Effect of natural products use prior to infection with COVID-19 on disease severity and hospitalization: A self-reported cross-sectional survey study
Survey 2,148 COVID-19 recovered patients in Jordan, showing lower hospitalization with turmeric prophylaxis, not reaching statistical significance.
Although the 31% lower hospitalization is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 26% lower hospitalization [13‑37%]
from meta analysis of the 9 hospitalization results to date
risk of hospitalization, 30.8% lower, RR 0.69, p = 0.08, treatment 29 of 329 (8.8%), control 179 of 1,819 (9.8%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
risk of severe case, 12.6% lower, RR 0.87, p = 0.47, treatment 40 of 329 (12.2%), control 211 of 1,819 (11.6%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Nimer et al., 10 Jun 2022, retrospective, Jordan, peer-reviewed, survey, mean age 40.2, 4 authors, study period March 2021 - July 2021.
Abstract: F1000Research 2022, 11:639 Last updated: 06 JUL 2022
Effect of natural products use prior to infection with COVID-19
on disease severity and hospitalization: A self-reported crosssectional survey study [version 1; peer review: 2 approved
Refat M. Nimer
, Omar F. Khabour
, Samer F. Swedan, Hassan M. Kofahi
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, 22110, Jordan
v1 First published: 10 Jun 2022, 11:639
Latest published: 10 Jun 2022, 11:639
Background: Managing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using
available resources is essential to reduce the health burden of
disease. The severity of COVID-19 is affected by nutritional status. In
this study the effect of natural product use prior to infection with
COVID-19 on disease severity and hospitalization was explored.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Between March and July
2021, a self-administered survey was conducted in Jordan. Individuals
who recovered from COVID-19 and were ≥18 years old were the study
population. Study measures included the use of natural products,
COVID-19 severity, and hospitalization status. A multivariate regression
model was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The mean age (mean ± SD) of the study sample (n=2,148) was
40.25 ± 15.58 years old. Multivariate logistic regression showed that
the regular intake of carnation (OR [0.56], CI [0.37–0.85]), onion (OR
[0.69], CI [0.52–0.92]), lemon (OR [0.68], CI [0.51–0.90]), and citrus
fruits (OR [0.66], CI [0.50–0.89]) before infection were associated with
a substantial reduction in COVID-19 severity (P<0.01). Also, the
consumption of carnation (OR [0.55], CI [0.34–0.88]), lemon (OR [0.57],
CI [0.42–0.78]), and citrus fruits (OR [0.61], CI [0.44–0.84]) were
associated with a significant decrease in the frequency of COVID-19induced hospitalization (P<0.01).
Conclusions: Regular consumption of carnation, lemon, and citrus
fruits before infection was associated with better outcomes for
COVID-19. Studies on other populations are required to confirm these
Open Peer Review
10 Jun 2022
1. Fatin Y. Atrooz, University of Houston,
2. Caterina Vicidomini, Istituto di Biostrutture
e Bioimmagini IBB-CNR, Naples, Italy
Any reports and responses or comments on the
article can be found at the end of the article.
COVID-19, natural products, carnation, onion, lemon, citrus,
Page 1 of 16
F1000Research 2022, 11:639 Last updated: 06 JUL 2022
This article is included in the Emerging Diseases
and Outbreaks gateway.
This article is included in the Coronavirus
Corresponding author: Refat M. Nimer (email@example.com)
Author roles: Nimer RM: Conceptualization, Funding Acquisition, Supervision, Writing – Original Draft Preparation; Khabour OF:
Conceptualization, Validation, Writing – Review & Editing; Swedan SF: Data Curation, Formal Analysis, Validation, Writing – Review &
Editing; Kofahi HM: Data Curation, Formal Analysis, Methodology, Validation, Writing – Review & Editing
Competing interests: No competing interests were disclosed.
Grant information: This work was supported by the Deanship of Research, Jordan University of Science and Technology (Grant number
20210173; to Dr. Refat Nimer).
The funders had no role in..
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