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Summary of COVID-19 curcumin studies

Studies   Meta Analysis   Hide extended summaries

50 patient curcumin late treatment RCT: 77% improved recovery (p=0.04), 92% lower need for oxygen therapy (p=0.01), 13% shorter hospitalization (p=0.92), and 10% improved viral clearance (p=0.77).
RCT 50 hospitalized patients in Israel, 33 treated with curcumin, vitamin C, artemisinin, and frankincense oral spray, showing improved recovery with treatment.

May 2022, J. Cellular and Molecular Medicine, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jcmm.17337, https://c19p.org/hellou

49 patient curcumin late treatment RCT: 91% lower combined mortality/ICU admission (p=0.02), 89% lower ventilation (p=0.05), 89% lower ICU admission (p=0.05), and 73% higher hospital discharge (p=0.07).
RCT 49 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 25 treated with curcumin and quercetin, shower lower mortality/ICU admission and improved recovery with treatment. All patients received vitamin D. 336mg curcumin, 520mg quercetin, and 18μg vitamin D3 daily for 14 days. The control arm received 20μg vitamin D3 daily. Baseline fever favored treatment while vaccination favored control.

Jun 2023, Frontiers in Nutrition, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2023.1137407/full, https://c19p.org/geraint

42 patient curcumin late treatment RCT: 92% lower progression (p=0.02), 25% shorter hospitalization (p=0.007), and 68% improved recovery (p<0.0001).
RCT 42 hospitalized moderate/severe COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing lower progression and improved recovery with nano-curcumin. Nano-curcumin 70mg bid for 14 days.

Apr 2023, Phytotherapy Research, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.7844, https://c19p.org/sadeghizadeh

120 patient curcumin late treatment RCT: 86% lower mortality (p=0.24), 86% lower ventilation (p=0.24), 10% shorter hospitalization (p=0.4), and 32% faster recovery (p=0.001).
RCT with 60 hospitalized patients treated with Ayurcov and 60 control patients in India, showing improved viral clearance and faster symptom resolution in the mild/moderate group, but no significant differences in the severe group. Ayurcov contains curcuma longa, go ark, sphatika (alum), sita (rock candy), godugdham (bos indicus) milk, and goghritam (bos indicus ghee).

Mar 2022, Complementary Therapies in Medicine, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965229922000267, https://c19p.org/sankhe2

174 patient curcumin early treatment RCT: 89% lower mortality (p=0.12), 75% lower ventilation (p=0.37), 46% improved recovery (p=0.002), and 10% shorter hospitalization (p=0.4).
RCT 174 patients in India, 87 treated with AyurCoro-3 (turmeric, gomutra, potassium alum, khadisakhar, bos indicus milk, ghee), showing faster recovery with treatment. EC/NEW/INST/2019/245.

Aug 2021, J. Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences, https://jaims.in/jaims/article/view/1386/1425, https://c19p.org/sankhe

92 patient curcumin early treatment RCT: 43% improved recovery (p=0.004) and 6% faster viral clearance (p=0.47).
RCT 100 patients in India, 50 treated with ImmuActive (curcumin, andrographolides, resveratrol, zinc, selenium, and piperine), showing improved recovery with treatment.

Oct 2021, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2021/8447545/, https://c19p.org/majeed

147 patient curcumin long COVID RCT: 44% greater improvement (p=0.02).
RCT 147 long COVID patients in the UK, 56 treated with a phytochemical-rich concentrated food capsule, showing improved recovery with treatment. Treatment included curcumin, bioflavonoids, chamomile, ellagic acid, and resveratrol.

Mar 2022, COVID, https://www.mdpi.com/2673-8112/2/4/31, https://c19p.org/thomas3

140 patient curcumin early treatment RCT: 82% lower mortality (p=0.02).
RCT 140 patients, 70 treated with curcumin and piperine (for absorption), and 70 treated with probiotics, showing faster recovery, lower progression, and lower mortality with curcumin.

