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Convalescent plasma for hospitalized patients with COVID-19: an open-label, randomized controlled trial

Bégin et al., Nature Medicine, doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01488-2, CONCOR-1, NCT04348656
Sep 2021  
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Mortality -13% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality (b) -12% Death/intubation -16% primary Conv. Plasma  CONCOR-1  LATE TREATMENT  RCT Is late treatment with convalescent plasma beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 938 patients in multiple countries (May 2020 - January 2021) Higher death/intubation with convalescent plasma (not stat. sig., p=0.18) c19early.org Bégin et al., Nature Medicine, September 2021 Favorsconv. plasma Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
RCT 940 hospitalized patients, 614 assigned to convalescent plasma, showing no significant differences.
risk of death, 13.0% higher, RR 1.13, p = 0.33, treatment 156 of 625 (25.0%), control 69 of 313 (22.0%), day 90.
risk of death, 12.0% higher, RR 1.12, p = 0.40, treatment 141 of 614 (23.0%), control 63 of 307 (20.5%), day 30.
risk of death/intubation, 16.0% higher, RR 1.16, p = 0.18, treatment 199 of 614 (32.4%), control 86 of 307 (28.0%), primary outcome.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Bégin et al., 9 Sep 2021, Randomized Controlled Trial, multiple countries, peer-reviewed, 33 authors, study period 14 May, 2020 - 29 January, 2021, average treatment delay 8.0 days, trial NCT04348656 (history) (CONCOR-1).
This PaperConv. PlasmaAll
Convalescent plasma for hospitalized patients with COVID-19: an open-label, randomized controlled trial
Philippe Bégin, Jeannie Callum, Erin Jamula, Richard Cook, Nancy M Heddle, Alan Tinmouth, Michelle P Zeller, Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussières, Luiz Amorim, Renée Bazin, Kent Cadogan Loftsgard, Richard Carl, Michaël Chassé, Melissa M Cushing, Nick Daneman, Dana V Devine, Jeannot Dumaresq, Dean A Fergusson, Caroline Gabe, Marshall J Glesby, Na Li, Yang Liu, Allison Mcgeer, Nancy Robitaille, Bruce S Sachais, Damon C Scales, Lisa Schwartz, Nadine Shehata, Alexis F Turgeon, Heidi Wood, Ryan Zarychanski, Andrés Finzi, Danièle Marceau, Andy Huang, Holly Carr, Yulia Lin, Rosemarie Lall, Christopher Graham, Christine Arsenault, Valerie Sales, Davinder Sidhu, Makeda Semret, Caroline Hamm, Eneko Arhanchiague, Ziad Solh, Nadim Srour, Karim Soliman, Colin Yee, Vincent Laroche, Susan Nahirniak, Christina Greenaway, Menaka Pai, Andréanne Côté, Jennifer L Y Tsang, Christine Cserti-Gazdewich, Danielle Talbot, Sébastien Poulin, Rodrigo Guimaraes, Moira Rushton-Marovac, Alexandra Langlois, Shuoyan Ning, Andrew Shih, Mélissa Boileau, Harjot Singh, Donna Ledingham, Arjuna Ponnampalam, Matthew Yan, Oksana Prokopchuk-Gauk, André Poirier, Gabriel Girouard, Katerina Pavenski, Olivier Drouin, David Harris, Madeleine Durand, Emily Rimmer, Daniel Ovakim, François Ménard, Glenna Cuccarolo, Julie Carruthers, Kayla Lucier, Valérie Arsenault, Marie-Christine Auclair, Meda Avram, Michael Brassard, Sabrina Cerro, Véronica Martinez, Julie Morin, Marie Saint-Jacques, Maxime Veillette, Chantal Armali, Amie Kron, Dimpy Modi, Joanne Duncan, Pauline Justumus, Melanie St John, Geneviève St-Onge, Milena Hadzi-Tosev, Pierre-Marc Dion, Lawrence Mcgillivary, Andre Valleteau De Moulliac, Sheila A Nyman, Stephanie Perilli, Paulette Jean Van Vliet, Shannon Lane, Katerina Pavenski, Rebecca Pereira, Emily Sirotich, Julie Abelson, Saara Greene, Aditi Khandelwal, Swarni Thakar, Sarah Longo, Sai Priya Anand, Mehdi Benlarbi, Catherine Bourassa, Marianne Boutin, Jade Descôteaux-Dinelle, Gabrielle Gendron-Lepage, Guillaume Goyette, Annemarie Laumaea, Halima Medjahed, Jérémie Prévost, Jonathan Richard, Daniel Kaufmann, Elsa Brunet-Ratnasingham, Nicolas Chaumont, Michael Drebot, Alyssia Robinson, Emelissa Mendoza, Kristina Dimitrova, Kathy Manguiat, Clark Phillipson, Michael Chan, David Evans, James Lin, Lucie Boyer, Marc Cloutier, Mathieu Drouin, Éric Ducas, Nathalie