Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchCurcuminCurcumin (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

Curcumin for COVID-19
26 studies from 225 scientists
14,736 patients in 10 countries
Statistically significant lower risk for mortality, ventilation, hospitalization, progression, recovery, and viral clearance.
45% lower risk in 20 RCTs CI 29-58%
Studies typically use advanced formulations for greatly improved bioavailability.
COVID-19 Curcumin studies. May 2024.
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 42% With exclusions 40% Mortality 63% Hospitalization 27% Recovery 40% Viral clearance 37% RCTs 45% RCT mortality 63% Prophylaxis 36% Early 30% Late 51% Favorscurcumin Favorscontrol
Studies typically use advanced formulations for greatly improved bioavailability. Recent:
Submit updates/corrections. Summary.
May 28
Covid Analysis Curcumin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 26 studies
Statistically significant lower risk is seen for mortality, ventilation, hospitalization, progression, recovery, and viral clearance. 18 studies from 16 independent teams in 8 countries show significant improvements. Meta analysis using t..
May 10
Nicoliche et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-024-61662-7 Antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of curcumin and curcuminoids in SH-SY5Y cells infected by SARS-CoV-2
In Vitro study showing antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects of curcumin and curcuminoids in SARS-CoV-2 infected SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Authors found that the curcuminoid Me23 significantly decreased expression..
May 4
Kali et al., Global Journal of Medical, Pharmaceutical, and Biomedical Update, doi:10.25259/GJMPBU_78_2023 Curcumin as a Promising Therapy for COVID-19: A Review
Review of curcumin for COVID-19. Authors discuss the molecular mechanisms of COVID-19 pathogenesis and the properties and mechanisms of action of curcumin. Curcumin exhibits antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 by interfering with viral ..
Apr 16
Agamah et al., ScienceOpen, doi:10.58647/DRUGARXIV.PR000010.v1 Network-based multi-omics-disease-drug associations reveal drug repurposing candidates for COVID-19 disease phases
In Silico study identifying potential drugs beneficial for COVID-19 by integrating transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and drug data. Authors explore interactions between drugs, molecular features, and disease severity...
Apr 13
Vaiss et al., European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.1016/j.ejps.2024.106766 Curcumin and quercetin co-encapsulated in nanoemulsions for nasal administration: a promising therapeutic and prophylactic treatment for viral respiratory infections
In Vitro and Ex Vivo study showing that curcumin and quercetin co-encapsulated in nanoemulsions (NEs) for nasal administration inhibited murine β-coronavirus (MHV-3) infection. MHV-3 belongs to the same family as SARS-CoV-2. Authors found..
Apr 7
Boseila et al., European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2024.114279 Throat spray formulated with virucidal Pharmaceutical excipients as an effective early prophylactic or treatment strategy against pharyngitis post-exposure to SARS CoV-2
In Silico, In Vitro, and rat study showing potential prophylactic and therapeutic benefits of a curcumin-loaded self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system throat spray against SARS-CoV-2 infection and pharyngitis. Molecular docking studies..
Mar 18
Vajdi et al., Pharmacological Reports, doi:10.1007/s43440-024-00585-6 Effect of polyphenols against complications of COVID-19: current evidence and potential efficacy
Review of polyphenols for COVID-19. Authors note that polyphenols can inhibit key SARS-CoV-2 enzymes involved in viral replication and infection, and that many polyphenols have well-established safety profiles. Authors recommend additiona..
Feb 29
Yong et al., International Journal of Nanomedicine, doi:10.2147/ijn.s451206 Natural Products-Based Inhaled Formulations for Treating Pulmonary Diseases
Review of nanoformulations for inhaled therapeutics for respiratory diseases including potential for COVID-19. Inhaled formulations deliver treatment directly to both the upper and lower respiratory tract, enabling higher local concentrat..
Feb 6
Hidayah et al., International Conference on Organic and Applied Chemistry, doi:10.1063/5.0197724 Bioinformatics study of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and cyclocurcumin compounds in Curcuma longa as an antiviral agent via nucleocapsid on SARS-CoV-2 inhibition
In Silico study showing binding of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and cyclocurcumin to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. Authors find curcumin has the strongest predicted binding affinity. All compounds showed suitab..
Jan 30
Halma et al., Endocrine and Metabolic Science, doi:10.1016/j.endmts.2024.100163 Exploring autophagy in treating SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-related pathology
Review of autophagy pathways for treating SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-related pathology. Authors note that the spike protein is implicated in long COVID and post-vaccination syndrome through mechanisms like inflammation, vascular damage, and..
