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Lactoferrin Inhibition of the Complex Formation between ACE2 Receptor and SARS CoV-2 Recognition Binding Domain

Piacentini et al., International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms23105436
May 2022  
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Biolayer interferometry and turbidimetry study showing lactoferrin inhibits ACE2 - SARS-CoV-2 RBD binding.
13 preclinical studies support the efficacy of lactoferrin for COVID-19:
Piacentini et al., 13 May 2022, Italy, peer-reviewed, 10 authors. Contact: giacomo.parisi@iit.it (corresponding author), roberta.piacentini@uniroma1.it, centi.laura95@gmail.com, alberto.boffi@uniroma1.it, miottomattia1@gmail.com, edoardo.milanetti@uniroma1.it, lorenzo.dirienzo@iit.it, martina.pitea@iit.it, giancarlo.ruocco@iit.it, paolopiazza@edifinstruments.com.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperLactoferrinAll
Lactoferrin Inhibition of the Complex Formation between ACE2 Receptor and SARS CoV-2 Recognition Binding Domain
Roberta Piacentini, Laura Centi, Mattia Miotto, Edoardo Milanetti, Lorenzo Di Rienzo, Martina Pitea, Paolo Piazza, Giancarlo Ruocco, Alberto Boffi, Giacomo Parisi
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms23105436
The present investigation focuses on the analysis of the interactions among human lactoferrin (LF), SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in order to assess possible mutual interactions that could provide a molecular basis of the reported preventative effect of lactoferrin against CoV-2 infection. In particular, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the pairwise interactions among the three proteins were measured via two independent techniques, biolayer interferometry and latex nanoparticle-enhanced turbidimetry. The results obtained clearly indicate that LF is able to bind the ACE2 receptor ectodomain with significantly high affinity, whereas no binding to the RBD was observed up to the maximum "physiological" lactoferrin concentration range. Lactoferrin, above 1 µM concentration, thus appears to directly interfere with RBD-ACE2 binding, bringing about a measurable, up to 300-fold increase of the K D value relative to RBD-ACE2 complex formation.
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