. Plasma  Conv. Plasma   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Cannabidiol Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitric Oxide Meta
Ensovibep Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Favipiravir Meta Povidone-Iod.. Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Iota-carragee.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta Zinc Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

Other Treatments Global Adoption
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Libster (DB RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.09-2.65] death 2/80 4/80 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Balcells (RCT) -247% 3.47 [0.35-11.9] death 5/28 2/30 Korley (RCT) -396% 4.96 [0.58-42.2] death 5/250 1/248 Alemany (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.14] death 0/188 2/188 Gharbharan (DB RCT) -1% 1.01 [0.06-16.0] death 1/207 1/209 Tau​2 = 0.49, I​2 = 30.4%, p = 0.6 Early treatment -36% 1.36 [0.44-4.17] 13/753 10/755 -36% improvement Gharbharan (RCT) 4% 0.96 [0.25-2.41] death 6/43 11/43 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Li (RCT) 35% 0.65 [0.27-1.39] death 8/51 12/50 Avendaño-Solà (RCT) 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.11] death 0/38 4/43 Agarwal (RCT) -7% 1.07 [0.73-1.58] death 34/235 31/229 Bajpai (RCT) -323% 4.23 [0.43-41.6] death 3/14 1/15 AlQahtani (RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.05-5.08] death 1/20 2/20 Simonovich (RCT) 4% 0.96 [0.50-1.83] death 25/228 12/105 Ray (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.30-1.50] death 10/40 14/40 Recovery Co.. (RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.93-1.07] death 1,399/5,795 1,408/5,763 Hsue (DB RCT) -212% 3.12 [0.14-71.7] death 1/16 0/18 Bégin (RCT) -13% 1.13 [0.88-1.45] death 156/625 69/313 Ortigoza (DB RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.63-1.20] death 59/462 71/462 Sullivan (DB RCT) 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.75] death 0/592 3/589 Raad -240% 3.40 [2.29-5.02] death 284 (n) 3,682 (n) Tau​2 = 0.11, I​2 = 72.4%, p = 0.56 Late treatment -8% 1.08 [0.83-1.41] 1,702/8,443 1,638/11,372 -8% improvement All studies -10% 1.10 [0.86-1.42] 1,715/9,196 1,648/12,127 -10% improvement 19 convalescent plasma COVID-19 studies Dec 2022 Tau​2 = 0.11, I​2 = 66.2%, p = 0.46 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) Favors conv. plasma Favors control
Convalescent Plasma COVID-19 studies. Recent:
Convalescent Plasma has been officially adopted for early treatment in 1 country. Submit updates/corrections.
Aug 26
Raad et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.08.25.22279181 (Preprint) International Multicenter Study Comparing Cancer to Non-Cancer Patients with COVID-19: Impact of Risk Factors and Treatment Modalities on Survivorship
240% higher mortality [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 3,966 COVID-19 patients, 1,115 with cancer, showing lower mortality with remdesivir and higher mortality with convalescent plasma.
Aug 23
Gharbharan et al., Clinical Microbiology and Infection, doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2022.08.005 Outpatient convalescent plasma therapy for high-risk patients with early COVID-19. A randomized placebo-controlled trial
14% lower progression [p=0.42], 39% lower hospitalization [p=0.22], and 1% worse recovery [p=0.92]. RCT 416 outpatients in the Netherlands, showing no significant difference with convalesent plasma treatment. Hospitalization was lower, and improved results were seen with ≤5 days of symptoms, without statistical significance.
Feb 9
Alemany et al., The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00545-2 High-titre methylene blue-treated convalescent plasma as an early treatment for outpatients with COVID-19: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial
80% lower mortality [p=0.5], 5% higher hospitalization [p=1], 5% worse recovery [p=0.67], and 4% worse viral clearance [p=0.33]. RCT 188 convalescent plasma and 188 control patients, showing no significant difference in outcomes.
Dec 21
Sullivan et al., New England Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2119657 (date from earlier preprint) Early Outpatient Treatment for Covid-19 with Convalescent Plasma
86% lower mortality [p=0.12] and 54% lower hospitalization [p=0.005]. RCT 1,181 outpatients in the USA, mean 6 days from symptom onset, showing lower hospitalization with treatment. NCT04373460.
Dec 13
Ortigoza et al., JAMA Internal Medicine, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.6850 Efficacy and Safety of COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma in Hospitalized Patients
12% lower mortality [p=0.45] and 8% improved 7-point scale results [p=0.5]. RCT 941 hospitalized patients in the USA, showing no significant difference with convalescent plasma treatment.
Sep 9
Bégin et al., Nature Medicine, doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01488-2 Convalescent plasma for hospitalized patients with COVID-19: an open-label, randomized controlled trial
13% higher mortality [p=0.33] and 16% higher combined mortality/intubation [p=0.18]. RCT 940 hospitalized patients, 614 assigned to convalescent plasma, showing no significant differences. NCT04348656.
Aug 23
Hsue et al., NCT04421404 (Preprint) Effects of COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma (CCP) on Coronavirus-associated Complications in Hospitalized Patients (CAPRI)
425% higher ventilation [p=0.21] and 425% higher progression [p=0.21]. RCT 34 hospitalized patients in the USA, showing no significant difference with convalescent plasma treatment.