Jan 29
Singh et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ Unlocking the potential of phytochemicals in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 M Pro protein - An in-silico and cell-based approach
In Silico and In Vitro study including quercetin and curcumin derivatives as potential SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors. Molecular dynamics simulations and virtual screening identified quercetin and curcumin derivatives demethox..
Jan 23
Nittayananta et al., Virology Journal, doi:10.1186/s12985-023-02282-x A novel film spray containing curcumin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus infection and enhances mucosal immunity
In Vitro study showing that a novel oro-nasal curcumin film spray inhibits SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus infection of cells while enhancing mucosal innate immunity. The spray demonstrated potent dose-dependent antiviral activity against ..
Jan 9
Arab et al., Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2024.116131 Immunoregulatory effects of nanocurcumin in inflammatory milieu: Focus on COVID-19
Review of immunoregulatory effects of nanocurcumin in inflammatory conditions including COVID-19. Authors note that curcumin has shown therapeutic potential but has poor bioavailability, which nanoformulations can address. Studies suggest..
Jan 4
Kant et al., Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, doi:10.1080/07391102.2023.2300060 Structure-based drug discovery to identify SARS-CoV2 spike protein–ACE2 interaction inhibitors
In Silico study showing that curcumin strongly inhibits the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) and the human ACE2 receptor for the delta and omicron variants. Molecular docking and dynamics simu..
Dec 31
Teixeira et al., Curcumin and Neurodegenerative Diseases, doi:10.1007/978-981-99-7731-4_14 Effect of Curcumin on the Process of Neuroinflammation Caused by COVID-19
Review of the effect of curcumin on neuroinflammation caused by COVID-19. Authors note that curcumin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, neuroprotective, and immune-modulating properties that may be helpful before and after SAR..
Dec 31
Zhang et al., Elsevier BV, doi:10.2139/ssrn.4677176 Computational Discovery of Mitochondrial Dysfunction Biomarkers in Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Unveiling Their Functions and Facilitating Drug Screening
In Silico study showing that five mitochondrial dysfunction biomarkers (RECQL4, PYCR1, PIF1, POLQ, and GLDC) can distinguish severe COVID-19 patients from mild cases and uninfected individuals. These biomarkers were associated with dysreg..
Dec 31
Daskou et al., Pathogens, doi:10.3390/pathogens13010039 The Role of the NRF2 Pathway in the Pathogenesis of Viral Respiratory Infections
Review discussing the role of the NRF2 antioxidant pathway in regulating viral replication and associated inflammation and cell damage pathways during respiratory viral infections. Authors summarize evidence showing that respiratory virus..
Dec 25
Law et al., Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph17010034 Photodynamic Action of Curcumin and Methylene Blue against Bacteria and SARS-CoV-2—A Review
Review of the use of curcumin and methylene blue as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) against bacteria and SARS-CoV-2. Authors explains the principles behind PDT and the mechanisms of curcumin and methylene blue as photosensi..
Dec 20
Lee et al., Functional Foods in Health and Disease, doi:10.31989/ffhd.v13i12.1207 Safety evaluation of high bioavailability curcumin in Healthy Japanese Adults: A Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparison study
Safety RCTs for highly bioavailable curcumin supplements CR-033P and TS-P1 in healthy Japanese adults, testing 150 mg/day curcumin equivalent of CR-033P or TS-P1 for 12 weeks, and 750 mg/day curcumin equivalent of TS-P1 for 4 weeks. Both ..
Nov 30
Naderi Beni et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0295014 In silico studies of anti-oxidative and hot temperament-based phytochemicals as natural inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro
In Silico study showing potential benefits of the phytochemicals curcumin, savinin, and betulinic acid as an inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). Molecular docking analysis revealed these hot temperament, antioxidant compound..
Nov 21
Hulscher et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.49204 Clinical Approach to Post-acute Sequelae After COVID-19 Infection and Vaccination
Review of evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein can damage cardiovascular, hematological, neurological, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and immunological systems, and may be a primary cause of long COVID symptoms. Authors introduce a ..
Nov 15
Bhardwaj et al., Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.jaim.2023.100778 Effectiveness of ayurvedic formulation, NAOQ19 along with standard care in the treatment of mild-moderate COVID-19 patients: A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentric trial
13% shorter hospitalization (p=0.05) and 12% faster viral clearance (p=0.02). RCT 150 mild-moderate COVID-19 patients showing faster viral clearance and shorter hospitalization with NAOQ19, a polyherbal formulation containing 13 antiviral/antinflammatory compounds. NAOQ19 ingredients include curcumin, andrographis,..
Nov 2
Moschovou et al., International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms242115894 Exploring the Binding Effects of Natural Products and Antihypertensive Drugs on SARS-CoV-2: An In Silico Investigation of Main Protease and Spike Protein
In Silico molecular docking and molecular dynamics analysis identifying curcumin, quercetin, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B as having favorable binding to Mpro and three distinct sites on the S protein. Molecular dynamics simulat..
Oct 16
Eleraky et al., International Journal of Nanomedicine, doi:10.2147/IJN.S423251 Curcumin Transferosome-Loaded Thermosensitive Intranasal in situ Gel as Prospective Antiviral Therapy for SARS-Cov-2
In Silico, In Vitro, and In Vivo study showing antiviral efficacy of a curcumin nanoformulation against SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking revealed potential binding and inhibition of curcumin with viral proteins involved in entry and replicat..
Sep 29
Septisetyani et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2023.09.28.560070 Curcumin and turmeric extract inhibited SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus cell entry and Spike mediated cell fusion
In Vitro study showing that curcumin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus cell entry and syncytia formation at 1-10μM in cells overexpressing ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Authors find that both curcumin and turmeric extract are potential inhibitors of SA..
Sep 21
Singh et al., The Seybold Report, doi:10.17605/OSF.IO/TKEXJ Computational studies to analyze effect of curcumin inhibition on coronavirus D614G mutated spike protein
In Silico study showing that curcumin binds strongly to both the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and ACE2 receptor. Curcumin's binding energy was similar for the wildtype spike protein and a mutated D614G variant.
Sep 19
Thapa et al., Makara Journal of Science, doi:10.7454/mss.v27i3.1609 In-silico Approach for Predicting the Inhibitory Effect of Home Remedies on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2
In Silico analysis showing that curcumin and quercetin may be beneficial for COVID-19 by binding to the main protease (Mpro), spike protein, and ACE2 receptor. Both compounds had suitable ADME properties and minimal predicted toxicity.
Sep 16
Mohd Abd Razak et al., Natural Product Communications, doi:10.1177/1934578X231188861 In Vitro Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activities of Curcumin and Selected Phenolic Compounds
In vitro study showing that of 9 phenolic compounds tested, only curcumin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 cytopathic effects in infected monkey kidney Vero E6 cells. Curcumin showed antiviral activity against wildtype, alpha, delta, and omicron vari..
Aug 30
Srivastava et al., Stresses, doi:10.3390/stresses3030043 Paradigm of Well-Orchestrated Pharmacokinetic Properties of Curcuminoids Relative to Conventional Drugs for the Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 Receptors: An In Silico Approach
In Silico analysis of curcuminoids showing similar drug-like properties and strong binding to the main protease and spike receptor binding domain proteins. Curcuminoid binding was comparable or better than existing drugs favipiravir, remd..
Aug 25
Alkafaas et al., Virology Journal, doi:10.1186/s12985-023-02160-6 A study on the effect of natural products against the transmission of B.1.1.529 Omicron
Review of natural products for SARS-CoV-2 omicron including an In Silico study showing quercetin, curcumin, ascorbic acid, nigellidine, and chloroquine among many compounds docked to the ACE2 metallopeptidase domain. Quercetin, curcumin, ..
Aug 3
Micek et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2023.1241016 Association of dietary intake of polyphenols, lignans, and phytosterols with immune-stimulating microbiota and COVID-19 risk in a group of Polish men and women
Dietary analysis of 95 adults in Poland, showing lower risk of COVID-19 with higher intake of polyphenols, lignans, and phytosterols. Results were statistically significant for total phytosterols, secoisolariciresinol, β-sitosterol, matai..
Jul 28
Ahmadi et al., International Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.1155/2023/5734675 Efficacy of Nanocurcumin as an Add-On Treatment for Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial
58% lower need for oxygen therapy (p=0.06) and 67% improved recovery (p=0.04). RCT 76 hospitalized patients, showing improved recovery with nanocurcumin. Authors note that pure curcumin is limited due to rapid metabolism, low bio-availability, weak aqueous solubility, and systemic deletion, and that the nanocurcumin..
Jun 30
Winih Kinasih et al., Duta Pharma Journal, doi:10.47701/djp.v3i1.2904 Analisis in silico interaksi senyawa kurkuminoid terhadap enzim main protease 6LU7 dari SARS-CoV-2
In Silico study of the interaction between curcumin and its derivatives with the main protease enzyme from SARS-CoV-2. The compounds tested were curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and demethoxycurcumin. All compounds met the requirements of ..
