Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchSunlightSunlight (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

Sunlight for COVID-19
4 studies from 31 scientists
19,635 patients in 3 countries
Statistically significant lower risk for mortality and cases.
4 studies from 4 independent teams in 3 countries show statistically significant improvements.
COVID-19 Sunlight studies. Sep 2023.
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 45% Mortality 32% Cases 49% Favorssun exposure Favorscontrol
Sep 24
Covid Analysis Sunlight for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 4 studies
Statistically significant lower risk is seen for mortality and cases. 4 studies from 4 independent teams in 3 countries show statistically significant improvements. • Meta analysis using the most serious outcome reported shows..
Jun 2
Jalaludin et al., Atmosphere, doi:10.3390/atmos14060973 The Impact of Air Quality and Meteorology on COVID-19 Cases at Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia and Prediction Using Machine Learning
Analysis of weather data, air quality, and COVID-19 in Malaysia, showing COVID-19 cases negatively correlated with solar radiation and positively correlated with air pollution.
Apr 9
Hossain et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2023.04.07.23288300 Association between PM2.5air pollution, temperature, and sunlight during different infectious stages with the case fatality of COVID-19 in the United Kingdom: a modeling study
Modeling of COVID-19 cases in the UK predicting 69% lower mortality for one hour increased sunlight duration. The model predicts lower risk with increased sunlight exposure prior to about 7 days after infection, and increased risk after 7..
Jan 20
Pérez-Gilaberte et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph20031973 Correlation between UV Index, Temperature and Humidity with Respect to Incidence and Severity of COVID 19 in Spain
Analysis of COVID-19 in 5 provinces in Spain, showing UV exposure negatively correlated with COVID-19 cases and hospitalization.
Jan 18
Socia et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2023.01.16.23284634 Prediction of Long COVID Based on Severity of Initial COVID-19 Infection: Differences in predictive feature sets between hospitalized versus non-hospitalized index infections
N3C retrospective identifying plant hardiness zone as a predictive variable for long COVID. Authors note that this may be due to sunlight/climate affecting the risk of long COVID, and plan more detailed analysis in future work.
Dec 30
Errasfa, M., The Open COVID Journal, doi:10.2174/26669587-v2-e221209-2022-24 Higher Scores of Ambient Temperature, Sunshine Hours and UV Index are Associated with Lower COVID-19 Mortality
Analysis of COVID-19 deaths in 39 countries, showing mortality negatively correlated with sunshine hours.
Nov 24
Khandker et al., Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences, doi:10.3389/fresc.2022.1037649 Post-COVID-19 complications in home and hospital-based care: A study from Dhaka city, Bangladesh
Retrospective 925 COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh reporting that "physical activity and exposure to sunlight was positively associated with earlier recovery from COVID-19 both in home and hospital care". Details are not provided.
Nov 16
Endeshaw et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-24024-9 Effects of climatic factors on COVID-19 transmission in Ethiopia
Analysis of climate and COVID-19 transmission in Ethiopia, showing no association between sunshine duration and COVID-19 risk during the study period. Authors analyze cases only and not outcomes.
Jun 30
Biasin et al., Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, doi:10.1016/j.jpap.2021.100107 UV and violet light can Neutralize SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity
In Vitro study showing that UV irradiation is effective for SARS-CoV-2 inhibition at multiple wavelengths including UV-A and violet light.
May 2
Abed et al., Journal of Advances in Microbiology Research, 3:1 The effect of time exposure to sunlight on patients with COVID-19
Survey of 120 COVID-19 cases in Iraq, showing lower risk of severe cases with sunlight exposure.
Apr 26
Kalichuran et al., Southern African Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.4102/sajid.v37i1.359 Vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity
58% fewer symptomatic cases (p=0.004). Prospective study of 100 COVID-19 patients in South Africa, 50 with COVID-19 pneumonia and 50 asymptomatic, showing higher risk of symptomatic COVID-19 with lower exposure to sunlight, and with vitamin D deficiency. Sunlight exposure may ..
Jan 27
Seheult, R., MedCram The Case for Sunlight in COVID 19 Patients: Oxidative Stress
Review of potential benefits of sunlight for COVID-19 including improved vitamin D levels, the generation and regulation of melatonin, increased enery production in the mitochondria, and reduction in oxidative stress and Reactive Oxygen S..
Dec 31
Jabbar et al., Nat. Volatiles & Essent. Oils, 8:4 Vitamin D Serum Levels and Its Association With COVID 19 Infection In Babylon Governorate, Iraq
63% fewer cases (p=0.0002). Analysis of 120 COVID-19 and 120 control patients in Iraq, showing lower risk of cases with regular sunlight exposure (3 times/week).
Dec 3
Ma et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqab389 Associations between predicted vitamin D status, vitamin D intake, and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Coronavirus Disease 2019 severity
23% fewer cases (p=0.0001). Analysis of 39,915 patients with 1,768 COVID+ cases based on surveys in the Nurses' Health Study II, showing higher UVA/UVB exposure associated with lower risk of COVID-19 cases.
Oct 31
Erem et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105957 Vitamin D-independent benefits of safe sunlight exposure
Review of the benefits of sunlight exposure independent of vitamin D.
Oct 13
Merow et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.2008590117 Seasonality and uncertainty in global COVID-19 growth rates
Global analysis of COVID-19 cases and weather, showing increased UV light associated with a lower COVID-19 growth rate.
Oct 5
Mukherjee et al., FEBS Open Bio, doi:10.1002/2211-5463.13309 Seasonal UV exposure and vitamin D: Association with the dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in Europe
Analysis of UV exposure in 26 European countries, showing that cloud-free vitamin D UV dose levels were negatively correlated with COVID-19 prevalence.
