Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All metformin studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchMetforminMetformin (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -65% Improvement Relative Risk Metformin for COVID-19  Cheng et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with metformin beneficial for COVID-19? PSM retrospective 1,213 patients in China Higher mortality with metformin (not stat. sig., p=0.25) Cheng et al., Cell Metabolism, August 2021 Favors metformin Favors control

Metformin Is Associated with Higher Incidence of Acidosis, but Not Mortality, in Individuals with COVID-19 and Pre-existing Type 2 Diabetes

Cheng et al., Cell Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2020.08.013
Aug 2021  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Metformin for COVID-19
3rd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 88 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 1,213 hospitalized diabetic COVID-19 patients in China, showing no significant difference in mortality with pre-existing metformin use.
risk of death, 65.0% higher, HR 1.65, p = 0.25, treatment 678, control 535, after PSM.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Cheng et al., 20 Aug 2021, retrospective, propensity score matching, China, peer-reviewed, 35 authors.
This PaperMetforminAll
Metformin Is Associated with Higher Incidence of Acidosis, but Not Mortality, in Individuals with COVID-19 and Pre-existing Type 2 Diabetes
Xu Cheng, Ye-Mao Liu, Haomiao Li, Xin Zhang, Fang Lei, Juan-Juan Qin, Ze Chen, Ke-Qiong Deng, Lijin Lin, Ming-Ming Chen, Xiaohui Song, Meng Xia, Xuewei Huang, Weifang Liu, Jingjing Cai, Xiao-Jing Zhang, Feng Zhou, Peng Zhang, Yibin Wang, Xinliang Ma, Qingbo Xu, Juan Yang, Ping Ye, Weiming Mao, Xiaodong Huang, Jiahong Xia, Bing-Hong Zhang, Jiao Guo, Lihua Zhu, Zhibing Lu, Yufeng Yuan, Xiang Wei, Zhi-Gang She, Yan-Xiao Ji, Hongliang Li
Cell Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2020.08.013
Highlights d A retrospective study of 1,213 patients on metformin with COVID-19 was performed d Metformin was associated with increased incidence of acidosis in such patients d Metformin was not associated with increased 28-day allcause mortality in the patients d Metformin was significantly associated with reduced heart failure and inflammation
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS X.C., Y.-M.L., Haomiao Li, X.Z., and F.L. designed the study, collected and analyzed data, and wrote the manuscript. Z.C., K.-Q.D., L.L., M.-M.C., X.S., M.X., Xuewei Huang, W.L., P.Z., P.Y., W.M., Xiaodong Huang, J.X., B.-H.Z., J.G., L.Z., and Z.L. collected, reviewed, interpreted, and checked clinical, laboratory, and radiological data. J.-J.Q. and F.Z. performed the statistical analysis. J.C., X.-J.Z., Y.W., X.M., Q.X., X.Z., and J.Y. wrote and edited the manuscript and provided valuable suggestions for study design and data analysis. Y.Y., X.W., Z.-G.S., Y.-X.J., and Hongliang Li contributed equally, designed the project, edited manuscript, and supervised the study. All authors have approved the final version of this paper. DECLARATION OF INTERESTS We have no competing interests to declare. Supplementary Information Metformin Is Associated with Higher Incidence of Acidosis, but not Mortality, in Individuals Abbreviation: SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, Diastolic blood pressure; SpO2, oxygen saturation; RBC, red blood cells; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; LDL-c, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; IQR, interquartile range; SD, standardized difference. a Upper limit of normal (ULN) was defined according to criteria in each hospital. b Individuals with T2D taking Metformin during hospitalization were enrolled in the Metformin cohort. Individuals discontinued treatment of diabetes due to inability to..