Jun 22
Gérain et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2023.1137407 NASAFYTOL® supplementation in adults hospitalized with COVID-19 infection: results from an exploratory open-label randomized controlled trial
91% lower combined mortality/ICU admission (p=0.02), 89% lower ventilation (p=0.05), 89% lower ICU admission (p=0.05), and 73% higher hospital discharge (p=0.07). RCT 49 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 25 treated with curcumin and quercetin, shower lower mortality/ICU admission and improved recovery with treatment. All patients received vitamin D. 336mg curcumin, 520mg quercetin, and 18μg vitamin D..
Apr 29
Sadeghizadeh et al., Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.7844 Promising clinical outcomes of nano‐curcumin treatment as an adjunct therapy in hospitalized COVID‐19 patients: A randomized, double‐blinded, placebo‐controlled trial
92% lower progression (p=0.02), 25% shorter hospitalization (p=0.007), and 68% improved recovery (p<0.0001). RCT 42 hospitalized moderate/severe COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing lower progression and improved recovery with nano-curcumin. Nano-curcumin 70mg bid for 14 days.
Apr 13
Wu et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ Potential Mechanism of Curcumin and Resveratrol against SARS-CoV-2
In Vitro study showing that curcumin and resveratrol inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection through multiple mechanisms. Curcumin and resveratrol inhibit SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus cell entry in HEK293-ACE2 cells with IC50 values of 18.02 μM and 8.76 μ..
Apr 13
Barh et al., Indian Journal of Medical Research, doi:10.4103/ijmr.ijmr_1701_22 Indian food habit & food ingredients may have a role in lowering the severity & high death rate from COVID-19 in Indians
Nutrigenomics study of blood transcriptomes from Indian and western COVID-19 patients, showing Indian dietary habits and food ingredients including higher zinc, iron, curcumin, fiber, catechins, and EGCG may be associated with reduced sev..
Mar 28
Teshima et al., Natural Product Research, doi:10.1080/14786419.2023.2194647 Antiviral activity of curcumin and its analogs selected by an artificial intelligence-supported activity prediction system in SARS-CoV-2-infected VeroE6 cells
In Vitro study of curcumin and its analogs with 6 of 8 compounds showing SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity with EC50 values <30μM and binding inhibitory activity with IC20 values <30μM.
Mar 13
Hegde et al., ACS Omega, doi:10.1021/acsomega.2c07326 Curcumin Formulations for Better Bioavailability: What We Learned from Clinical Trials Thus Far?
Review of clinical studies on curcumin formulations for improved bioavailability. Authors note that bioavailability has been improved by a factor of >50,000.
Feb 21
Savaliya et al., AYU (An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda), doi:10.4103/ayu.ayu_92_22 Safety and efficacy of COROPROTECT kit as an add-on therapy in the management of mild-to-moderate COVID-19: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial
86% improved recovery (p<0.0001) and 53% improved viral clearance (p<0.0001). RCT with 300 mild to moderate hospitalized COVID-19 patients, showing faster recovery, faster viral clearance, and a reduction in inflammatory markers with COROPROTECT, which includes curcumin, andrographis, and several additional treatme..
Feb 17
Shojaei et al., Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.7778 The effectiveness of nano‐curcumin on patients with COVID‐19: A systematic review of clinical trials
Meta analysis of 8 nano-curcumin COVID-19 studies, showing significantly lower mortality and shorter hospitalization with treatment.
Jan 18
Das et al., Archives of Clinical and Medical Case Reports, 7:1 The Efficacy of a Plant Based Formulation in the Symptomatic Management of Mild COVID-19 Cases: A Double Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial
98% improved recovery (p<0.0001) and 76% improved viral clearance (p<0.0001). RCT 50 patients in India testing NAOQ19 which includes curcumin along with many other ingredients, showing improved recovery and viral clearance. SOC included vitamin C and zinc. NAOQ19 is a plant based formulation with 19 ingredients fro..
Jan 18
Din Ujjan et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.1023997 The possible therapeutic role of curcumin and quercetin in the early-stage of COVID-19—Results from a pragmatic randomized clinical trial
29% improved recovery (p=0.11) and 91% improved viral clearance (p=0.05). Small RCT with 50 outpatients, 25 treated with curcumin, quercetin, and vitamin D, showing improved recovery and viral clearance with treatment. 168mg curcumin, 260mg, 360IU vitamin D3 daily for 14 days.
Jan 14
Shafiee et al., Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.7724 Curcumin for the treatment of COVID-19 patients: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
62% lower mortality (p=0.003). Meta analysis of 13 curcumin RCTs showing lower mortality with treatment. Authors note that subgroup analysis suggested improved efficacy with early treatment and with combined treatment.
