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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 49% Improvement Relative Risk Metformin for COVID-19  Zihono et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with metformin beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 137 patients in Indonesia Lower mortality with metformin (p=0.024) Zihono et al., Folia Medica Indonesiana, Sep 2023 Favors metformin Favors control

Metformin Effectiveness in Reducing Mortality among Covid-19 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at a Tertiary Hospital in Indonesia

Zihono et al., Folia Medica Indonesiana, doi:10.20473/fmi.v59i3.46944
Sep 2023  
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Metformin for COVID-19
3rd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 84 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 137 hospitalized mild to moderate COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes in Indonesia, showing a significantly lower mortality with metformin treatment.
risk of death, 48.7% lower, RR 0.51, p = 0.02, treatment 11 of 56 (19.6%), control 31 of 81 (38.3%), NNT 5.4.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Zihono et al., 10 Sep 2023, retrospective, Indonesia, peer-reviewed, 6 authors. Contact:
This PaperMetforminAll
Metformin Effectiveness in Reducing Mortality among Covid-19 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at a Tertiary Hospital in Indonesia
Yudivaniel Zihono, Hany Yusmaini, Uswatun Hasanah, Erna Harfiani, Md Ikhsan Mokoagow, Dicky Budiman
Folia Medica Indonesiana, doi:10.20473/fmi.v59i3.46944
COVID-19 patients with comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes (T2DM), have a higher mortality rate compared to those without any comorbidities. T2DM patients usually receive metformin as their first-line treatment. However, the effectiveness of metformin in reducing mortality rates still requires further analysis. The objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of metformin in reducing mortality rates among COVID-19 patients with T2DM. An analytic observational design with a retrospective cohort approach was used in this study. Samples were acquired from hospitalized COVID-19 patients with T2DM medical records at Fatmawati Central General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia, throughout 2020-2021. The samples were collected using a purposive sampling technique and analyzed using Chi-square test (p<0.05; RR<1). This study comprised 137 samples, with 56 samples receiving metformin and 81 not receiving metformin. The mortality rate in the sample group that received metformin was lower (19.6%) compared to the group that was not given the medication (38.3%). The Chi-square test results indicated a statistically significant relationship between metformin treatment and a lower mortality rate among COVID-19-contracted individuals with T2DM (p=0.020; RR=0.513). Therefore, this study concludes that the administration of metformin treatment reduces mortality among COVID-19 patients with T2DM.
Conflict of interest None. Ethical consideration The study was ethically approved on 11/4/2023 by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia, with approval letter No. 76/IV/2023/KEPK. Author contribution YZ contributed to the conception and design, analysis and interpretation of the data, drafting of the article, and statistical expertise. HY, UH, EH, and DB contributed to the critical revision of the article for important intellectual content, final approval of the article, and statistical expertise. MIM contributed to the critical revision of the article for important intellectual content, final approval of the article, provision of study materials, and statistical expertise.
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