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Summary of COVID-19 colchicine studies

Studies   Meta Analysis   Hide extended summaries

292 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 71% lower mortality (p=0.04) and 71% lower progression (p=0.04).
RCT 300 patients in Bangladesh, published 2 years after completion, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment at 28 days (not significant at 14 days). 1.2mg colchicine on day 1 followed by 0.6mg for 13 days.

Nov 2022, PLOS ONE, https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0277790, https://c19p.org/rahman3

105 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 77% lower mortality (p=0.19), 82% lower ventilation (p=0.1), and 87% lower progression (p=0.05).
RCT with 55 patients treated with colchicine and 50 control patients, showing lower mortality and ventilation with treatment.

Jun 2020, JAMA Network Open, https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2767593, https://c19p.org/deftereos

103 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 80% lower mortality (p=0.24), 80% lower ventilation (p=0.24), 87% improved 7-point scale results (p=0.03), and 15% longer hospitalization (p=0.34).
RCT with 52 colchicine patients and 51 control patients, showing lower risk of clinical deterioration with treatment. COL-COVID. NCT04350320.

Sep 2021, Int. J. General Medicine, https://www.dovepress.com/colchicine-in-recently-hospitalized-patients-with-covid-19-a-randomize-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-IJGM, https://c19p.org/pascualfigal

72 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 22% shorter hospitalization (p=0.01).
RCT with 36 colchicine and 36 control patients, showing reduced length of hospitalization and oxygen therapy with treatment.

Aug 2020, RMD Open, https://rmdopen.bmj.com/content/7/1/e001455, https://c19p.org/lopes

137 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 65% lower ICU admission (p=0.11), 43% improved recovery (p=0.14), 34% lower need for oxygen therapy (p=0.34), and 20% shorter hospitalization (p=0.13).
Open-label RCT 137 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, showing lower progression to ICU/step-down ICU and improved recovery with colchicine, both without statistical significance. The primary outcome was changed mid-trial due to the low number of patients progressing to severe disease.

May 2024, Cureus, https://www.cureus.com/articles/240800-colchicine-andor-naltrexone-for-hospitalized-covid-19-patients-not-requiring-high-levels-of-ventilatory-support-coltrexone-a-prospective-randomized-open-label-trial, https://c19p.org/gertner

202 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 73% lower hospitalization (p=0.004) and 38% improved recovery (p=0.03).
RCT 202 patients in Iran, 102 treated with colchicine, showing lower hospitalization and improved clinical outcomes with treatment.

Feb 2022, Phytotherapy Research, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.7319?af=R, https://c19p.org/pourdowlat

4,488 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 44% lower mortality (p=0.3), 20% lower combined mortality/hospitalization (p=0.08), 47% lower ventilation (p=0.09), and 20% lower hospitalization (p=0.09).
RCT for relatively low risk outpatients, 2235 treated with colchicine a mean of 5.3 days after the onset of symptoms, and 2253 controls, showing lower mortality, ventilation, and hospitalization with treatment. This study was submitted to NEJM which delayed for ~6 months and then said they were not interested, then to JAMA which delayed for ~6 months and then said they were not interested, and then to the Lancet which delayed for ~6 months and then said they were not interested, and finally was published in Lancet Respiratory Medicine [twitter.com].

Jan 2021, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(21)00222-8/fulltext, https://c19p.org/tardif

30 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 85% greater improvement (p=0.23).
Open label RCT late stage hospitalized patients in Brazil with 14 colchicine and 16 SOC patients, showing lower mortality and improved recovery with treatment, without statistical significance. Authors note that the colchicine group had one patient with SOFA ≥7 vs. zero for SOC, however both groups had one patient intubated and SOC had more patients not requiring high-flow oxygen (12 vs. 8). The journal version of this paper falsely states: "Ixekizumab, colchicine, and IL-2 were demonstrated to be safe but ineffective". The pre-print more accurately represents the improved but not statistically significant results: "The colchicine arm presented the lowest mortality rate (0%), while the low dose IL-2 had the highest (21.4%) by day 28 post-enrollment. The frequency of adverse events was lowest in the colchicine group (7.3%). None of the differences observed was statistically significant. Interpretation: Colchicine added to SOC performed better than Ixekizumab, low-dose..

