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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Severe case 15% Improvement Relative Risk Metformin for COVID-19  Pinchera et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with metformin beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 43 patients in Italy (November 2021 - May 2022) Study compares with insulin, results vs. placebo may differ Lower severe cases with metformin (p=0.048) c19early.org Pinchera et al., Microorganisms, January 2023 Favors metformin Favors insulin

Diabetes and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The Potential Role of Antidiabetic Therapy in the Evolution of COVID-19

Pinchera et al., Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms11010145
Jan 2023  
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Metformin for COVID-19
3rd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 89 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 43 diabetes patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Italy, showing lower risk of severe cases with metformin vs. insulin.
risk of severe case, 15.2% lower, RR 0.85, p = 0.048, treatment 5 of 19 (26.3%), control 14 of 24 (58.3%), NNT 3.1, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Pinchera et al., 6 Jan 2023, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 9 authors, study period November 2021 - May 2022, this trial compares with another treatment - results may be better when compared to placebo. Contact: biapin89@virgilio.it (corresponding author).
This PaperMetforminAll
Diabetes and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The Potential Role of Antidiabetic Therapy in the Evolution of COVID-19
Biagio Pinchera, Nicola Schiano Moriello, Antonio Riccardo Buonomo, Isabella Di Filippo, Anastasia Tanzillo, Giorgio Buzzo, Riccardo Villari, Ivan Gentile
Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms11010145
Diabetes mellitus represents one of the most frequent comorbidities among patients with COVID-19, constituting a risk factor for a more severe prognosis than that of non-diabetic patients. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this unfavorable outcome is still not completely clear. The goal of our study was to evaluate the potential role of antidiabetic therapy in the evolution of COVID-19.
Author Contributions: B.P. participated in substantial contributions to the conception and design of the work and the acquisition, analysis and interpretation data for the work. N.S.M. conceived idea with analysis and participated in interpreting the literature, drafting the article, approving the final version to be published, and being accountable for the accuracy/integrity of the content. A.R.B. participated in revising the initial draft of the article and approving the final version to be published. I.D.F. participated in drafting the article and approving the final version to be published. A.T. participated in analysis and interpretation of data for the work. G.B. participated in the acquisition and analysis of data for the work. R.V. conceived idea with analysis and participated in interpreting the literature, approving the final version to be published, and being accountable for the accuracy/integrity of the content. I.G. participated in substantial contributions to the conception and design of the work; the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data for the work; approval for the final version to be published. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Rep., 69, 382–386.'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.numecd.2020.07.031', 'article-title': 'Common cardiovascular risk factors and in-hospital mortality in 3,894 ' 'patients with COVID-19: Survival analysis and machine learning-based ' 'findings from the multicentre Italian CORIST Study', 'author': 'Bonaccio', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1899', 'journal-title': 'Nutr. Metab. 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Technol.', 'key': 'ref_10', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/imm.13383', 'article-title': 'Diabetes and susceptibility to infections: Implication for COVID-19', 'author': 'Niekerk', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '467', 'journal-title': 'Immunology', 'key': 'ref_11', 'volume': '164', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cell.2019.02.030', 'article-title': 'Insulin receptor as-sociates with promoters genome-wide and regulates ' 'gene ex-pression', 'author': 'Hancock', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '722', 'journal-title': 'Cell', 'key': 'ref_12', 'volume': '177', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/nri3445', 'article-title': 'Regulation of innate and adaptive immunity by Notch', 'author': 'Radtke', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '427', 'journal-title': 'Nat. Rev. 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