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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 70% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 82% Probiotics  Ceccarelli et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with probiotics beneficial for COVID-19? Prospective study of 69 patients in Italy Lower mortality (p=0.42) and ICU admission (p=0.15), not sig. Ceccarelli et al., Nutrients, August 2021 Favors probiotics Favors control

Oxygen Sparing Effect of Bacteriotherapy in COVID-19

Ceccarelli et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13082898
Aug 2021  
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Probiotics for COVID-19
18th treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2021
*, now known with p = 0.0000013 from 26 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Prospective analysis of 69 severe COVID-19 patients requiring non-invasive oxygen therapy, 40 treated with probiotic formulation SLAB51, showing lower oxygen requirements and higher blood levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2 with treatment. Authors suggest that enzymes in SLAB51 could reduce oxygen requirements in intestinal cells, resulting in more oxygen available for other organs.
The immune effects of probiotics are strain-specific.
Although the 70% lower mortality is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 61% lower mortality [37‑76%] from meta analysis of the 8 mortality results to date.
risk of death, 70.4% lower, RR 0.30, p = 0.42, treatment 0 of 40 (0.0%), control 1 of 29 (3.4%), NNT 29, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of ICU admission, 81.9% lower, RR 0.18, p = 0.15, treatment 1 of 40 (2.5%), control 4 of 29 (13.8%), NNT 8.9.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ceccarelli et al., 23 Aug 2021, prospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 10 authors.
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Oxygen Sparing Effect of Bacteriotherapy in COVID-19
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Massimiliano Marazzato, Luigi Celani, Francesca Lombardi, Alessandra Piccirilli, Massimo Mancone, Vito Trinchieri, Francesco Pugliese, Claudio M Mastroianni, Gabriella D’ettorre
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13082898
Background: We previously reported that severe COVID-19 patients had higher chances of survival and a reduced risk of developing respiratory failure when administered with the probiotic formulation SLAB51. This study aimed to investigate further bacteriotherapy mechanisms and how early they are activated. Methods: We performed an analysis on the blood oxygenation parameters collected in sixty-nine severe COVID-19 patients requiring non-invasive oxygen therapy and presenting a CT lung involvement ≥50%. Twenty-nine patients received low-molecular-weight heparin, azithromycin and Remdesivir. In addition, forty subjects received SLAB51. Blood gas analyses were performed before the beginning of treatments and at 24 h. Results: The patients receiving only standard therapy needed significantly increased oxygen amounts during the 24 h observation period. Furthermore, they presented lower blood levels of pO 2 , O 2 Hb and SaO 2 than the group also supplemented with oral bacteriotherapy. In vitro data suggest that SLAB51 can reduce nitric oxide synthesis in intestinal cells. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients may present lesions in the lungs compromising their gas exchange capability. The functionality of the organs essential for these patients' survival depends mainly on the levels of pO 2 , O 2 Hb and SaO 2 . SLAB51 contains enzymes that could reduce oxygen consumption in the intestine, making it available for the other organs.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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