Dussault, Marie-Josée Fournier, Patricia Landy, Marie-Ève Nolin, Josée Perreault, Tony Tremblay, Ishac Nazy, Feng Xie, David Liu, Michelle Wong, Gus Silverio, Kristin Walkus, Mikaela Barton, Katherine Haveman, Darlene Mueller, Ashley Scott, Matthew Moher, Gordon Wood, Tracey Roarty, Fiona Auld, Gayle Carney, Virginia Thomson, Rodrigo Onell, Keith Walley, Katie Donohoe, Crystal Brunk, Geraldine Hernandez, Tina Jacobucci, Lynda Lazosky, Puneet Mann, Geeta Raval, Ligia Araujo Zampieri, Mypinder Sekhon, Alissa Wright, Nicola James, Gaby Chang, Roy Chen, Kanwal Deol, Jorell Gantioqui, Elyse Larsen, Namita Ramdin, Margaret Roche, Kristin Rosinski, Lawrence Sham, Michelle Storms, Mark Gillrie, Etienne Mahe, Deepa Suryanarayan, Alejandra Ugarte-Torres, Traci Robinson, Mitchell Gibbs, Julia Hewsgirard, Marnie Holmes, Joanna Mccarthy, Meagan Ody, Karen Doucette, Wendy Sligl, Ashlesah Sonpar, Kimberley Robertson, Jeffrey Narayan, Leka Ravindran, Breanne Stewart, Lori Zapernick, Stephen Lee, Eric Sy, Alexander Wong, Karolina Gryzb, Sarah Craddock, Dennaye Fuchs, Danielle Myrah, Sana Sunny, Sheila Rutledge Harding, Siddarth Kogilwaimath, Nancy Hodgson, Dawn Johnson, Simona Meier, Kim Thomson, Amila Heendeniya, Brett Houston, Yoav Kenyan, Sylvain Lother, Kendiss Olafson, Barret Rush, Terry Wuerz, Dayna Solvason, Lisa Albensi, Soumya Alias, Nora Choi, Laura Curtis, Maureen Hutmacher, Hessam Kashani, Debra Lane, Nicole Marten, Tracey Pronyk-Ward, Lisa Rigaux, Rhonda Silva, Quinn Tays, Renuka Naidu, Jane Mathews, Margaret Mai, Victoria Miceli, Liz Molson, Gayathri Radhakrishnan, Linda Schaefer, Michel Haddad, Shannon Landry, Robert Chernish, Rebecca Kruisselbrink, Theresa Liu, Jayna Jeromin, Atif Siddiqui
Nature Medicine, doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01488-2
T he immune response after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection results in the formation of antibodies that can interfere with viral replication and infection of host cells in over 95% of patients 1 . Based on previous experience in other viral infections 2 , the use of convalescent plasma has been proposed as a therapeutic form of passive immunization for patients with acute 4 ). Early in the pandemic, several small randomized trials found no difference in clinical outcomes 5-8 . In the United States, an Extended Access Program outside of a controlled trial led to the use of convalescent plasma in over half a million patients. Data from these patients showed that the transfusion of plasma with high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels was associated with a lower risk of death in non-intubated patients compared to lower antibody levels; however, this study lacked a control group 9 . The RECOVERY trial was a large randomized trial in 11,558 hospitalized patients that found that the risk of death after the administration of high-titer plasma was not different from standard of care 10 . The Convalescent Plasma for COVID-19 Respiratory Illness (CONCOR-1) trial was a multi-center, international, open-label, randomized controlled trial designed to assess the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 convalescent plasma in hospitalized patients. The trial used plasma collected from four blood suppliers with a range of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels. The variability in antibody titers allowed for a characterization of the effect-modifying role of functional and quantitative antibodies on the primary outcome (intubation or death at 30 d). Results Patients. This trial was stopped at the planned interim analysis because the conditional power estimate was 1.6% (below the stopping criterion of 20%). Between 14 May 2020 and 29 January 2021, 940 patients were randomized (2:1) to convalescent plasma or standard of care in 72 hospital sites in Canada, the United States and Brazil (Fig. 1 and Supplementary Table 1 ). Two patients randomized
