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COVID-19 and sunlight: Impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, morbidity, and mortality

Sharun et al., Annals of Medicine and Surgery, doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102419
Jun 2021  
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Sunlight for COVID-19
32nd treatment shown to reduce risk in December 2021
 
*, now known with p = 0.000052 from 5 studies.
Lower risk for mortality, hospitalization, recovery, and cases.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Review of evidence for the benefits of sunlight exposure for COVID-19.
Reviews covering sunlight for COVID-19 include Erem, Seheult, Sharun.
Sharun et al., 30 Jun 2021, peer-reviewed, 3 authors. Contact: sharunkhansk@gmail.com, kdhama@rediffmail.com.
This PaperSunlightAll
COVID-19 and sunlight: Impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, morbidity, and mortality
A R T I C L E I N F O
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already affected millions of people worldwide. There are reports of SARS-CoV-2 transmission as a consequence of environmental contamination. The SARS-CoV-2 laden infective droplets can actively persist on the surface of different materials for several hours to days. Sunlight can affect the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in these aerosols and thereby have an impact on the decay rate of the virus. Solar radiation might play an important role in inactivating SARS-CoV-2 that persists in different surfaces and the environment. Among the different climatological factors, ultraviolet radiation was found to have an important role in determining the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Although ultraviolet radiation C (UVC), UVB, UVA, visible light, and infrared radiation possess germicidal properties, human CoVs including the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 are inherently sensitive to UVC. However, the successful decontamination using other wavebands requires higher dosages and longer administration times. Furthermore, studies have also identified association between COVID-19 fatalities and the latitude. The intensity of sunlight is highest near the equator, and therefore populations in these regions with more regular exposure to sunlight are less susceptible to vitamin D deficiency. This article has analyzed the potential impact of sunlight in reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, morbidity, and mortality. It is evident that there exists an interesting link between sunlight exposure, latitude, and vitamin D status with COVID-19 incidence, fatality and recovery rates that requires further investigation.
Author contribution All authors contributed equally -study concept or design, data collection, data analysis or interpretation, writing the paper. Research registration number 1. Name of the registry: Not applicable. 2. Unique Identifying number or registration ID: Not applicable. 3. Hyperlink to your specific registration (must be publicly accessible and will be checked): Not applicable. Guarantor Dr. Khan Sharun, Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly-243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India. Email: sharunkhansk@gmail.com. Dr. Kuldeep Dhama, Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly-243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India. Email: kdhama@rediffmail.com. Provenance and peer review Not Commissioned, internally reviewed. Consent Not applicable. Declaration of competing interest All authors declare that there exist no commercial or financial relationships that could, in any way, lead to a potential conflict of interest.
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