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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case -3% Improvement Relative Risk Metformin for COVID-19  Farah et al.  Prophylaxis Does metformin reduce COVID-19 infections? Retrospective 1,039 patients in Jordan No significant difference in cases Farah et al., J. Int. Medical Research, Sep 2023 Favors metformin Favors control

Prevalence and risk factors of COVID-19 infection, mortality, and post-infection lung fibrosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

Farah et al., Journal of International Medical Research, doi:10.1177/03000605231198413
Sep 2023  
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Retrospective 1,039 diabetes patients in Jordan, showing no significant difference in COVID-19 cases with metformin use in unadjusted results. Severity outcomes are not provided for metformin.
Meta analysis of all metformin studies shows benefit for clinical outcomes but not for viral or case outcomes, consistent with an intervention that may have limited or no direct antiviral effect, but minimizes progression via other mechanisms (for example by aiding the immune system, minimizing immune over-activation, minizing secondary complications, or aiding recovery).
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of case, 2.7% higher, RR 1.03, p = 0.87, treatment 267 of 821 (32.5%), control 69 of 218 (31.7%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Farah et al., 20 Sep 2023, retrospective, Jordan, peer-reviewed, mean age 59.5, 10 authors.
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Prevalence and risk factors of COVID-19 infection, mortality, and post-infection lung fibrosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study
Randa I Farah, Hussam Al-Hawari, Asma Albtoush, Amani Nofal, Tala Basheer Hyasat, Raghed Abdel Hay Abu Jabeh, Lojayn Tareq Suboh, Ahmad A Toubasi, Tareq Fatah Eqrai, Mohammad Abufaraj
Journal of International Medical Research, doi:10.1177/03000605231198413
Objectives: The clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is often aggressive, with unfavorable outcomes for those with comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of COVID-19 infection, mortality, and post-infection lung fibrosis in patients with COVID-19 infection who had T2DM. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included adult patients with T2DM who attended an endocrinology clinic and underwent testing for COVID-19 infection. Results: Among 1039 included patients, the mean age was 59.5 AE 11.0 years and 429 (41.3%) were men. Overall, 87.1% of patients had received COVID-19 vaccination and 32.3% had confirmed COVID-19 infection. The COVID-19-related mortality was 3.0% and rate of post-COVID-19 lung fibrosis was 19.1%. Vaccination was associated with lower COVID-19-related
Authors' contributions Randa I. Farah contributed to study conceptualization; formal analysis; methodology; supervision; and original writing, drafting, review, and editing of the manuscript. Hussam Al-Hawari contributed to study supervision and editing, Declaration of conflicting interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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