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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -62% Improvement Relative Risk Conv. Plasma  Lewandowski et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with convalescent plasma beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 430 patients in Poland Higher mortality with convalescent plasma (not stat. sig., p=0.12) c19early.org Lewandowski et al., Biomedicines, March 2024 Favors conv. plasma Favors control

Insulin and Metformin Administration: Unravelling the Multifaceted Association with Mortality across Various Clinical Settings Considering Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and COVID-19

Lewandowski et al., Biomedicines, doi:10.3390/biomedicines12030605
Mar 2024  
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Retrospective 430 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes in Poland showing lower mortality with metformin and higher mortality with remdesivir, convalescent plasma, and aspirin in univariable analysis. These results were not statistically significant except for aspirin, and no baseline information per treatment is provided to assess confounding.
Study covers metformin, remdesivir, convalescent plasma, and aspirin.
risk of death, 61.8% higher, OR 1.62, p = 0.12, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Lewandowski et al., 7 Mar 2024, retrospective, Poland, peer-reviewed, 15 authors.
This PaperConv. PlasmaAll
{ 'DOI': '10.3390/biomedicines12030605', 'ISSN': ['2227-9059'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12030605', 'abstract': '<jats:p>Due to the molecular mechanisms of action of antidiabetic drugs, they are considered ' 'to be effective in the treatment of both COVID-19 and the post-COVID-19 syndromes. The aim of ' 'this study was to determine the effect of administering insulin and metformin on the ' 'mortality of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with symptomatic COVID-19 with the use of ' 'logistic regression models. The association between death and insulin and metformin was weak ' 'and could not be included in the multivariate model. However, the interaction of both drugs ' 'with other factors, including remdesivir and low-molecular-weight heparin (metformin), age ' 'and hsCRP (insulin), modulated the odds of death. These interactions hint at multifaceted ' '(anti-/pro-) associations of both insulin and metformin with the odds of death, depending on ' 'the patient’s characteristics. In the multivariate model, RDW-SD, adjusted with ' 'low-molecular-weight heparin treatment, age, sex and K+, was associated with mortality among ' 'patients with COVID-19 and T2DM. With a 15% increase in RDW-SD, the risk of death increased ' 'by 87.7%. This preliminary study provides the foundations for developing further, more ' 'personalized models to assess the risk of death in T2DM patients, as well as for identifying ' 'patients at an increased risk of death due to COVID-19.</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['biomedicines12030605'], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7624-631X', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Biochemistry and Immunochemistry, Wroclaw Medical ' 'University, Chałubińskiego Street 10, 50-368 Wroclaw, Poland'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Lewandowski', 'given': 'Łukasz', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Biochemistry and Immunochemistry, Wroclaw Medical ' 'University, Chałubińskiego Street 10, 50-368 Wroclaw, Poland'}], 'family': 'Bronowicka-Szydełko', 'given': 'Agnieszka', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Clinical Department of Diabetology and Internal Disease, Wroclaw ' 'Medical University, Borowska Street 213, 50-556 Wroclaw, ' 'Poland'}], 'family': 'Rabczyński', 'given': 'Maciej', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Clinical Department of Diabetology and Internal Disease, Wroclaw ' 'Medical University, Borowska Street 213, 50-556 Wroclaw, ' 'Poland'}], 'family': 'Bednarska-Chabowska', 'given': 'Dorota', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Clinical Department of Ophthalmology, Wroclaw Medical ' 'University, Borowska Street 213, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland'}], 'family': 'Adamiec-Mroczek', 'given': 'Joanna', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5472-028X', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, 4th Military ' 'Hospital, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Weigla 5 ' 'Street, 50-981 Wroclaw, Poland'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Doroszko', 'given': 'Adrian', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3951-205X', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Clinical Department of Diabetology and Internal Disease, Wroclaw ' 'Medical University, Borowska Street 213, 50-556 Wroclaw, ' 'Poland'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Trocha', 'given': 'Małgorzata', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2812-4702', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Statistical Analysis Centre, Wroclaw Medical University, K. ' 'Marcinkowski Street 2–6, 50-368 Wroclaw, Poland'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Kujawa', 'given': 'Krzysztof', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1064-1237', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Screening of Biological Activity Assays and Collection of ' 'Biological Material Laboratory, Wroclaw Medical University ' 'Biobank, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, ' 'Borowska Street 221A, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Matera-Witkiewicz', 'given': 'Agnieszka', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Clinical Department of Diabetology and Internal Disease, Wroclaw ' 'Medical University, Borowska Street 213, 50-556 Wroclaw, ' 'Poland'}], 'family': 'Kuźnik', 'given': 'Edwin', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Clinical Department of Diabetology and Internal Disease, Wroclaw ' 'Medical University, Borowska Street 213, 50-556 Wroclaw, ' 'Poland'}], 'family': 'Lubieniecki', 'given': 'Paweł', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2434-8725', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Clinical Department of Rheumatology and Internal Medicine, ' 'University Hospital, Borowska Street 213, 50-556 Wroclaw, ' 'Poland'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Madziarski', 'given': 'Marcin', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Emergency Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, ' 'Borowska Street 213, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland'}], 'family': 'Sokołowski', 'given': 'Janusz', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9202-432X', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Institute of Heart Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, ' 'Borowska Street 213, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Jankowska', 'given': 'Ewa A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3624-3691', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Clinical Department of Diabetology and Internal Disease, Wroclaw ' 'Medical University, Borowska Street 213, 50-556 Wroclaw, ' 'Poland'}], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Madziarska', 'given': 'Katarzyna', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Biomedicines', 'container-title-short': 'Biomedicines', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': []}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 7]], 'date-time': '2024-03-07T16:33:06Z', 'timestamp': 1709829186000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 7]], 'date-time': '2024-03-07T18:17:48Z', 'timestamp': 1709835468000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 8]], 'date-time': '2024-03-08T00:40:31Z', 'timestamp': 1709858431620}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'issue': '3', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 7]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '3', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 7]], 'date-time': '2024-03-07T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1709769600000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/12/3/605/pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '1968', 'original-title': [], 'page': '605', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 7]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 7]]}, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'reference': [ { 'key': 'ref_1', 'unstructured': '(2024, January 10). 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Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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