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Sunlight for COVID-19
5 studies from 36 scientists
19,665 patients in 4 countries
Statistically significant lower risk for mortality, hospitalization, recovery, and cases.
5 studies from 5 independent teams in 4 countries show statistically significant improvements.
COVID-19 Sunlight studies. Apr 2024. c19early.org
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 37% Mortality 32% Hospitalization 32% Cases 48% RCTs 32% Late 32% Favorssun exposure Favorscontrol
Apr 21
Covid Analysis Sunlight for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 5 studies
Statistically significant lower risk is seen for mortality, hospitalization, recovery, and cases. 5 studies from 5 independent teams in 4 countries show statistically significant improvements. Meta analysis using the most serious outcome ..
Mar 25
Muhammad et al., Tropical Biomedicine, doi:10.47665/tb.41.1.010 Sunlight exposure might account for the relatively low COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in tropical countries
Retrospective analysis of tropical and non-tropical countries showing significantly lower COVID-19 cases and mortality in tropical countries. The study found that specific photovoltaic power output, global horizontal irradiation, diffuse ..
Mar 25
Deji et al., Interactive Journal of Medical Research, doi:10.2196/43585 Influence of the environmental factors and genome diversity on COVID-19 cumulative infection in highland region of China: Comparative correlational study (Preprint)
Retrospective 24,826 COVID-19 cases in China showing lower COVID-19 cases with increasing sunlight hours in high altitude regions. Higher sunlight hours was also associated with fewer mutations.
Jun 2
2023
Jalaludin et al., Atmosphere, doi:10.3390/atmos14060973 The Impact of Air Quality and Meteorology on COVID-19 Cases at Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia and Prediction Using Machine Learning
Analysis of weather data, air quality, and COVID-19 in Malaysia, showing COVID-19 cases negatively correlated with solar radiation and positively correlated with air pollution.
Apr 9
2023
Hossain et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2023.04.07.23288300 Association between PM2.5air pollution, temperature, and sunlight during different infectious stages with the case fatality of COVID-19 in the United Kingdom: a modeling study
Modeling of COVID-19 cases in the UK predicting 69% lower mortality for one hour increased sunlight duration. The model predicts lower risk with increased sunlight exposure prior to about 7 days after infection, and increased risk after 7..
Jan 20
2023
Pérez-Gilaberte et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph20031973 Correlation between UV Index, Temperature and Humidity with Respect to Incidence and Severity of COVID 19 in Spain
Analysis of COVID-19 in 5 provinces in Spain, showing UV exposure negatively correlated with COVID-19 cases and hospitalization.
Jan 18
2023
Socia et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2023.01.16.23284634 Prediction of Long COVID Based on Severity of Initial COVID-19 Infection: Differences in predictive feature sets between hospitalized versus non-hospitalized index infections
N3C retrospective identifying plant hardiness zone as a predictive variable for long COVID. Authors note that this may be due to sunlight/climate affecting the risk of long COVID, and plan more detailed analysis in future work.
Dec 30
2022
Errasfa, M., The Open COVID Journal, doi:10.2174/26669587-v2-e221209-2022-24 Higher Scores of Ambient Temperature, Sunshine Hours and UV Index are Associated with Lower COVID-19 Mortality
Analysis of COVID-19 deaths in 39 countries, showing mortality negatively correlated with sunshine hours.
Dec 5
2022
Pereira et al., Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2022.112619 Cardiopulmonary and hematological effects of infrared LED photobiomodulation in the treatment of SARS-COV2
32% shorter hospitalization (p=0.02) and 38% faster recovery (p=0.0006). RCT 30 hospitalized COVID-19 patients investigating the effectiveness of photobiomodulation (PBM) using a vest with near-infrared LEDs (simulating part of the sunlight spectrum). The treatment group showed shorter hospitalization, signifi..
Nov 24
2022
Khandker et al., Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences, doi:10.3389/fresc.2022.1037649 Post-COVID-19 complications in home and hospital-based care: A study from Dhaka city, Bangladesh
Retrospective 925 COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh reporting that "physical activity and exposure to sunlight was positively associated with earlier recovery from COVID-19 both in home and hospital care". Details are not provided.
Nov 16
2022
Endeshaw et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-24024-9 Effects of climatic factors on COVID-19 transmission in Ethiopia
Analysis of climate and COVID-19 transmission in Ethiopia, showing no association between sunshine duration and COVID-19 risk during the study period. Authors analyze cases only and not outcomes.
Jun 30
2022
Biasin et al., Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, doi:10.1016/j.jpap.2021.100107 UV and violet light can Neutralize SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity
In Vitro study showing that UV irradiation is effective for SARS-CoV-2 inhibition at multiple wavelengths including UV-A and violet light.
May 2
2022
Abed et al., Journal of Advances in Microbiology Research, 3:1 The effect of time exposure to sunlight on patients with COVID-19
Survey of 120 COVID-19 cases in Iraq, showing lower risk of severe cases with sunlight exposure.
