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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Symptomatic case 58% Improvement Relative Risk Kalichuran et al. Sunlight for COVID-19 Prophylaxis Is sunlight beneficial for COVID-19? Prospective study of 100 patients in South Africa (Sep 2020 - Feb 2021) Fewer symptomatic cases with increased sunlight exposure (p=0.0041) Kalichuran et al., Southern African J. Infectiou.., doi:10.4102/sajid.v37i1.359 Favors sun exposure Favors control
Vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity
Kalichuran et al., Southern African Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.4102/sajid.v37i1.359
Kalichuran et al., Vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity, Southern African Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.4102/sajid.v37i1.359
Apr 2022   Source   PDF  
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Prospective study of 100 COVID-19 patients in South Africa, 50 with COVID-19 pneumonia and 50 asymptomatic, showing higher risk of symptomatic COVID-19 with lower exposure to sunlight, and with vitamin D deficiency. Sunlight exposure may be correlated with physical activity and may have additional benefits independent of vitamin D [].
risk of symptomatic case, 58.2% lower, RR 0.42, p = 0.004, higher sunlight exposure 21, lower sunlight exposure 79, inverted to make RR<1 favor higher sunlight exposure, higher sunlight exposure vs. lower sunlight exposure.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Kalichuran et al., 26 Apr 2022, prospective, South Africa, peer-reviewed, survey, 4 authors, study period September 2020 - February 2021.
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Abstract: Southern African Journal of Infectious Diseases ISSN: (Online) 2313-1810, (Print) 2312-0053 Page 1 of 6 Original Research Vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity Authors: Senrina Kalichuran1 Sarah A. van Blydenstein1,2 Michelle Venter1,3 Shahed Omar4,5 Affiliations: 1 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Clinical Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Department of Pulmonology, Faculty of Internal Medicine, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa 2 Department of Infectious Diseases, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa 3 Department of Critical Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa 4 Department of Critical Care, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa 5 Corresponding author: Senrina Kalichuran, senrina.kalichuran@gmail. com Dates: Received: 25 Oct. 2021 Accepted: 04 Mar. 2022 Published: 26 Apr. 2022 How to cite this article: Kalichuran S, van Blydenstein SA, Venter M, Omar S. Vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity. S Afr J Infect Dis. 2022;37(1), a359. sajid.v37i1.359 Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or mobile device to read online. Background: Age, body mass index (BMI) and pre-existing comorbidities are known risk factors of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study we explore the relationship between vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity. Methods: We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. We enrolled 100 COVID-19 positive patients admitted to a tertiary level hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Fifty had symptomatic disease (COVID-19 pneumonia) and 50 who were asymptomatic (incidental diagnosis). Following written informed consent, patients were interviewed regarding age, gender and sunlight exposure during the past week, disease severity, BMI, calcium, albumin, magnesium and alkaline phosphatase levels. Finally, blood was collected for vitamin D measurement. Results: We found an 82% prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D levels were lower in the symptomatic group (18.1 ng/mL ± 8.1 ng/mL) than the asymptomatic group (25.9 ng/mL ± 7.1 ng/mL) with a p-value of 0.000. The relative risk of symptomatic COVID-19 was 2.5-fold higher among vitamin D deficient patients than vitamin D non-deficient patients (confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–3.26). Additional predictors of symptomatic disease were older age, hypocalcaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. Using multiple regression, the only independent predictors of COVID-19 severity were age and vitamin D levels. The patients exposed to less sunlight had a 2.39-fold increased risk for symptomatic disease compared to those with more sunlight exposure (CI: 1.32–4.33). Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 and an increased risk for symptomatic disease in vitamin D deficient patients. Keywords: vitamin D; COVID-19; severity; Johannesburg; South Africa.
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