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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 76% Improvement Relative Risk Recovery time -40% Time to viral- 39% primary Lactoferrin for COVID-19  Rosa et al.  EARLY TREATMENT Is early treatment with lactoferrin beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 121 patients in Italy (October 2020 - March 2021) Faster viral clearance with lactoferrin (p=0.02) Rosa et al., J. Clinical Medicine, Sep 2021 Favors lactoferrin Favors control

Ambulatory COVID-19 Patients Treated with Lactoferrin as a Supplementary Antiviral Agent: A Preliminary Study

Rosa et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10184276
Sep 2021  
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Retrospective survey based study in Italy with 82 patients treated with lactoferrin, and 39 control patients, showing significantly faster viral clearance with treatment. There was no significant difference in recovery time overall, however the treatment group had significantly more moderate condition patients (39% versus 8%), and improved recovery was seen with treatment as age increased. Median dose for asymptomatic patients was 400mg/day, for paucisymptomatic patients 600mg/day, and for moderate condition patients 1000mg three times a day.
risk of hospitalization, 75.6% lower, RR 0.24, p = 0.32, treatment 0 of 82 (0.0%), control 1 of 39 (2.6%), NNT 39, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
recovery time, 40.0% higher, relative time 1.40, p = 0.50, treatment 82, control 39, excluded in exclusion analyses: excessive unadjusted differences between groups.
time to viral-, 39.4% lower, relative time 0.61, p = 0.02, treatment 82, control 39, inverted to make RR<1 favor treatment, Cox regression, primary outcome.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Rosa et al., 21 Sep 2021, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 8 authors, study period October 2020 - March 2021.
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Ambulatory COVID-19 Patients Treated with Lactoferrin as a Supplementary Antiviral Agent: A Preliminary Study
Luigi Rosa, Giovanni Tripepi, Enrico Naldi, Marina Aimati, Stefano Santangeli, Francesco Venditto, Marcello Caldarelli, Piera Valenti
Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10184276
SARS-CoV-2, an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus causing COVID-19, exerts morbidity and mortality especially in elderly, obese individuals and those suffering from chronic conditions. In addition to the availability of vaccines and the limited efficacy of the first dose of vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants, there is an urgent requirement for the discovery and development of supplementary antiviral agents. Lactoferrin (Lf), a pleiotropic cationic glycoprotein of innate immunity, has been proposed as a safe treatment combined with other therapies in COVID-19 patients. Here, we present a small retrospective study on asymptomatic, paucisymptomatic, and moderate symptomatic COVID-19 Lf-treated versus Lf-untreated patients. The time required to achieve SARS-CoV-2 RNA negativization in Lf-treated patients (n = 82) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) compared to that observed in Lf-untreated ones (n = 39) (15 versus 24 days). A link among reduction in symptoms, age, and Lf treatment was found. The Lf antiviral activity could be explained through the interaction with SARS-CoV-2 spike, the binding with heparan sulfate proteoglycans of cells, and the anti-inflammatory activity associated with the restoration of iron homeostasis disorders, which favor viral infection/replication. Lf could be an important supplementary treatment in counteracting SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it is also safe and well-tolerated by all treated patients.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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