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An overview on in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity of lactoferrin: its efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 infection

Rosa et al., BioMetals, doi:10.1007/s10534-022-00427-z
Aug 2022  
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Review of the antiviral activity of lactoferrin and efficacy for SARS-CoV-2.
Rosa et al., 3 Aug 2022, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
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An overview on in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity of lactoferrin: its efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 infection
Antimo Luigi Rosa, Antimo Cutone, Maria Pia Conte, Elena Campione, Luca Bianchi, Piera Valenti
BioMetals, doi:10.1007/s10534-022-00427-z
SARS-CoV-2. In vivo, Lf oral administration in early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection counteracts COVID-19 pathogenesis. In particular, the effect of Lf on SARS-CoV-2 entry, inflammatory homeostasis, iron dysregulation, iron-proteins synthesis, reactive oxygen formation, oxidative stress, gut-lung axis regulation as well as on RNA negativization, and coagulation/fibrinolysis balance will be critically reviewed. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underneath, including the Lf binding to HSPGs and spike glycoprotein, will be disclosed and discussed. Taken together, present data not only support the application of the oral administration of Lf alone in asymptomatic COVID-19 patients or as adjuvant of standard of care practice in symptomatic ones but also constitute the basis for enriching the limited literature on Lf effectiveness for COVID-19 treatment. Keywords Lactoferrin • SARS-CoV-2 • COVID-19 • Inflammatory and iron homeostasis • Gut-lung axis • Coagulation and fibrinolysis Lactoferrin and iron Lactoferrin (Lf), identified in 1939 in bovine milk and isolated in 1960 from both human (Johansson 1960; Montreuil et al. 1960 ) and bovine milk (Groves 1960), is constitutively synthesized by exocrine glands and secreted in human fluids. After induction,
Author contributions P.V.: conceptualization; L.R., A.C., and P.V.: writing: original Declarations Conflict of interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.
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