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Risk of Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (PASC) Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Anti-Hyperglycemic Medications

Olawore et al., Clinical Epidemiology, doi:10.2147/CLEP.S458901
May 2024  
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PASC, 6 months 19% Improvement Relative Risk PASC, 3 months 14% Metformin for COVID-19  Olawore et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with metformin beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 7,047 patients in the USA (October 2021 - April 2023) Lower PASC with metformin (not stat. sig., p=0.29) Olawore et al., Clinical Epidemiology, May 2024 Favorsmetformin Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Metformin for COVID-19
3rd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 91 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments.
Retrospective 7,047 outpatients with type 2 diabetes showing a lower risk of PASC (long COVID) with metformin compared to sulfonylurea or DPP-4 inhibitor use, without statistical significance.
risk of PASC, 19.0% lower, RR 0.81, p = 0.29, treatment 5,596, control 1,451, 6 months.
risk of PASC, 14.0% lower, RR 0.86, p = 0.50, treatment 5,596, control 1,451, 3 months.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Olawore et al., 31 May 2024, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 8 authors, study period October 2021 - April 2023. Contact:
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Risk of Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (PASC) Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Anti-Hyperglycemic Medications
Oluwasolape Olawore, Lindsey E Turner, Michael D Evans, Steven G Johnson, Jared D Huling, Carolyn T Bramante, John B Buse, Til Stürmer
Clinical Epidemiology, doi:10.2147/clep.s458901
Background: Observed activity of metformin in reducing the risk of severe COVID-19 suggests a potential use of the antihyperglycemic in the prevention of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). We assessed the 3-month and 6-month risk of PASC among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) comparing metformin users to sulfonylureas (SU) or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) users. Methods: We used de-identified patient level electronic health record data from the National Covid Cohort Collaborative (N3C) between October 2021 and April 2023. Participants were adults ≥ 18 years with T2DM who had at least one outpatient healthcare encounter in health institutions in the United States prior to COVID-19 diagnosis. The outcome of PASC was defined based on the presence of a diagnosis code for the illness or using a predicted probability based on a machine learning algorithm. We estimated the 3-month and 6-month risk of PASC and calculated crude and weighted risk ratios (RR), risk differences (RD), and differences in mean predicted probability. Results: We identified 5596 (mean age: 61.1 years; SD: 12.6) and 1451 (mean age: 64.9 years; SD 12.5) eligible prevalent users of metformin and SU/DPP4i respectively. We did not find a significant difference in risk of PASC at 3 months (RR = 0.86 [0.56; 1.32], RD = -3.06 per 1000 [-12.14; 6.01]), or at 6 months (RR = 0.81 [0.55; 1.20], RD = -4.91 per 1000 [-14.75, 4.93]) comparing prevalent users of metformin to prevalent users of SU/ DPP4i. Similar observations were made for the outcome definition using the ML algorithm. Conclusion: The observed estimates in our study are consistent with a reduced risk of PASC among prevalent users of metformin, however the uncertainty of our confidence intervals warrants cautious interpretations of the results. A standardized clinical definition of PASC is warranted for thorough evaluation of the effectiveness of therapies under assessment for the prevention of PASC. Plain Language Summary: Previous research suggests that metformin, due to its anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic properties may reduce the risk of severe COVID-19. Given the shared etiology of COVID-19 and the post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), and the proposed inflammatory processes of PASC, metformin may also be a beneficial preventive option. We investigated the benefit of metformin for PASC prevention in a population of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis who were on metformin or two other anti-hyperglycemic medications prior to infection with SARS-CoV-2. Our results were consistent with a reduction in the risk of PASC with the use of metformin, however, the imprecise confidence intervals obtained warrants further investigation of this association of the potential beneficial effect of metformin for preventing PASC in patients with medication-managed diabetes.
Abbreviations DPP4i, Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors; EHR, Electronic Health Record, ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases, 10 th Revision; ML, Machine Learning; N3C, Covid Cohort Collaborative; PASC, Post-acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2; RD, Risk Difference; RR, Risk Ratio; SU, Sulfonylurea; T2DM, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Author Contributions All authors made a significant contribution to the work reported, whether that is in the conception, study design, execution, acquisition of data, analysis, and interpretation, or in all these areas; took part in drafting, revising or critically reviewing the article; gave final approval of the version to be published; have agreed on the journal to which the article has been submitted; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. Disclosure JBB reports contracted fees and travel support for contracted activities for consulting work paid to the University of North Carolina by Novo Nordisk; grant support by Bayer, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Carmot, Corcept, Dexcom, Eli Lilly, Insulet, MannKind, Novo Nordisk, and vTv Therapeutics; consulting fees from Alkahest, Altimmune, Anji, Aqua Medical Inc, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Biomea Fusion Inc, Boehringer-Ingelheim, CeQur, Corcept Therapeutics, Eli Lilly, embecta, Fortress Biotech, GentiBio, Glycadia, Glyscend, Janssen, MannKind, Insulet, Mediflix, Medscape, Medtronic/ MiniMed, Mellitus Health, Metsera, Moderna, Pendulum Therapeutics, Praetego, ReachMD, Sanofi, Stability Health,..
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