Acc/Aha, /HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America, Circulation
Amin, Lux, 'callaghan, The journey of metformin from glycaemic control to mTOR inhibition and the suppression of tumour growth, Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol
Bailey, Metformin: historical overview, Diabetologia
Bakker, Coffernils, Leon, Gris, Vincent, Blood lactate levels are superior to oxygen-derived variables in predicting outcome in human septic shock, Chest
Bates, Matrix-1
Bodmer, Meier, Kr€ Ahenb€ Uhl, Jick, Meier, None
Bornstein, Rubino, Khunti, Mingrone, Hopkins et al., Metformin, sulfonylureas, or other antidiabetes drugs and the risk of lactic acidosis or hypoglycemia: a nested case-control analysis, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
Bowker, Yasui, Veugelers, Johnson, Glucoselowering agents and cancer mortality rates in type 2 diabetes: assessing effects of time-varying exposure, Diabetologia
Cameron, Morrison, Levin, Mohan, Forteath et al., Lactic acidosis and severe septic shock in metformin users: a cohort study
Daniel, None
Dbp, Diastolic blood pressure; SpO2, oxygen saturation; RBC, red blood cells
Foretz, Guigas, Bertrand, Pollak, Viollet, Metformin: from mechanisms of action to therapies, Cell Metab
Fox, None
Gando, Wada, Thachil, Haneuse, Vanderweele et al., Differentiating disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with the fibrinolytic phenotype from coagulopathy of trauma and acute coagulopathy of trauma-shock (COT/ACOTS), J. Thromb. Haemost
Harrell, Jr, Califf, Pryor, Lee et al., Evaluating the yield of medical tests, JAMA
Harrell, None
Harrell, Rms-6
Hoffmann, Kleine-Weber, Schroeder, Kr€ Uger, Herrler et al., None
Huang, Wang, Li, Ren, Zhao et al., Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, Lancet
Imai, Kuba, Rao, Huan, Guo et al., Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure, Nature
Inzucchi, Lipska, Mayo, Bailey, Mcguire, Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease: a systematic review, JAMA
Kellum, Lameire, Aspelin, Barsoum, Burdmann et al., Kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) acute kidney injury work group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury, Kidney Int. Suppl
Kraut, Madias, Metabolic acidosis: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management, Nat. Rev. Nephrol
Lalau, Lactic acidosis induced by metformin: incidence, management and prevention, Drug Saf
Lexis, Van Der Horst, Lipsic, Wieringa, De Boer et al., Effect of metformin on left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction in patients without diabetes: the GIPS-III randomized clinical trial, JAMA
Liu, Liu, Xiang, Pu, Xiong et al., Metformin treatment was associated with decreased mortality in COVID-19 patients with diabetes in a retrospective analysis, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg
Mathur, Ding, Riddell, Vanderweele, Web site and R package for computing E-values, Epidemiology
Mehta, Mcauley, Brown, Sanchez, Tattersall et al., Serum lactate is associated with mortality in severe sepsis independent of organ failure and shock, Crit. Care Med
Misbin, Green, Stadel, Gueriguian, Gubbi et al., Lactic acidosis in patients with diabetes treated with metformin, N. Engl. J. Med
Monteil, Kwon, Prado, Hagelkr€ Uys, Wimmer et al., Prior metformin therapy and 30-day mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a nationwide cohort study
Overbeek, Heintjes, Prieto-Alhambra, Blin, Lassalle et al., Type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment patterns across Europe: a population-based multi-database study, Clin. Ther
Pollak, The effects of metformin on gut microbiota and the immune system as research frontiers, Diabetologia
Rena, Hardie, Pearson, The mechanisms of action of metformin, Diabetologia
Richardson, Hirsch, Narasimhan, Crawford, Mcginn et al., Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area, JAMA
Shirani, Zhao, Karim, Evans, Kingwell et al., Association between use of interferon beta and progression of disability in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, JAMA
Stricker, Stijnen, Analysis of individual drug use as a timevarying determinant of exposure in prospective population-based cohort studies, Eur. J. Epidemiol
Suetrong, Walley, Lactic acidosis in sepsis: it's not all anaerobic: implications for diagnosis and management, Chest
Therneau, None
Tomczynska, Bijak, Saluk, Metformin -the drug for the treatment of autoimmune diseases; a new use of a known anti-diabetic drug, Curr. Top. Med. Chem
Tsai, Chang, Sun, Chan, Wu et al., Metformin activates type I interferon signaling against HCV via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, Oncotarget
Tzanavari, Varela, Theocharis, Ninou, Kapelouzou et al., Metformin protects against infection-induced myocardial dysfunction, Metabolism
Ursini, Russo, Pellino, D'angelo, Chiaravalloti et al., Metformin and autoimmunity: a ''New Deal'' of an old drug, Front. Immunol
Vanderweele, Ding, Sensitivity analysis in observational research: introducing the E-value, Ann. Intern. Med
Waljee, Mukherjee, Singal, Zhang, Warren et al., Comparison of imputation methods for missing laboratory data in medicine
Yancy, Jessup, Bozkurt, Butler, Casey et al., None
Zhang, Dong, Martin, He, Gongol et al., AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in endothelium mitigates pulmonary hypertension, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med
Zhang, Reinikainen, Adeleke, Pieterse, Groothuis-Oudshoorn et al., Association of inpatient use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers with mortality among patients with hypertension hospitalized with COVID-19, Ann. Transl. Med
Zhu, She, Cheng, Qin, Zhang et al., Association of blood glucose control and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes, Cell Metab
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop