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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -203% Improvement Relative Risk Severe case -203% Hospitalization, COVID-19 49% Hospitalization, all cause 49% Symptom score, mid-re.. 26% Symptom score, day 28 60% Symptom score, day 14 2% Symptom score, day 11-13 18% Symptom score, day 4 4% Viral clearance -11% PASC 8% Lactoferrin  Mann et al.  EARLY TREATMENT  DB RCT Is early treatment with lactoferrin + combined treatments beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 156 patients in South Africa (Jul 2021 - Jul 2022) Higher mortality (p=0.49) and severe cases (p=0.49), not sig. Mann et al., Future Science OA, July 2023 Favors lactoferrin Favors control

Hen egg white bovine colostrum supplement reduces symptoms of mild/moderate COVID-19: a randomized control trial

Mann et al., Future Science OA, doi:10.2144/fsoa-2023-0024, DOH-27-062021-9191
Jul 2023  
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RCT 156 mild/moderate COVID-19 patients, 77 treated with hen egg white and bovine colostrum, showing faster recovery of severe symptoms with treatment. There were no significant differences in overall symptom duration, viral clearance, or post-COVID symptoms. Only one participant progressed to severe COVID-19.
risk of death, 202.6% higher, RR 3.03, p = 0.49, treatment 1 of 77 (1.3%), control 0 of 79 (0.0%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of severe case, 202.6% higher, RR 3.03, p = 0.49, treatment 1 of 77 (1.3%), control 0 of 79 (0.0%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of hospitalization, 48.7% lower, RR 0.51, p = 1.00, treatment 1 of 77 (1.3%), control 2 of 79 (2.5%), NNT 81, COVID-19.
risk of hospitalization, 48.7% lower, RR 0.51, p = 0.68, treatment 2 of 77 (2.6%), control 4 of 79 (5.1%), NNT 41, all cause.
relative symptom score, 25.8% better, RR 0.74, p = 0.24, treatment 77, control 79, mid-recovery, day 7.
relative symptom score, 60.0% better, RR 0.40, p = 0.047, treatment 77, control 79, day 28.
relative symptom score, 2.3% better, RR 0.98, p = 0.91, treatment 77, control 79, day 14.
relative symptom score, 18.4% better, RR 0.82, p = 0.40, treatment 77, control 79, day 11-13.
relative symptom score, 4.4% better, RR 0.96, p = 0.75, treatment 77, control 79, day 4.
risk of no viral clearance, 11.2% higher, RR 1.11, p = 0.36, treatment 49 of 60 (81.7%), control 36 of 49 (73.5%), day 11-3.
risk of PASC, 7.6% lower, RR 0.92, p = 0.84, treatment 15 of 67 (22.4%), control 16 of 66 (24.2%), NNT 54, day 42.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Mann et al., 20 Jul 2023, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, South Africa, peer-reviewed, 14 authors, study period 28 July, 2021 - 5 July, 2022, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with bovine colostrum and egg white) - results of individual treatments may vary, trial DOH-27-062021-9191.
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This PaperLactoferrinAll
Hen egg white bovine colostrum supplement reduces symptoms of mild/moderate COVID-19: a randomized control trial
Jaclyn Kelly Mann, Tarylee Reddy, Mary Van Der Stok, Ayanda Ngubane, Takalani Mulaudzi, Nobuhle Mchunu, Portia Nevhungoni, Nithendra Manickchund, Pariva Manickchund, Chelline Helena Louise Cairns, Vaneshree Govender, Thumbi Ndung'u, Mahomed Yunus Suleman Moosa, Bernadett Isabel Gosnell
Future Science OA, doi:10.2144/fsoa-2023-0024
The ability of a hen egg white bovine colostrum supplement to prevent severe COVID-19 was tested in a double-blind randomized control study. Methods: Adults with mild/moderate COVID-19, risk factors for severe disease, and within 5 days of symptom onset were assigned to the intervention (n = 77) or placebo (n = 79) arms. Symptoms were documented until day 42 post-enrollment and viral clearance was assessed at 11-13 days post-symptom onset. Results: One participant developed severe COVID-19. The severe-type symptom score was lower in the active arm at 11-13 days post-symptom onset (p = 0.049). Chest pain, fever/chills, joint pain/malaise, and sore throat were significantly less frequent in the active arm. No differences in viral clearance were observed. Conclusion: The intervention reduced symptoms of mild/moderate COVID-19. Clinical Trial Registration: DOH-27-062021-9191 (South African National Clinical Trials Register) Plain language summary: Natural proteins found in milk (lactoferrin) and egg white (ovotransferrin and lysozyme) could have therapeutic value in COVID-19 through their effects on the immune system. We identified bovine colostrum and hen egg white powders containing adequate quantities of these proteins. We investigated whether short-term daily consumption of a hen egg white and bovine colostrum mixture (reconstituted with glycerin and water) could reduce the risk of progression to severe disease and assist in the recovery of patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. Adults with mild or moderate COVID-19 who were within 5 days of symptom onset and had risk factors for severe disease were enrolled, and randomly assigned to take a hen egg white and bovine colostrum mixture or placebo mixture twice daily for 5 days, and then followed up telephonically for 6 weeks. The main findings were that consumption of the hen egg white and bovine colostrum mixture was associated with fewer protocol-defined severe-type symptoms overall, and in particular lower frequencies of joint pain/malaise, chest pain, fever/chills, and sore throat. Only one individual developed severe COVID-19 and therefore the effect of the intervention on reducing the risk of progression to severe disease could not be assessed. The results of this study suggest that consumption of the hen egg white bovine colostrum mixture within a few days of symptom onset lessens symptoms in people with mild or moderate COVID-19.
Ethical conduct of research The protocol was approved by the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee of the University of KwaZulu-Natal (BREC 00002220/2020). In addition, for investigations involving human subjects, informed consent has been obtained from the participants involved. Data sharing statement The authors certify that this manuscript reports original clinical trial data. Deidentified individual participant data that underlie the results reported in the article are available in Mendeley data ( It is currently available with no foreseeable end date. Open access This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecomm Summary points • Ovotransferrin and lysozyme in hen egg white and lactoferrin in bovine colostrum have immunomodulatory and antiviral properties. • It was hypothesized that consumption of a hen egg white bovine colostrum mixture in early infection would reduce the risk of progression to severe disease and assist in the recovery of individuals with mild/moderate COVID-19. • In this double-blind randomized control study, COVID-19-positive individuals at increased risk of severe disease and within 5 days of symptom onset were randomly assigned to consume a hen egg white bovine colostrum mixture (n = 77) or placebo (n = 79) twice daily for 5 days. • Only 1 participant (active arm) progressed to severe..
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