Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchSeleniumSelenium (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

    
  
Selenium for COVID-19
4 studies from 60 scientists
21,452 patients in 3 countries
7 sufficiency studies with 463 patients
One study shows statistically significant improvement.
COVID-19 Selenium studies. Jun 2024. c19early.org
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 34% With exclusions 24% Mortality 35% Hospitalization 22% Cases 41% RCTs 35% Sufficiency 60% Prophylaxis 36% Late 35% Favorsselenium Favorscontrol
Home   Post   Share   @CovidAnalysis   Meta AnalysisMeta   The European Food Safety Authority has found evidence for a causal relationship between the intake of selenium and optimal immune system function Galmés, Galmés (B). Submit updates/corrections. Summary.
Jun 23
Covid Analysis Selenium for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 11 studies (4 treatment studies and 7 sufficiency studies)
Meta analysis using the most serious outcome reported shows 34% [-40‑69%] lower risk, without reaching statistical significance. Results are similar for Randomized Controlled Trials and slightly worse for higher quality studies..
May 24
Rayman et al., Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules29112466 Comment on Ambra et al. Could Selenium Supplementation Prevent COVID-19? A Comprehensive Review of Available Studies. Molecules 2023, 28, 4130
Commentary by several selenium researchers responding to a recent review by Ambra et al. that downplayed the role of selenium in COVID-19. Authors identify several omissions and misrepresentations in the review. They argue the review was ..
Jan 29
Rozemeijer et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu16030385 Micronutrient Status of Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia
Prospective pilot study of 20 critically ill COVID-19 ICU patients showing high deficiency rates of 50-100% for vitamins A, B6, and D; zinc; and selenium at admission. Deficiencies of vitamins B6 and D, and low iron status, persisted afte..
Jan 12
De Luca et al., International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms25020971 Leveraging SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease (Mpro) for COVID-19 Mitigation with Selenium-Based Inhibitors
In Vitro study showing that novel selenium-containing compounds including benzoselenoates and carbamoselenoates inhibit SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) activity. After successfully expressing and purifying recombinant Mpro, authors find s..
Dec 24
2023
Maia et al., Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules29010120 Selenium—More than Just a Fortuitous Sulfur Substitute in Redox Biology
Review of the role of selenium and selenoproteins in viral infections. Authors note that several studies have shown lower serum selenium levels in COVID-19 patients, and selenium deficiency has been linked with increased severity and mort..
Nov 11
2023
Hafizi et al., Trials, doi:10.1186/s13063-023-07624-2 Beneficial effects of the combination of BCc1 and Hep-S nanochelating-based medicines on IL-6 in hospitalized moderate COVID-19 adult patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
35% lower mortality (p=0.68), 81% lower need for oxygen therapy, and 22% improved recovery. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 122 moderate hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Iran, evaluating the addition of BCc1 iron chelator and Hep-S selenium nanomedicines to standard treatment. The nanomedicine group showed..
Sep 20
2023
Yuan et al., Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, doi:10.1038/s41392-023-01580-8 The role of cell death in SARS-CoV-2 infection
Review of cell death pathways in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Authors note that studies show lower selenium levels are associated with higher COVID-19 mortality. Through preserving glutathione peroxidase 4 activity and countering oxidative stres..
Sep 18
2023
Zhou et al., Chemical Science, doi:10.1039/d3sc03345g Metal-coding assisted serological multi-omics profiling deciphers the role of selenium in COVID-19 immunity
In Vitro and mouse study highlighting selenium's potential for COVID-19 treatment through modulation of cytokines, selenoproteins, and immune cells. Using metal-coding mass spectrometry, authors link the COVID-19 metallome to disease seve..
Aug 16
2023
Sinha et al., MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1168.v1 Selective Impact of Selenium Compounds on Two Cytokine Storm Players
In Vitro analysis of selenium for reducing inflammatory cytokine production in a cell model of COVID-19 infection. Methylseleninic acid was the most potent at reducing secretion of the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, key factors in the cytokine..
Jul 26
2023
Roldán-Bretón et al., Journal of Nutritional Science, doi:10.1017/jns.2023.69 Selenium serum levels in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Systematic review and meta analysis of 11 studies, showing significantly lower selenium levels in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls.
Jul 26
2023
Wozniak et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15153308 Association of Trace Element Levels with Outcomes in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients
62% lower mortality (p=0.1) and 47% lower progression (p=0.2). Retrospective 345 COVID-19 patients in Switzerland, showing significantly different selenium levels with ICU patients < hospitalized patients < outpatients. For ICU patients, there was higher mortality, septic shock, and mechanical ventil..
May 11
2023
Vaisi et al., The Clinical Respiratory Journal, doi:10.1111/crj.13632 The association between nutrients and occurrence of COVID-19 outcomes in the population of Western Iran: A cohort study
53% lower hospitalization (p=0.02) and 15% fewer symptomatic cases (p=0.04). Analysis of nutrient intake and COVID-19 outcomes for 3,996 people in Iran, showing lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization with sufficient vitamin A, vitamin C, and selenium intake, with statistical significance for vitamin A and selenium.
Apr 20
2023
Fan et al., BioMetals, doi:10.1007/s10534-023-00501-0 Zinc and selenium status in coronavirus disease 2019
Meta analysis showing increased risk of COVID-19 with zinc deficiency and selenium deficiency. Zinc deficiency was also associated with severity, while there was no significant association for mortality.
Apr 1
2023
Reino-Gelardo et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15071736 Effect of an Immune-Boosting, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Food Supplement in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Prospective Randomized Pilot Study
61% lower mortality (p=0.05). RCT 162 late stage (65% on oxygen) patients in Spain, 78 treated with probiotics, prebiotics, vitamin D, zinc, and selenium, showing lower mortality with treatment, statistically significant only within the patients with high severity at ..
Mar 21
2023
Lahaye et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15061516 Minerals and Antioxidant Micronutrients Levels and Clinical Outcome in Older Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19 during the First Wave of the Pandemic
34% lower mortality (p=0.14) and 14% lower severe cases (p=0.51). Retrospective 235 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in France, showing higher mortality with lower selenium levels, without statistical significance. Results are provided for selenium levels as a continuous value.
Mar 8
2023
Šķesters et al., Medicina, doi:10.3390/medicina59030527 Selenium Status and Oxidative Stress in SARS-CoV-2 Patients
Analysis of 80 post-COVID-19 disease patients and 40 acutely ill patients in Latvia, showing significantly lower selenium levels in acute patients, and levels close to the lower limit of the normal range for the European population in pos..
Feb 8
2023
Larvie et al., Current Developments in Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.cdnut.2023.100044 COVID-19 Severity Is Associated with Selenium Intake among Young Adults with Low Selenium and Zinc Intake in North Carolina
Analysis of 97 COVID-19 patients in the USA, showing selenium intake inversely associated with COVID-19 severity among individuals with below median intake.
Nov 28
2022
Demircan et al., Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2022.1022673 Association of COVID-19 mortality with serum selenium, zinc and copper: Six observational studies across Europe
Retrospective 551 COVID-19 patients in Europe, showing an inverse association between selenium or zinc levels and mortality.
Sep 30
2022
Chanihoon et al., Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2022.127038 Selenium and mercury concentrations in biological samples from patients with COVID-19
Analysis of 115 COVID-19 patients and 158 healthy controls, showing lower selenium levels and higher mercury levels in all sample types for COVID-19 patients (scalp hair, blood, serum, sputum, saliva, nasal fluid).
Sep 2
2022
Foshati et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.3034 Antioxidants and clinical outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review of observational and interventional studies
Systematic review showing that vitamin C, vitamin D, selenium, and zinc can improve COVID-19 clinical outcomes.
Aug 4
2022
Bego et al., Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2022.127055 Association of Trace Element Status in COVID-19 Patients with Disease Severity
Analysis of 210 hospitalized patients in Bosnia and Herzegovina with serum levels measured on admission, showing significantly lower zinc and selenium levels in patients that died or had severe cases, compared to mild cases.
May 27
2022
Galmés et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14112254 Suboptimal Consumption of Relevant Immune System Micronutrients Is Associated with a Worse Impact of COVID-19 in Spanish Populations
Ecological study in Spain, showing lower intake of vitamin D, A, B9, and zinc in regions with the highest COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Vitamin D intake was associated with lower prevalence, incidence, and a combined incidence+mortali..
