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Summary of COVID-19 lactoferrin studies

Studies   Meta Analysis   Hide extended summaries

50 patient lactoferrin prophylaxis RCT: 50% fewer cases (p=1).
RCT 50 preschool children, 25 treated with bovine lactoferrin (bLf) prophylaxis, showing significantly lower frequency and duration of respiratory infections during the active phase with treatment. The only COVID-19 specific results reported are the number as patients with COVID, 1 vs. 2 for treatment vs. control. bLf 400mg bid for 4 months.

Feb 2024, Children,,

64 patient lactoferrin early treatment study: 47% faster viral clearance (p=0.0001).
Small prospective study in Italy with 32 lactoferrin patients, 32 SOC, and 28 patients with no treatment, showing significantly faster viral clearance and improved recovery with treatment. Oral and intranasal lactoferrin.

Oct 2021, Int. J. Environmental Research and Public Health,,

121 patient lactoferrin early treatment study: 76% lower hospitalization (p=0.32), 40% slower recovery (p=0.5), and 39% faster viral clearance (p=0.02).
Retrospective survey based study in Italy with 82 patients treated with lactoferrin, and 39 control patients, showing significantly faster viral clearance with treatment. There was no significant difference in recovery time overall, however the treatment group had significantly more moderate condition patients (39% versus 8%), and improved recovery was seen with treatment as age increased. Median dose for asymptomatic patients was 400mg/day, for paucisymptomatic patients 600mg/day, and for moderate condition patients 1000mg three times a day.

Sep 2021, J. Clinical Medicine,,

54 patient lactoferrin late treatment RCT: 25% improved recovery (p=1).
RCT 54 hospitalized patients in Egypt, showing no significant differences in recovery with lactoferrin treatment. 200mg lactoferrin orally once daily (group 1) or 200mg lactoferrin orally twice daily (group 2).

Aug 2021, Medicina,,

547 patient lactoferrin late treatment study: 79% lower mortality (p=0.11).
Retrospective 547 hospitalized COVID+ patients in Egypt, showing lower mortality with lactoferrin treatment (without statistical significance).

Oct 2021, World J. Gastroenterology,,

218 patient lactoferrin late treatment RCT: 12% higher mortality (p=0.85), 45% higher ventilation (p=0.39), 6% higher combined mortality/ICU admission (p=0.87), and 34% worse recovery (p=0.12).
RCT 218 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing no significant differences with lactoferrin treatment. Authors note that in several previous studies showing clinical improvement, lactoferrin was given at an earlier stage of disease. Authors also note that potential benefits with the late treatment in this study could be masked by other SOC medications - corticosteroids may have masked immunomodulatory effects of lactoferrin, and there may be heparin-dependent reduction in lactoferrin antiviral activity. 800mg oral bovine lactoferrin daily.

Mar 2023, Nutrients,,

156 patient lactoferrin early treatment RCT: 26% improved recovery (p=0.24), 11% worse viral clearance (p=0.36), and 8% lower PASC (p=0.84).
RCT 156 mild/moderate COVID-19 patients, 77 treated with hen egg white and bovine colostrum, showing faster recovery of severe symptoms with treatment. There were no significant differences in overall symptom duration, viral clearance, or post-COVID symptoms. Only one participant progressed to severe COVID-19.

Jul 2023, Future Science OA,,

209 patient lactoferrin prophylaxis RCT: 59% more symptomatic cases (p=0.34) and 23% more cases (p=0.65).
Early terminated low-risk patient prophylaxis RCT in Peru, showing no significant difference in cases with lactoferrin. There were no moderate or severe cases.

Dec 2022, BioMetals,,
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