Apr 26
2022
Kalichuran et al., Southern African Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.4102/sajid.v37i1.359 Vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity
58% fewer symptomatic cases (p=0.004). Prospective study of 100 COVID-19 patients in South Africa, 50 with COVID-19 pneumonia and 50 asymptomatic, showing higher risk of symptomatic COVID-19 with lower exposure to sunlight, and with vitamin D deficiency. Sunlight exposure may ..
Jan 27
2022
Seheult, R., MedCram The Case for Sunlight in COVID 19 Patients: Oxidative Stress
Review of potential benefits of sunlight for COVID-19 including improved vitamin D levels, the generation and regulation of melatonin, increased enery production in the mitochondria, and reduction in oxidative stress and Reactive Oxygen S..
Dec 31
2021
Jabbar et al., Nat. Volatiles & Essent. Oils, 8:4 Vitamin D Serum Levels and Its Association With COVID 19 Infection In Babylon Governorate, Iraq
63% fewer cases (p=0.0002). Analysis of 120 COVID-19 and 120 control patients in Iraq, showing lower risk of cases with regular sunlight exposure (3 times/week).
Dec 3
2021
Ma et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqab389 Associations between predicted vitamin D status, vitamin D intake, and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Coronavirus Disease 2019 severity
23% fewer cases (p=0.0001). Analysis of 39,915 patients with 1,768 COVID+ cases based on surveys in the Nurses' Health Study II, showing higher UVA/UVB exposure associated with lower risk of COVID-19 cases.
Oct 31
2021
Erem et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105957 Vitamin D-independent benefits of safe sunlight exposure
Review of the benefits of sunlight exposure independent of vitamin D.
Oct 5
2021
Mukherjee et al., FEBS Open Bio, doi:10.1002/2211-5463.13309 Seasonal UV exposure and vitamin D: Association with the dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in Europe
Analysis of UV exposure in 26 European countries, showing that cloud-free vitamin D UV dose levels were negatively correlated with COVID-19 prevalence.
Sep 15
2021
Aguida et al., Communicative & Integrative Biology, doi:10.1080/19420889.2021.1965718 Infrared light therapy relieves TLR-4 dependent hyper-inflammation of the type induced by COVID-19
In vitro study of human cell cultures showing decreased inflammation and cytokine production with infrared light therapy. Cells were engineered to express components of the TLR4 inflammation pathway implicated in COVID-19 cytokine storms...
Jul 7
2021
González-Estevez et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18147266 Association of Food Intake Quality with Vitamin D in SARS-CoV-2 Positive Patients from Mexico: A Cross-Sectional Study
Retrospective 40 COVID+ patients in Mexico, showing vitamin D insufficiency associated with lower sun exposure.
Jun 30
2021
Sharun et al., Annals of Medicine and Surgery, doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102419 COVID-19 and sunlight: Impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, morbidity, and mortality
Review of evidence for the benefits of sunlight exposure for COVID-19.
Apr 8
2021
Cherrie et al., British Journal of Dermatology, doi:10.1111/bjd.20093 Ultraviolet A radiation and COVID-19 deaths in the USA with replication studies in England and Italy
32% lower mortality (p=0.004). Analysis of UVA exposure and COVID-19 mortality in the USA, England, and Italy, showing increased UVA exposure associated with lower mortality.
Feb 28
2021
Isaia et al., Science of The Total Environment, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143757 Does solar ultraviolet radiation play a role in COVID-19 infection and deaths? An environmental ecological study in Italy
Retrospective COVID-19 cases and solar UV exposure in Italy, showing mortality and cases negatively correlated with solar UV exposure.
Feb 5
2021
Luzzatto-Fegiz et al., The Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/infdis/jiab070 UVB Radiation Alone May Not Explain Sunlight Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2
Experiments have shown that SARS-CoV-2 is inactivated by sunlight much faster than predicted by theory, suggesting that additional mechanisms of inactivation may be involved. Authors note that sensitivity to wavelengths other than UVB mea..
Jan 31
2021
Slusky et al., Economics & Human Biology, doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2020.100942 Sunlight and Protection Against Influenza
Retrospective study using CDC data on 12,068 state-weeks showing that increased sunlight exposure is associated with reduced influenza rates during peak fall flu season. A 10% increase in relative sunlight exposure decreases the CDC influ..
Jan 21
2021
Walrand, S., Nature, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-81419-w Autumn COVID-19 surge dates in Europe correlated to latitudes, not to temperature-humidity, pointing to vitamin D as contributing factor
Analysis of the increase in COVID-19 cases in European countries, showing no correlation with temperature, but a significant correlation with country latitude. Since UV radiation decreases earlier for higher latitudes, this supports the t..
Jan 9
2021
Abdelhafez et al., Environmental Science and Pollution Research, doi:10.1007/s11356-020-12338-y The effect of weather data on the spread of COVID-19 in Jordan
Analysis of COVID-19 and weather data in Jordan, showing solar radiation negatively correlated with COVID-19 cases.
Dec 28
2020
Carleton et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.2012370118 Global evidence for ultraviolet radiation decreasing COVID-19 growth rates
Global analysis of UV radiation and COVID-19 cases, showing that higher UV radiation is associated with a lower daily growth rate of COVID-19 cases.
Nov 30
2020
Blum et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.28.20240242 On the anti-correlation between COVID-19 infection rate and natural UV light in the UK
Analysis of COVID-19 cases in the UK, showing a correlation between increased UV radiation and lower COVID-19 cases.
Nov 2
2020
Dabisch et al., Aerosol Science and Technology, doi:10.1080/02786826.2020.1829536 The influence of temperature, humidity, and simulated sunlight on the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosols
Analysis of the effects of temperature, humidity, and simulated sunlight on the decay rate and infectivity of aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 virus particles. The results showed that higher temperature, lower humidity, and higher simulated sunligh..
Oct 31
2020
Heilingloh et al., American Journal of Infection Control, doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2020.07.031 Susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 to UV irradiation
In Vitro study showing high infectious titer SARS-CoV-2 completely inactivated by UVC irradiation in 9 minutes. The UVC dose required for complete inactivation was 1,048 mJ/c.
Oct 19
2020
Moozhipurath et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-74825-z Evidence of protective role of Ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation in reducing COVID-19 deaths
Analysis of 152 countries suggesting that a permanent unit increase in UVI is associated with a 1.2 percentage points decline in daily growth rates of cumulative COVID-19 deaths.
Oct 13
2020
Merow et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.2008590117 Seasonality and uncertainty in global COVID-19 growth rates
Global analysis of COVID-19 cases and weather, showing increased UV light associated with a lower COVID-19 growth rate.
Sep 28
2020
Nakada et al., Environmental Science and Pollution Research, doi:10.1007/s11356-020-10930-w COVID-19 pandemic: environmental and social factors influencing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in São Paulo, Brazil
Analysis of COVID-19 in Brazil, showing a negative correlation between cases and UV radiation.
Aug 31
2020
Asyary et al., Science of The Total Environment, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139016 Sunlight exposure increased Covid-19 recovery rates: A study in the central pandemic area of Indonesia
Analysis of COVID-19 cases in Indonesia, showing recovery significantly correlated with sunlight exposure.
Jul 23
2020
Lansiaux et al., Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, doi:10.1016/j.sste.2020.100362 Covid-19 and vit-d: Disease mortality negatively correlates with sunlight exposure
Analysis of COVID-19 mortality and sunlight exposure in continental metropolitan France, showing that average annual sunlight hours were significantly correlated with COVID-19 mortality, with a Pearson coefficient of -0.636. Also see the ..
Jun 26
2020
Whittemore et al., American Journal of Infection Control, doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2020.06.193 COVID-19 fatalities, latitude, sunlight, and vitamin D
Analysis of 88 countries, showing a significant correlation between death rates and latitude, suggesting that sunlight exposure and vitamin D levels influence mortality.
Jun 2
2020
Li et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-32499/v1 Sunlight and vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection and mortality in the United States
Analysis of COVID-19 cases in the USA reporting a potential relationship between latitude and the number of COVID-19 cases (p = 0.08) and deaths (p=0.06). Authors note that sunlight and vitamin D may reduce risk for COVID-19 cases and dea..
May 20
2020
Ratnesar-Shumate et al., The Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/infdis/jiaa274 Simulated Sunlight Rapidly Inactivates SARS-CoV-2 on Surfaces
In Vitro study showing that simulated sunlight rapidly inactivates SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces.
May 19
2020
Guasp et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa575 Higher Solar Irradiance Is Associated With a Lower Incidence of Coronavirus Disease 2019
Analysis of 359 countries and regions showing COVID-19 cases associated with reduced solar irradiance.
Apr 17
2020
Ahmadi et al., Science of The Total Environment, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138705 Investigation of effective climatology parameters on COVID-19 outbreak in Iran
Analysis of COVID-19 in Iran, showing cases inversely related to solar radiation, without statistical significance.
Nov 28
2019
Schuit et al., The Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/infdis/jiz582 The Influence of Simulated Sunlight on the Inactivation of Influenza Virus in Aerosols
Experimental study using a rotating drum chamber exposing influenza virus (H1N1 A/PR/8/34) in aerosols to varied levels of simulated sunlight, showing significantly increased viral decay rates with increasing light intensity. In darkness,..
Jul 31
2009
Grant et al., Dermato-Endocrinology, doi:10.4161/derm.1.4.9063 The possible roles of solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D in reducing case-fatality rates from the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in the United States
Analysis of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic for 12 US states, showing estimated UVB dose correlated with case fatality rates (p = 0.009) and with pneumonia as a complication of influenza (p = 0.005).
May 1
1919
Ruble, W. Life and Health, May 1919, 34:5 Sanitarium Treatment of Influenza
Retrospective comparison of army hospital vs. sanitarium treatment of influenza, showing lower progression to pneumonia and lower mortality with sanitarium treatment.
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