Aug 18
Korley et al., NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2103784 Early Convalescent Plasma for High-Risk Outpatients with Covid-19
396% higher mortality [p=0.22], 10% lower hospitalization [p=0.59], and 6% lower progression [p=0.7]. RCT 511 emergency department patients, 257 assigned to convalescent plasma, showing no significant difference in outcomes.
Mar 3
Balcells et al., PLOS Medicine, doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003415 Early versus deferred anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma in patients admitted for COVID-19: A randomized phase II clinical trial
247% higher mortality [p=0.17], 163% higher ventilation [p=0.22], and 23% higher progression [p=0.51]. Small RCT with 28 early and 30 deferred (treated according to prespecified deterioration criteria) convalescent plasma patients, not showing significant differences. "Early" is relative, with a median of 5 days from symptom onse..
Jan 15
Recovery Collaborative Group, The Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00897-7 (press release 1/15/2021) Convalescent plasma in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised controlled, open-label, platform trial
no change in mortality [p=0.95] and 1% lower hospital discharge [p=0.57]. RCT 16,287 hospitalized patients in the UK, showing no significant differences with convalescent plasma treatment. Subgroup analysis shows better results for those treated <= 7 days from symptom onset.
Jan 6
Libster et al., NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2033700 Early High-Titer Plasma Therapy to Prevent Severe Covid-19 in Older Adults
67% lower ICU admission [p=0.17] and 48% lower progression [p=0.03]. RCT 160 patients >=65 with symptom onset <72 hours, 80 treated with convalescent plasma, showing lower progression to severe disease with treatment. NCT04479163.
Nov 29
Ray et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.25.20237883 Clinical and immunological benefits of convalescent plasma therapy in severe COVID-19: insights from a single center open label randomised control trial
33% lower mortality [p=0.34]. Small RCT 80 hospitalized patients in India, 40 treated with convalescent plasma, not showing significant differences in primary analysis. Authors note that significant improvement in hypoxia, reduction in hospital stay, and survival bene..
Nov 24
Simonovich et al., NEJM, doi:0.1056/NEJMoa2031304 A Randomized Trial of Convalescent Plasma in Covid-19 Severe Pneumonia
4% lower mortality [p=1] and 19% improved 7-point scale results [p=0.4]. RCT 333 hospitalized patients in Argentina, 228 treated with convalescent plasma, showing no significant differences in clinical status or mortality. NCT04383535.
Nov 4
AlQahtani et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-89444-5 (date from earlier preprint) Randomized controlled trial of convalescent plasma therapy against standard therapy in patients with severe COVID-19 disease
33% lower ventilation [p=0.47] and 22% shorter hospitalization [p=0.12]. Small RCT with 40 hospitalized patients in Bahrain, 20 treated with convalescent plasma, not showing significant differences. NCT04356534.
Oct 27
Bajpai et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.25.20219337 (Preprint) Efficacy of Convalescent Plasma Therapy compared to Fresh Frozen Plasma in Severely ill COVID-19 Patients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
323% higher mortality [p=0.22], 221% higher ventilation [p=0.33], 25% shorter hospitalization [p=0.08], and 32% improved viral clearance [p=0.11]. Small RCT 29 patients in India, 14 treated with convalescent plasma, not showing significant differences with treatment.
Oct 22
Agarwal et al., BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m3939 Convalescent plasma in the management of moderate covid-19 in adults in India: open label phase II multicentre randomised controlled trial (PLACID Trial)
7% higher mortality [p=0.74], 7% higher progression [p=0.74], 1% lower ventilation [p=0.98], and 28% improved viral clearance [p=0.02]. RCT 464 hospitalized patients in India, 235 treated with convalescent plasma, showing no improvement in combined death at 28 days or progression to severe disease. CTRI/2020/04/024775.
Sep 29
Avendaño-Solà et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.20182444 Convalescent Plasma for COVID-19: A multicenter, randomized clinical trial
88% lower mortality [p=0.12] and 93% lower progression [p=0.01]. Early terminated RCT with 81 hospitalized patients, 38 treated with convalescent plasma, showing lower progression with treatment. NCT04345523.
Jun 3
Li et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.10044 Effect of Convalescent Plasma Therapy on Time to Clinical Improvement in Patients With Severe and Life-threatening COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
35% lower mortality [p=0.3], 15% better improvement [p=0.37], and 76% improved viral clearance [p=0.01]. Small RCT 103 severe condition patients, 52 treated with convalescent plasma, showing improved viral clearance but no statistically significant improvements in mortality or clinical improvement. ChiCTR2000029757.
May 27
Gharbharan et al., Nature Communications, doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23469-2 Effects of potent neutralizing antibodies from convalescent plasma in patients hospitalized for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection
4% lower mortality [p=0.95] and 12% higher hospital discharge [p=0.68]. RCT 86 hospitalized patients, 43 treated with convalescent plasma, showing no significant differences with treatment. Authors conclude that the most likely explanation was already high antibody titers on the day of inclusion, and they rec..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Thanks for your feedback! Please search before submitting papers and note that studies are listed under the date they were first available, which may be the date of an earlier preprint.