Nov 23
Chitre et al., Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.7683 Phase III randomized clinical trial of BV-4051, an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation in moderate SARS-CoV-2 infections and its impact on inflammatory biomarkers
11% faster recovery (p=0.04). RCT 208 moderate COVID-19 patients in India, 103 treated with a combination of turmeric, ashwagandha, boswellia, and ginger, showing improved recovery with treatment. The dose of curcumin is unknown and bioavailability may be poor.
Sep 17
Abbaspour-Aghdam et al., European Journal of Pharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2022.175267 Immunomodulatory role of Nanocurcumin in COVID-19 patients with dropped natural killer cells frequency and function
71% lower mortality (p=0.15) and 86% improved recovery (p=0.04). RCT with 30 nanocurcumin and 30 control patients in Iran, showing lower mortality and improved recovery, without statistical significance, and improved NK cell function. 160mg nanocurcumin for 21 days.
Jun 10
Nimer et al., F1000Research, doi:10.12688/f1000research.121933.1 Effect of natural products use prior to infection with COVID-19 on disease severity and hospitalization: A self-reported cross-sectional survey study
31% lower hospitalization (p=0.08) and 13% lower severe cases (p=0.47). Survey 2,148 COVID-19 recovered patients in Jordan, showing lower hospitalization with turmeric prophylaxis, not reaching statistical significance.
Jun 6
Askari et al., Trials, doi:10.1186/s13063-022-06375-w The efficacy of curcumin-piperine co-supplementation on clinical symptoms, duration, severity, and inflammatory factors in COVID-19 outpatients: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Small RCT 46 outpatients in Iran, 23 treated with curcimin-piperine, showing no significant differences in recovery. 1000mg curcumin and 10mg piperine/day for 14 days.
May 19
Hellou et al., Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, doi:10.1111/jcmm.17337 Effect of ArtemiC in patients with COVID-19: A Phase II prospective study
77% improved recovery (p=0.04), 92% lower need for oxygen therapy (p=0.01), 13% shorter hospitalization (p=0.92), and 10% improved viral clearance (p=0.77). RCT 50 hospitalized patients in Israel, 33 treated with curcumin, vitamin C, artemisinin, and frankincense oral spray, showing improved recovery with treatment.
May 1
Nag et al., Computers in Biology and Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105552 Curcumin inhibits spike protein of new SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) Omicron, an in silico study
In Silico study showing showing significant inhibitory potential of curcumin for omicron.
May 1
Khan et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2022.898062 Oral Co-Supplementation of Curcumin, Quercetin, and Vitamin D3 as an Adjuvant Therapy for Mild to Moderate Symptoms of COVID-19—Results From a Pilot Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial
33% improved recovery (p=0.15) and 50% improved viral clearance (p=0.009). RCT 50 COVID+ outpatients in Pakistan, 25 treated with curcumin, quercetin, and vitamin D, showing significantly faster viral clearance, significantly improved CRP, and faster resolution of acute symptoms (p=0.154). 168mg curcumin, 260mg ..
Apr 28
Kow et al., Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.7468 The effect of curcumin on the risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials
77% lower mortality (p=0.002). Meta analysis of 3 curcumin RCTs showing lower mortality with treatment. Author notes the small sample sizes of the included trials.
Apr 9
Leka et al., Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.7463 In vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 of common herbal medicinal extracts and their bioactive compounds
In Vitro study showing antiviral activity of curcumin longa, with protection against SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effects at a concentration of 3.125μg/ml.
Mar 25
Sankhe et al., Complementary Therapies in Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2022.102824 A Randomized, Controlled, Blinded, Parallel Group, Clinical Trial to study the role of Ayurcov (AyurCoro3), one day regimen as an adjuvant therapy for COVID-19 disease management, at dedicated Covid Hospital (DCH) in India
86% lower mortality (p=0.24), 86% lower ventilation (p=0.24), 10% shorter hospitalization (p=0.4), and 32% faster recovery (p=0.001). RCT with 60 hospitalized patients treated with Ayurcov and 60 control patients in India, showing improved viral clearance and faster symptom resolution in the mild/moderate group, but no significant differences in the severe group. Ayurco..
Mar 22
Thomas et al., COVID, doi:10.3390/covid2040031 A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Evaluating Concentrated Phytochemical-Rich Nutritional Capsule in Addition to a Probiotic Capsule on Clinical Outcomes among Individuals with COVID-19—The UK Phyto-V Study
44% greater improvement (p=0.02). RCT 147 long COVID patients in the UK, 56 treated with a phytochemical-rich concentrated food capsule, showing improved recovery with treatment. Treatment included curcumin, bioflavonoids, chamomile, ellagic acid, and resveratrol.