Jul 7
González-Estevez et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18147266 Association of Food Intake Quality with Vitamin D in SARS-CoV-2 Positive Patients from Mexico: A Cross-Sectional Study
Retrospective 40 COVID+ patients in Mexico, showing vitamin D insufficiency associated with lower sun exposure.
Jun 30
Sharun et al., Annals of Medicine and Surgery, doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102419 COVID-19 and sunlight: Impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, morbidity, and mortality
Review of evidence for the benefits of sunlight exposure for COVID-19.
Apr 8
Cherrie et al., British Journal of Dermatology, doi:10.1111/bjd.20093 Ultraviolet A radiation and COVID-19 deaths in the USA with replication studies in England and Italy
32% lower mortality (p=0.004). Analysis of UVA exposure and COVID-19 mortality in the USA, England, and Italy, showing increase UVA exposure associated with lower mortality.
Feb 28
Isaia et al., Science of The Total Environment, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143757 Does solar ultraviolet radiation play a role in COVID-19 infection and deaths? An environmental ecological study in Italy
Retrospective COVID-19 cases and solar UV exposure in Italy, showing mortality and cases negatively correlated with solar UV exposure.
Feb 5
Luzzatto-Fegiz et al., The Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/infdis/jiab070 UVB Radiation Alone May Not Explain Sunlight Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2
Experiments have shown that SARS-CoV-2 is inactivated by sunlight much faster than predicted by theory, suggesting that additional mechanisms of inactivation may be involved. Authors note that sensitivity to wavelengths other than UVB mea..
Jan 9
Abdelhafez et al., Environmental Science and Pollution Research, doi:10.1007/s11356-020-12338-y The effect of weather data on the spread of COVID-19 in Jordan
Analysis of COVID-19 and weather data in Jordan, showing solar radiation negatively correlated with COVID-19 cases.
Dec 28
Carleton et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.2012370118 Global evidence for ultraviolet radiation decreasing COVID-19 growth rates
Global analysis of UV radiation and COVID-19 cases, showing that higher UV radiation is associated with a lower daily growth rate of COVID-19 cases.
Nov 30
Blum et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.28.20240242 On the anti-correlation between COVID-19 infection rate and natural UV light in the UK
Analysis of COVID-19 cases in the UK, showing a correlation between increased UV radiation and lower COVID-19 cases.
Oct 31
Heilingloh et al., American Journal of Infection Control, doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2020.07.031 Susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 to UV irradiation
In Vitro study showing high infectious titer SARS-CoV-2 completely inactivated by UVC irradiation in 9 minutes. The UVC dose required for complete inactivation was 1,048 mJ/c.
Oct 19
Moozhipurath et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-74825-z Evidence of protective role of Ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation in reducing COVID-19 deaths
Analysis of 152 countries suggesting that a permanent unit increase in UVI is associated with a 1.2 percentage points decline in daily growth rates of cumulative COVID-19 deaths.
Sep 28
Nakada et al., Environmental Science and Pollution Research, doi:10.1007/s11356-020-10930-w COVID-19 pandemic: environmental and social factors influencing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in São Paulo, Brazil
Analysis of COVID-19 in Brazil, showing a negative correlation between cases and UV radiation.
Aug 31
Asyary et al., Science of The Total Environment, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139016 Sunlight exposure increased Covid-19 recovery rates: A study in the central pandemic area of Indonesia
Analysis of COVID-19 cases in Indonesia, showing recovery significantly correlated with sunlight exposure.
Jul 23
Lansiaux et al., Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, doi:10.1016/j.sste.2020.100362 Covid-19 and vit-d: Disease mortality negatively correlates with sunlight exposure
Analysis of COVID-19 mortality and sunlight exposure in continental metropolitan France, showing that average annual sunlight hours were significantly correlated with COVID-19 mortality, with a Pearson coefficient of -0.636. Also see the ..
Jun 26
Whittemore et al., American Journal of Infection Control, doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2020.06.193 COVID-19 fatalities, latitude, sunlight, and vitamin D
Analysis of 88 countries, showing a significant correlation between death rates and latitude, suggesting that sunlight exposure and vitamin D levels influence mortality.
Jun 2
Li et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ Sunlight and vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection and mortality in the United States
Analysis of COVID-19 cases in the USA reporting a potential relationship between latitude and the number of COVID-19 cases (p = 0.08) and deaths (p=0.06). Authors note that sunlight and vitamin D may reduce risk for COVID-19 cases and dea..
May 20
Ratnesar-Shumate et al., The Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/infdis/jiaa274 Simulated Sunlight Rapidly Inactivates SARS-CoV-2 on Surfaces
In Vitro study showing that simulated sunlight rapidly inactivates SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces.
May 19
Guasp et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa575 Higher Solar Irradiance Is Associated With a Lower Incidence of Coronavirus Disease 2019
Analysis of 359 countries and regions showing COVID-19 cases associated with reduced solar irradiance.
Apr 17
Ahmadi et al., Science of The Total Environment, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138705 Investigation of effective climatology parameters on COVID-19 outbreak in Iran
Analysis of COVID-19 in Iran, showing cases inversely related to solar radiation, without statistical significance.
Jul 31
Grant et al., Dermato-Endocrinology, doi:10.4161/derm.1.4.9063 The possible roles of solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D in reducing case-fatality rates from the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in the United States
Analysis of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic for 12 US states, showing estimated UVB dose correlated with case fatality rates (p = 0.009) and with pneumonia as a complication of influenza (p = 0.005).
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Thanks for your feedback! Please search before submitting papers and note that studies are listed under the date they were first available, which may be the date of an earlier preprint.