May 2021, Frontiers in Pharmacology, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2021.669362/full, https://c19p.org/pawar

60 patient curcumin late treatment RCT: 71% lower mortality (p=0.15) and 86% improved recovery (p=0.04).
RCT with 30 nanocurcumin and 30 control patients in Iran, showing lower mortality and improved recovery, without statistical significance, and improved NK cell function. 160mg nanocurcumin for 21 days.

Sep 2022, European J. Pharmacology, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299922005283, https://c19p.org/abbaspouraghdam

76 patient curcumin late treatment RCT: 58% lower need for oxygen therapy (p=0.06) and 67% improved recovery (p=0.04).
RCT 76 hospitalized patients, showing improved recovery with nanocurcumin. Authors note that pure curcumin is limited due to rapid metabolism, low bio-availability, weak aqueous solubility, and systemic deletion, and that the nanocurcumin formulation used improves curcumin’s solubility, stability, half-life, and bioavailability. The dropout rate was higher in the curcumin group, in part due to discontinuation for side effects. Authors do not provide detailed discharge criteria.

Jul 2023, Int. J. Clinical Practice, https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijclp/2023/5734675/, https://c19p.org/ahmadi4

9,748 patient curcumin prophylaxis study: 59% lower hospitalization (p=0.05).
Retrospective 9,748 COVID-19 patients in the USA showing lower hospitalization with turmeric extract.

Feb 2021, Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cpt.2376, https://c19p.org/bejant

41 patient curcumin early treatment study: 94% lower progression (p=0.001), 38% improved recovery (p=0.04), and 45% shorter hospitalization (p=0.001).
Small prospective nonrandomized trial with 41 patients, 21 treated with curcumin, showing lower disease progression and faster recovery with treatment. IRCT20200408046990N1.

Jan 2021, Phytotherapy Research, doi:10.1002/ptr.7004 , https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.7004, https://c19p.org/sabermoghaddam

175 patient curcumin early treatment RCT: 11% faster recovery (p=0.04).
RCT 208 moderate COVID-19 patients in India, 103 treated with a combination of turmeric, ashwagandha, boswellia, and ginger, showing improved recovery with treatment. The dose of curcumin is unknown and bioavailability may be poor.

Nov 2022, Phytotherapy Research, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.7683, https://c19p.org/chitre

60 patient curcumin late treatment RCT: 53% improved viral clearance (p<0.0001).
RCT with 30 patients treated with curcumin and virgin coconut oil (VCO), and 30 SOC patients in Indonesia, showing faster viral clearance with treatment. Treatment also reduced IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-18, and IFN-β levels. VCO improves the bioavailability of curcumin. There were large unadjusted differences in baseline severity and age, for example 20% vs. 47% of patients >50. VCO 30ml and curcumin 1g tid for 21 days. 066/UN27.06.6.1/KEPK/EC/2020.

Feb 2022, Pharmacognosy J., https://phcogj.com/article/1755, https://c19p.org/hartono

60 patient curcumin early treatment RCT: 86% lower hospitalization (p=0.24) and 21% faster recovery (p=0.37).
RCT 60 outpatients in Iran, 30 treated with nano-curcumin showing lower hospitalization and faster recovery with treatment.

Jun 2021, Food Science and Nutrition, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/fsn3.2226, https://c19p.org/ahmadi

60 patient curcumin late treatment RCT: 26% lower mortality (p=0.74), 50% lower progression (p=0.47), and 45% improved recovery (p=0.09).
RCT 60 hospitalized patients in Iran, 30 treated with nano-curcumin, showing significant improvements in inflammatory cytokines, and improvements in clinical outcomes without statistical significance. 240 mg/day nano-curcumin for 7 days.

Jan 2022, Phytotherapy Research, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.7375, https://c19p.org/asadirad

50 patient curcumin early treatment RCT: 33% improved recovery (p=0.15) and 50% improved viral clearance (p=0.009).
RCT 50 COVID+ outpatients in Pakistan, 25 treated with curcumin, quercetin, and vitamin D, showing significantly faster viral clearance, significantly improved CRP, and faster resolution of acute symptoms (p=0.154). 168mg curcumin, 260mg quercetin and 360IU cholecalciferol.