Feb 28
Shehab et al., Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, doi:10.4314/tjpr.v21i2.13 Immune-boosting effect of natural remedies and supplements on progress of, and recovery from COVID-19 infection
42% lower severe cases (p=0.55). Retrospective survey-based analysis of 349 COVID-19 patients, showing a lower risk of severe cases with vitamin D, zinc, turmeric, and honey prophylaxis in unadjusted analysis, without statistical significance. REC/UG/2020/03.
Feb 22
Hartono et al., Pharmacognosy Journal, doi:10.5530/pj.2022.14.27 The Effect of Curcumin and Virgin Coconut Oil Towards Cytokines Levels in COVID-19 Patients at Universitas Sebelas Maret Hospital, Surakarta, Indonesia
53% improved viral clearance (p<0.0001). RCT with 30 patients treated with curcumin and virgin coconut oil (VCO), and 30 SOC patients in Indonesia, showing faster viral clearance with treatment. Treatment also reduced IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-18, and IFN-β levels. VCO improves the..
Feb 4
Rampogu et al., International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms23031771 Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulations Discover Curcumin Analogue as a Plausible Dual Inhibitor for SARS-CoV-2
In Silico molecular dynamics simulation study finding a curcumin analogue (curA) as a promising dual inhibitor for SARS-CoV-2.
Jan 28
Kartika et al., ICE on IMERI, 2021 Curcumin as adjuvant Therapy in Mild - Moderate Covid 19
41% shorter hospitalization (p=0.05). Retrospective 246 hospitalized patients in Indonesia, 136 treated with curcumin, showing shorter hospitalization time with treatment. All patients received vitamin C, D, and zinc.
Jan 21
Goc et al., European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology, doi:10.1556/1886.2021.00022 Inhibitory effects of specific combination of natural compounds against SARS-CoV-2 and its Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Kappa, and Mu variants
In Vitro study testing combinations of plant extracts and micronutrients with several variants of SARS-CoV-2. A combination of vitamin C, N-acetylcysteine, curcumin, quercetin, resveratrol, theaflavin, naringenin, baicalin, and broccoli e..
Jan 17
Asadirad et al., Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.7375 Antiinflammatory potential of nano-curcumin as an alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of mild-to-moderate hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a placebo-controlled clinical trial
26% lower mortality (p=0.74), 50% lower progression (p=0.47), and 45% improved recovery (p=0.09). RCT 60 hospitalized patients in Iran, 30 treated with nano-curcumin, showing significant improvements in inflammatory cytokines, and improvements in clinical outcomes without statistical significance. 240 mg/day nano-curcumin for 7 days.
Jan 12
Honarkar Shafie et al., Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.7374 Effect of nanocurcumin supplementation on the severity of symptoms and length of hospital stay in patients with COVID-19: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial
29% shorter hospitalization (p=0.22) and 9% improved recovery. RCT 48 hospitalized patients in Iran, 24 treated with nanocurcumin, showing lower hospitalization time with treatment. The number of patients shown in Table 3 (31 and 27 for each arm) is inconsistent with the number reported as randomized..
Jan 7
Vahedian-Azimi et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14020256 Effectiveness of Curcumin on Outcomes of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials
Review of 6 COVID-19 curcumin studies showing that treatment resulted in significant improvement in symptoms, duration of hospitalization, and mortality, and a significant decrease in proinflammatory cytokines and increase in anti-inflamm..
Dec 27
Bhardwaja et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ An integrative approach to clinical recovery for COVID-19 patients using an Ayurvedic formulation: A multicentric double-blind randomized control trial
89% improved recovery (p=0.05) and 24% improved viral clearance (p=0.47). Small RCT with 39 patients treated with NOQ19 and 37 placebo patients, showing improved recovery, without statistical significance. NOQ19 has multiple ingredients including curcumin, andrographis, and antiandrogen glycyrrhiza glabra.
Nov 16
Marín-Palma et al., Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules26226900 Curcumin Inhibits In Vitro SARS-CoV-2 Infection In Vero E6 Cells through Multiple Antiviral Mechanisms
In Vitro study showing antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Inhibition was seen with Vero E6 cells pre-infection and post-infection, and with D614G and the delta variant. The anti-inflammatory e..
Nov 14
Bahun et al., Food Chemistry, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131594 Inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro main protease by plant polyphenols
In Silico and In Vitro study of plant polyphenols identifying quercetin, curcumin, ellagic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, and resveratrol as SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors with IC50 between 11.8µM and 23.4µM. Real-time binding was analyzed..
