Ongoing Treatment with a Spore-Based Probiotic Containing Five Strains of Bacillus Improves Outcomes of Mild COVID-19
Catinean et al.
, Ongoing Treatment with a Spore-Based Probiotic Containing Five Strains of Bacillus Improves Outcomes of Mild..
, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15030488
Retrospective 60 patients in Romania taking probiotics and 60 matched controls, showing faster symptom resolution with the use of probiotics. Spore-based probiotic containing five strains of Bacillus
The immune effects of probiotics are strain-specific.
symptom resolution, 40.5% lower, HR 0.60, p = 0.008, treatment 60, control 60, inverted to make HR<1 favor treatment.
resolution of fever, 37.5% lower, HR 0.62, p = 0.02, treatment 60, control 60, inverted to make HR<1 favor treatment, fever.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Catinean et al., 17 Jan 2023, retrospective, Romania, peer-reviewed, 4 authors, study period 15 September, 2020 - 15 February, 2021.
firstname.lastname@example.org (corresponding author).
Ongoing Treatment with a Spore-Based Probiotic Containing
Five Strains of Bacillus Improves Outcomes of Mild COVID-19
Adrian Catinean 1 , Anamaria Sida 1, *, Celina Silvestru 1 and Gheorghe G. Balan 2
Department of Internal Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy,
400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Department of Gastroenterology, Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115 Iasi, Romania
Abstract: Spore-based Bacillus probiotic treatment improves intestinal health. The intestinal microbiota influences both the innate and adaptive immune responses. As such, the influence of ongoing
spore-based probiotic treatment (five probiotic strains of Bacillus) on the clinical outcomes of mild
COVID-19 was evaluated in this retrospective, observational study. Demographics, medical history,
probiotic use, and COVID-19 symptom information were collected. The study included 120 patients
with a PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild COVID-19 symptoms. The probiotic group
(n = 60) comprised patients with ongoing probiotic treatment (≥1 month); the control group comprised patients not taking probiotics (n = 60). The primary outcome was time to symptom resolution;
secondary outcomes included time to fever resolution and presence of digestive symptoms. The probiotic group had a significantly shorter time to symptom resolution (mean (95% confidence interval)
days: control group, 8.48 (6.56, 10.05); probiotic group, 6.63 (5.56; 6.63); p = 0.003) and resolution of
fever (control group, 2.67 (1.58, 3.61); probiotic group, 1.48 (1.21, 2.03); p < 0.001). More patients in the
probiotic group (n = 53) than in the control group (n = 34) did not have digestive symptoms (p < 0.001).
Among adults with mild COVID-19, participants receiving ongoing probiotic treatment had a shorter
clinical course, and fewer had digestive symptoms compared with those not taking probiotics.
Citation: Catinean, A.; Sida, A.;
Keywords: Bacillus; COVID-19; probiotics; SARS-CoV-2; time to symptom resolution; gut microbiota;
gut–lung axis; gastrointestinal COVID-19 symptoms; immunomodulation; fever in COVID-19 infection
Silvestru, C.; Balan, G.G. Ongoing
Treatment with a Spore-Based
Probiotic Containing Five Strains of
Bacillus Improves Outcomes of Mild
COVID-19. Nutrients 2023, 15, 488.
Academic Editor: Gang Wang
Received: 16 December 2022
Revised: 5 January 2023
Accepted: 12 January 2023
Published: 17 January 2023
Copyright: © 2023 by the authors.
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