Apr 30
2022
Voelkle et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14091862 Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: An Observational Cohort Study
12% lower combined mortality/ICU admission (p=0.77). Prospective study of 57 consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Switzerland, showing higher risk of mortality/ICU admission with vitamin A, vitamin D, and zinc deficiency, with statistical significance only for vitamin A and zinc. A..
Feb 28
2022
Nimer et al., Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.7009 The impact of vitamin and mineral supplements usage prior to COVID-19 infection on disease severity and hospitalization
26% higher hospitalization (p=0.48) and 9% higher severe cases (p=0.8). Retrospective 2,148 COVID-19 recovered patients in Jordan, showing no significant differences in the risk of severity and hospitalization with selenium prophylaxis.
Feb 26
2022
Hajdrik et al., Foods, doi:10.3390/foods11050694 In Vitro Determination of Inhibitory Effects of Humic Substances Complexing Zn and Se on SARS-CoV-2 Virus Replication
In Vitro study of a humic substance containing vitamin C, selemium ions, and zinc ions, showing 50% SARS-CoV-2 inhibition at picomolar concentrations.
Jan 7
2022
Al-Saleh et al., BioMetals, doi:10.1007/s10534-021-00355-48 Essential metals, vitamins and antioxidant enzyme activities in COVID-19 patients and their potential associations with the disease severity
Prospective study of 155 COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia, showing that 30% of patients were selenium deficient (<70.08 μg/L). Patients with severe COVID-19 symptoms had 18% lower selenium levels compared to asymptomatic patients after a..
Nov 5
2021
Fakhrolmobasheri et al., Biological Trace Element Research, doi:10.1007/s12011-021-02997-4 COVID-19 and Selenium Deficiency: a Systematic Review
Review of 11 studies, 9 showing lower serum selenium levels associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. Two studies reported no significant association between serum selenium level and COVID-19. In one study, urinary selenium level was repor..
Oct 11
2021
Majeed et al., Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, doi:10.1155/2021/8447545 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of a Nutritional Supplement (ImmuActive) for COVID-19 Patients
43% improved recovery (p=0.004) and 6% faster viral clearance (p=0.47). RCT 100 patients in India, 50 treated with ImmuActive (curcumin, andrographolides, resveratrol, zinc, selenium, and piperine), showing improved recovery with treatment.
Oct 4
2021
Kocak et al., Biological Trace Element Research, doi:10.1007/s12011-021-02946-1 Evaluation of Serum Trace Element Levels and Biochemical Parameters of COVID-19 Patients According to Disease Severityhttps://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12011-021-02946-1
Analysis of 60 COVID-19 patients and 32 healthy controls, showing that zinc and selenium levels were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients compared to controls. Zinc levels decreased with increasing disease severity from asymptomatic t..
Sep 22
2021
Du Laing et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103304 Course and Survival of COVID-19 Patients with Comorbidities in Relation to the Trace Element Status at Hospital Admission
92% lower mortality (p=0.001). Retrospective 73 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Belgium, showing higher risk of mortality with selenium deficiency and zinc deficiency.
Sep 3
2021
Razeghi Jahromi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06617-3 The correlation between serum selenium, zinc, and COVID-19 severity: an observational study
Prospective analysis of 84 patients in Iran, showing higher selenium and zinc levels associated with a decrease in serum CRP level. There was no statistically significant association between selenium/zinc levels and disease severity.
Aug 25
2021
Bagher Pour et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.08.053 Serum trace elements levels and clinical outcomes among Iranian COVID-19 patients
Prospective analysis of 114 ICU patients and 112 matched non-ICU patients in Iran, showing no significant difference in selenium levels.
Jul 1
2021
Younesian et al., Biological Trace Element Research, doi:10.1007/s12011-021-02797-w Decreased Serum Selenium Levels of COVID-19 Patients in Comparison with Healthy Individuals
Analysis of 50 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 50 healthy controls, showing significantly lower selenium levels in COVID-19 patients. There was no significant difference between survivors and non-survivors.
Jun 20
2021
Notz et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13062113 Clinical Significance of Micronutrient Supplementation in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients with Severe ARDS
Retrospective 22 ICU patients, showing most patients had low selenium status biomarkers and low zinc levels, and reporting on treatment with nutrient supplementation including selenium and zinc. Authors conclude that sufficient selenium a..