Oct 22
Singh et al., Computers in Biology and Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104965 Potential of turmeric-derived compounds against RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2: An in-silico approach
In Silico study showing strong binding affinity of curcumin and diacetylcurcumin with SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Comparison with remdesivir and favipiravir suggested greater potential of these compounds as an RdRp inhibitor.
Oct 11
Majeed et al., Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, doi:10.1155/2021/8447545 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of a Nutritional Supplement (ImmuActive) for COVID-19 Patients
43% improved recovery (p=0.004) and 6% faster viral clearance (p=0.47). RCT 100 patients in India, 50 treated with ImmuActive (curcumin, andrographolides, resveratrol, zinc, selenium, and piperine), showing improved recovery with treatment.
Sep 23
Bormann et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13101914 Turmeric Root and Its Bioactive Ingredient Curcumin Effectively Neutralize SARS-CoV-2 In Vitro
In Vitro study showing curcumin neutralizes SARS-CoV2 in vitro with low subtoxic concentrations. Authors note that the clinical use of curcumin is hindered by poor bioavailability, and recommend using methods to increase bioavailability s..
Sep 19
Hassaniazad et al., Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.7294 A triple-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effect of curcumin-containing nanomicelles on cellular immune responses subtypes and clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients
46% worse recovery (p=0.9). Small RCT with 40 low risk patients in Iran, 20 treated with nano-curcumin, showing no significant difference in outcomes with treatment. Authors note that treatment can improve peripheral blood inflammatory indices and modulate immune re..
Sep 8
Chabot et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.17829 Turmeric as a Possible Treatment for COVID-19-Induced Anosmia and Ageusia
Small case study of 2 patients, showing significant improvement in taste and smell shortly after one dose of a turmeric supplement. Authors note that the risk of one dose is low in healthy individuals not on medications metabolized by cyt..
Aug 10
Sankhe et al., Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences, doi:10.21760/jaims.6.4.6 A prospective, multi center, single blind, randomized controlled study evaluating “AyurCoro3” as an adjuvant in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID
89% lower mortality (p=0.12), 75% lower ventilation (p=0.37), 46% improved recovery (p=0.002), and 10% shorter hospitalization (p=0.4). RCT 174 patients in India, 87 treated with AyurCoro-3 (turmeric, gomutra, potassium alum, khadisakhar, bos indicus milk, ghee), showing faster recovery with treatment. EC/NEW/INST/2019/245.
Jul 9
Panda et al., Medicine, doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000026601 The enhanced bioavailability of free curcumin and bioactive-metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin from a dispersible, oleoresin-based turmeric formulation
Bioavailability RCT comparing CURCUGEN, a 50% curcuminoids-concentrated turmeric extract, with curcuminoids 95% standardized extract (C-95), showing significant improvements in bioavailability.
Jun 29
Guijarro-Real et al., Foods, doi:10.3390/foods10071503 Potential In Vitro Inhibition of Selected Plant Extracts against SARS-CoV-2 Chymotripsin-Like Protease (3CLPro) Activity
In Vitro study of several plant extracts, showing strong inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro activity by turmeric rhizomes. Commercial curcumin also inhibited 3CLpro activity, but did not fully account for the inhibitory effect of turmeric rh..
Jun 19
Ahmadi et al., Food Science and Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.2226 Oral nano-curcumin formulation efficacy in the management of mild to moderate outpatient COVID-19: A randomized triple-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial
86% lower hospitalization (p=0.24) and 21% faster recovery (p=0.37). RCT 60 outpatients in Iran, 30 treated with nano-curcumin showing lower hospitalization and faster recovery with treatment.
Jun 17
Goc et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0253489 Phenolic compounds disrupt spike-mediated receptor-binding and entry of SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-virions
In Vitro study of 56 polyphenols showing that curcumin has high binding affinity to the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, inhibits ACE2 at non-toxic concentrations, and decreases activity of TMPRSS2. Promising results were also seen fo..
Jun 15
Kandeil et al., Pathogens, doi:10.3390/pathogens10060758 Bioactive Polyphenolic Compounds Showing Strong Antiviral Activities against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2
Vero E6 In Vitro study showing curcumin, hesperidin, and quercetin significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication, and In Silico analysis with promising Mpro and spike docking results.
May 28
Pawar et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2021.669362 Oral Curcumin With Piperine as Adjuvant Therapy for the Treatment of COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
82% lower mortality (p=0.02). RCT 140 patients, 70 treated with curcumin and piperine (for absorption), and 70 treated with probiotics, showing faster recovery, lower progression, and lower mortality with curcumin.