Online content Any methods, additional references, Nature Research reporting summaries, source data, extended data, supplementary information, acknowledgements, peer review information; details of author contributions and competing interests; and statements of data and code availability are available at https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41591-021-01488-2. Publisher's note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Methods Trial design and oversight. CONCOR-1 was an investigator-initiated, multi-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial conducted at 72 hospital sites in Canada, the United States and Brazil 34 . Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive either convalescent plasma or standard of care. The ). An independent data safety monitoring committee performed trial oversight and made recommendations after review of safety reports planned at every 100 patients and at the planned interim analysis based on the first 600 patients. External monitoring was performed at all sites to assess protocol adherence, reporting of adverse events and accuracy of data entry. Full details of the study design, conduct, oversight and analyses are provided in the protocol and statistical analysis plan, which are available online. Participants. Eligible participants were (1) ≥16 years of age in Canada or ≥18 years of age in the United States and Brazil; (2) admitted to the hospital ward with confirmed..
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Although most randomized controlled trials have shown ' 'negative results, uncontrolled studies have suggested that the antibody content could ' 'influence patient outcomes. We conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of ' 'convalescent plasma for adults with COVID-19 receiving oxygen within 12 d of respiratory ' 'symptom onset (<jats:ext-link xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" ext-link-type="uri" ' 'xlink:href="https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04348656">NCT04348656</jats:ext-link>). ' 'Patients were allocated 2:1 to 500\u2009ml of convalescent plasma or standard of care. The ' 'composite primary outcome was intubation or death by 30 d. Exploratory analyses of the effect ' 'of convalescent plasma antibodies on the primary outcome was assessed by logistic regression. ' 'The trial was terminated at 78% of planned enrollment after meeting stopping criteria for ' 'futility. In total, 940 patients were randomized, and 921 patients were included in the ' 'intention-to-treat analysis. Intubation or death occurred in 199/614 (32.4%) patients in the ' 'convalescent plasma arm and 86/307 (28.0%) patients in the standard of care arm—relative risk ' '(RR) = 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94–1.43,<jats:italic>P</jats:italic>\u2009=\u2009' '0.18). Patients in the convalescent plasma arm had more serious adverse events (33.4% versus ' '26.4%; RR\u2009=\u20091.27, 95% CI 1.02–1.57,<jats:italic>P</jats:italic>\u2009=\u20090.034). ' 'The antibody content significantly modulated the therapeutic effect of convalescent plasma. 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{'given': 'Angela', 'family': 'Lapointe', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Gabrielle', 'family': 'Moreau', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Lola', 'family': 'Ouellette-Bernier', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Joanne', 'family': 'Rockburn', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Brigitte', 'family': 'Sonier-Ferguson', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Christine', 'family': 'Wilson', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Robert', 'family': 'DeSimone', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Grant', 'family': 'Ellsworth', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Rebecca', 'family': 'Fry', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Noah', 'family': 'Goss', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Roy', 'family': 'Gulick', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Carlos', 'family': 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Late treatment
is less effective
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