Apr 2022, Frontiers in Pharmacology, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2022.898062/full, https://c19p.org/khan4t

246 patient curcumin late treatment study: 41% shorter hospitalization (p=0.05).
Retrospective 246 hospitalized patients in Indonesia, 136 treated with curcumin, showing shorter hospitalization time with treatment. All patients received vitamin C, D, and zinc.

Jan 2022, ICE on IMERI, 2021, http://web.archive.org/web/20220209083251/http://writingcenter.fk.ui.ac.id/index.php/p/article/view/40, https://c19p.org/kartika

80 patient curcumin late treatment RCT: 83% lower mortality (p=0.11).
RCT 40 hospitalized, 40 ICU, and 40 control patients in Iran, showing lower mortality and improved regulatory T cell responses with nanocurcumin treatment (SinaCurcumin).

Mar 2021, Life Sciences, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320521004227, https://c19p.org/tahmasebi

50 patient curcumin early treatment RCT: 29% improved recovery (p=0.11) and 91% improved viral clearance (p=0.05).
Small RCT with 50 outpatients, 25 treated with curcumin, quercetin, and vitamin D, showing improved recovery and viral clearance with treatment. 168mg curcumin, 260mg, 360IU vitamin D3 daily for 14 days.

Jan 2023, Frontiers in Nutrition, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2022.1023997/full, https://c19p.org/dinujjant

40 patient curcumin late treatment RCT: 50% lower mortality (p=0.3).
Small RCT with 40 nano-curcumin patients and 40 control patients showing lower mortality with treatment. Authors conclude that nano-curcumin may be able to modulate the increased rate of inflammatory cytokines especially IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in COVID-19 patients, which may improve clinical outcomes.

Oct 2020, Int. Immunopharmacol., https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574843/, https://c19p.org/valizadeh

2,148 patient curcumin prophylaxis study: 31% lower hospitalization (p=0.08) and 13% lower severe cases (p=0.47).
Survey 2,148 COVID-19 recovered patients in Jordan, showing lower hospitalization with turmeric prophylaxis, not reaching statistical significance.

Jun 2022, F1000Research, https://f1000research.com/articles/11-639/v1, https://c19p.org/nimer2

26 patient curcumin early treatment RCT: 26% improved recovery (p=0.26).
Small RCT 46 outpatients in Iran, 23 treated with curcimin-piperine, showing no significant difference in recovery. 1000mg curcumin and 10mg piperine/day for 14 days.

Jun 2022, Trials, https://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13063-022-06375-w, https://c19p.org/askari

738 patient curcumin early treatment study: 31% lower hospitalization (p=0.1).
Retrospective survey-based analysis of 738 COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia, showing lower hospitalization with vitamin C, turmeric, zinc, and nigella sativa, and higher hospitalization with vitamin D. For vitamin D, most patients continued prophylactic use. For vitamin C, the majority of patients continued prophylactic use. For nigella sativa, the majority of patients started use during infection. Authors do not specify the fraction of prophylactic use for turmeric and zinc.

May 2021, Int. J. Environmental Research and Public Health, https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/10/5086, https://c19p.org/aldwihit

253 patient curcumin prophylaxis study: 42% lower severe cases (p=0.55).
Retrospective survey-based analysis of 349 COVID-19 patients, showing a lower risk of severe cases with vitamin D, zinc, turmeric, and honey prophylaxis in unadjusted analysis, without statistical significance. REC/UG/2020/03.

Feb 2022, Tropical J. Pharmaceutical Research, https://www.tjpr.org/admin/12389900798187/2022_21_2_14.pdf, https://c19p.org/shehabt

40 patient curcumin late treatment RCT: 46% worse recovery (p=0.9).
Small RCT with 40 low risk patients in Iran, 20 treated with nano-curcumin, showing no significant difference in outcomes with treatment. Authors note that treatment can improve peripheral blood inflammatory indices and modulate immune response by decreasing Th1 and Th17 responses, increasing T regulatory responses, further reducing IL-17 and IFN-γ, and increasing suppressive cytokines TGF-β and IL-4.

Sep 2021, Phytotherapy Research, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ptr.7294, https://c19p.org/hassaniazad
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