May 11
Aldwihi et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18105086 Patients’ Behavior Regarding Dietary or Herbal Supplements before and during COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia
31% lower hospitalization (p=0.1). Retrospective survey-based analysis of 738 COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia, showing lower hospitalization with vitamin C, turmeric, zinc, and nigella sativa, and higher hospitalization with vitamin D. For vitamin D, most patients contin..
May 7
Rattis et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2021.675287 Curcumin as a Potential Treatment for COVID-19
Review of curcumin for COVID-19 including potential antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects.
Mar 28
Tahmasebi et al., Life Sciences, doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119437 Nanocurcumin improves Treg cell responses in patients with mild and severe SARS-CoV2
83% lower mortality (p=0.11). RCT 40 hospitalized, 40 ICU, and 40 control patients in Iran, showing lower mortality and improved regulatory T cell responses with nanocurcumin treatment (SinaCurcumin).
Feb 28
Bejan et al., Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, doi:10.1002/cpt.2376 (date from preprint) DrugWAS: Drug‐wide Association Studies for COVID‐19 Drug Repurposing
59% lower hospitalization (p=0.05). Retrospective 9,748 COVID-19 patients in the USA showing lower hospitalization with turmeric extract.
Jan 3
Saber-Moghaddam et al., Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.7004 Oral nano-curcumin formulation efficacy in management of mild to moderate hospitalized coronavirus disease-19 patients: An open label nonrandomized clinical trial
94% lower progression (p=0.001), 38% improved recovery (p=0.04), and 45% shorter hospitalization (p=0.001). Small prospective nonrandomized trial with 41 patients, 21 treated with curcumin, showing lower disease progression and faster recovery with treatment. IRCT20200408046990N1.
Nov 16
Dound et al., Journal of Clinical Trials, S3:004 A Randomized, Comparative Clinical Study to Evaluate the Activity of CurvicTM Formulation for Management of SARS-COV-2 Infection (COVID-19)
75% improved recovery (p=0.001) and 100% improved 7-point scale results (p=0.0001). RCT 200 COVID-19 positive patients in India, 100 treated with curcumin, vitamin C, vitamin K2-7, and selenomethionine, showing faster recovery with treatment.
Nov 13
Kritis et al., Metabolism Open, doi:10.1016/j.metop.2020.100066 The combination of bromelain and curcumin as an immune-boosting nutraceutical in the prevention of severe COVID-19
Review of the potential benefits of bromelain and curcumin for COVID-19, and potential synergistic effects of the combination.
Oct 20
Valizadeh et al., Int. Immunopharmacol., doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107088 Nano-curcumin therapy, a promising method in modulating inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients
50% lower mortality (p=0.3). Small RCT with 40 nano-curcumin patients and 40 control patients showing lower mortality with treatment. Authors conclude that nano-curcumin may be able to modulate the increased rate of inflammatory cytokines especially IL-1β and IL-6 mR..
Oct 16
Rajagopal et al., Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.1186/s43094-020-00126-x Activity of phytochemical constituents of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Andrographis paniculata against coronavirus (COVID-19): an in silico approach
In Silico study of several phytochemical compounds from Curcuma longa (turmeric) and Andrographis paniculata for their potential activity against COVID-19 by targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Molecular docking analysis found the tur..
Jun 7
Suravajhala et al., MDPI AG, doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0439.v3 Comparative Docking Studies on Curcumin with COVID-19 Proteins
In Silico study showing high binding affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and nsp10 proteins with curcumin. Authors propose curcumin for COVID-19 drug development.
Jun 4
Hooper, P., Cell Stress and Chaperones, doi:10.1007/s12192-020-01126-9 COVID-19 and heme oxygenase: novel insight into the disease and potential therapies
Proposal that COVID-19 risk is related to low intracellular heme oxygenase (HO-1), and that therapies that raise HO-1 may be beneficial, which includes fluvoxamine, certain anesthetics (sevoflurane or isoflurane), hemin, estrogen, statins..
Apr 24
Sekiou et al., ChemRxiv, doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12181404.v1 In-Silico Identification of Potent Inhibitors of COVID-19 Main Protease (Mpro) and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) from Natural Products: Quercetin, Hispidulin, and Cirsimaritin Exhibited Better Potential Inhibition than Hydroxy-Chloroquine Against COVID-19 Main Protease Active Site and ACE2
In Silico study of natural compounds identifying quercetin, curcumin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, sulfasalazine, and artemisin as potential compounds that inhibit SARS-CoV-2.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Thanks for your feedback! Please search before submitting papers and note that studies are listed under the date they were first available, which may be the date of an earlier preprint.