May 22
2021
Asimi et al., Endocrine Abstracts, doi:10.1530/endoabs.73.PEP14.2 Selenium, zinc, and vitamin D supplementation affect the clinical course of COVID-19 infection in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
97% lower ventilation (p<0.0001), 99% lower hospitalization (p<0.0001), and 100% lower severe cases (p<0.0001). Retrospective 356 Hashimoto's thyroiditis outpatients, 270 taking vitamin D, zinc, and selenium, showing significantly lower hospitalization with treatment. Authors adjust for age, gender, BMI, and smoking status, reporting statistically ..
May 19
2021
Zhang et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06167-8 Association between fatality rate of COVID-19 and selenium deficiency in China
Ecological study of 14,045 COVID-19 cases from 147 cities in China, showing higher case fatality rates associated with selenium deficiency. Based on selenium content in crops, the case fatality rates (CFRs) were 1.17% in non-selenium-defi..
Apr 15
2021
Skalny et al., Metabolites, doi:10.3390/metabo11040244 Serum Zinc, Copper, and Other Biometals Are Associated with COVID-19 Severity Markers
Analysis of serum metal levels in 150 COVID-19 patients and 44 controls, finding that COVID-19 severity was associated with lower serum Ca, Fe, Se, Zn levels when compared to controls.
Mar 30
2021
Holt et al., Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-217487 Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
80% fewer cases (p=0.11). Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistica..
Feb 28
2021
Majeed et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111053 An exploratory study of selenium status in healthy individuals and in patients with COVID-19 in a south Indian population: The case for adequate selenium status
67% fewer cases (p=0.06). Analysis of 30 COVID-19 patients and 30 healthy controls in India, showing significantly lower selenium levels in COVID-19 patients. 43.3% of COVID-19 patients had selenium levels <70 ng/mL compared to 20% of controls.
Feb 1
2021
Muhammad et al., SAGE Open Medicine, doi:10.1177/2050312121991246 Deficiency of antioxidants and increased oxidative stress in COVID-19 patients: A cross-sectional comparative study in Jigawa, Northwestern Nigeria
Case control study with 50 symptomatic COVID-19 patients and 21 healthy controls in Nigeria, showing that COVID-19 patients had significantly lower levels of selenium and zinc, and vitamins A, C, and E. Control patients were younger than ..
Jan 1
2021
Alkattan et al., Alexandria Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1080/20905068.2020.1870788 Correlation between Micronutrient plasma concentration and disease severity in COVID-19 patients
Analysis of 80 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia, showing higher selenium levels for severe patients.
Sep 8
2020
Galmés et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12092738 Current State of Evidence: Influence of Nutritional and Nutrigenetic Factors on Immunity in the COVID-19 Pandemic Framework
Ecological study of European countries analyzing 10 vitamins and minerals endorsed by the European Food Safety Authority as having sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between intake and optimal immune system function: vitamins D..
Aug 11
2020
Im et al., Int. J. Infect. Dis., doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018 Nutritional status of patients with COVID-19
88% lower mortality (p=0.07), 90% lower ventilation (p=0.03), and 4% higher progression (p=1). Analysis of 50 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in South Korea showing 42% of patients with selenium deficiency, and lower mechanical ventilation with selenium sufficiency.
Jul 16
2020
Moghaddam et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12072098 Selenium Deficiency Is Associated with Mortality Risk from COVID-19
56% lower mortality (p=0.01). Analysis of 33 COVID-19 patients showing selenium levels significantly lower than reference levels, and significantly lower levels in non-survivors compared with survivors.
Jun 30
2020
Zhang et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqaa095 Association between regional selenium status and reported outcome of COVID-19 cases in China
Analysis of COVID-19 outcomes and selenium status in China, showing higher selenium levels correlated with a higher recovery rate.
Oct 1
2009
EFSA, EFSA Journal, doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1220 Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to selenium and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 277, 283, 286, 1289, 1290, 1291, 1293, 1751), function of the immune system (ID 278), thyroid function (ID 279, 282, 286, 1289, 1290, 1291, 1293), function of the heart and blood vessels (ID 280), prostate function (ID 284), cognitive function (ID 285) and spermatogenesis (ID 396) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
European Food Safety Administration review concluding that there is a causal relationship between the intake of selenium and immune system function.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Thanks for your feedback! Please search before submitting papers and note that studies are listed under the date they were first available, which may be the date of an earlier preprint.
Submit