Apr 2022, Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0037-86822023000100317&tlng=en, https://c19p.org/pimentabonifacio

66 patient colchicine late treatment PSM study: 73% lower mortality (p=0.03) and 73% higher hospital discharge (p=0.03).
PSM matched analysis from consecutive hospitalized patients, with 33 colchicine and 33 control matched patients, showing lower mortality with treatment.

Sep 2020, J. Clin. Med., 2961, https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/9/9/2961, https://c19p.org/brunetti

112 patient colchicine late treatment study: 42% lower mortality (p=0.0006), 53% lower ventilation (p<0.0001), 42% higher hospital discharge (p=0.0006), and 5% shorter hospitalization.
Prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients in the USA, 34 treated with colchicine, showing lower mortality and intubation with treatment.

Oct 2020, Canadian J. Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, https://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjidmm/2020/8865954/, https://c19p.org/sandhu

141 patient colchicine late treatment study: 76% lower mortality (p=0.005) and 44% improved recovery (p=0.05).
IPTW retrospective 141 COVID-19 patients (83% hospitalized), 71 treated with colchicine and 70 matched control patients, showing lower mortality and faster recovery with treatment.

Mar 2021, PLOS ONE, https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248276, https://c19p.org/manenti

240 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 29% lower mortality (p=0.62), 50% lower ventilation (p=0.29), 21% lower ICU admission (p=0.67), and 15% improvement (p=0.62).
RCT 240 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, mean 9 days from the onset of symptoms, showing no significant differences with colchicine treatment. EudraCT 2020-001841-38.

Jun 2022, Scientific Reports, https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-13424-6, https://c19p.org/cecconi

160 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 63% improved recovery (p=0.001).
RCT with 80 colchicine and 80 control patients, showing improved recovery with treatment. SOC included vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc.

Apr 2022, Annals of Medicine and Surgery, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2049080122003533, https://c19p.org/gorial2

73 patient colchicine prophylaxis study: 79% lower need for oxygen therapy (p=0.04).
Retrospective 73 familial Mediterranean fever patients with COVID-19 in Turkey, showing significantly higher risk of hospitalization for respiratory support with non-adherence to colchicine treatment before the infection.

Jul 2022, Modern Rheumatology, https://academic.oup.com/mr/advance-article/doi/10.1093/mr/roac074/6647632, https://c19p.org/avanogluguler

26,508 patient colchicine early treatment study: 68% lower mortality (p=0.003).
Retrospective 26,508 consecutive COVID+ veterans in the USA, showing lower mortality with multiple treatments including colchicine. Treatment was defined as drugs administered ≥50% of the time within 2 weeks post-COVID+, and may be a continuation of prophylactic treatment in some cases, and may be early or late treatment in other cases. Further reduction in mortality was seen with combinations of treatments.

Jun 2022, J. General Internal Medicine, https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11606-022-07701-3, https://c19p.org/hunto

colchicine prophylaxis PSM study: 80% lower mortality (p=0.02).
PSM retrospective 3,712 hospitalized patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with existing use of azithromycin, bemiparine, budesonide-formoterol fumarate, cefuroxime, colchicine, enoxaparin, ipratropium bromide, loratadine, mepyramine theophylline acetate, oral rehydration salts, and salbutamol sulphate, and higher mortality with acetylsalicylic acid, digoxin, folic acid, mirtazapine, linagliptin, enalapril, atorvastatin, and allopurinol.

Jan 2022, Pharmaceuticals, https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/15/1/78, https://c19p.org/monserratvillatoroo

262 patient colchicine late treatment study: 85% lower mortality (p<0.0001).
Retrospective 122 colchicine patients and 140 control patients in Italy, showing lower mortality with treatment.

Sep 2020, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, https://ard.bmj.com/content/79/10/1286, https://c19p.org/scarsi

35 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 36% lower mortality (p=0.7) and 20% shorter hospitalization.
Small RCT 49 severe condition hospitalized patients in Syria, showing lower mortality with colchicine and shorter hospitalization time with both colchicine and budesonide (all of these were not statistically significant).

Dec 2021, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ipid/2021/2129006/, https://c19p.org/alsultano

222 patient colchicine late treatment study: 42% lower mortality (p=0.03).
Retrospective 111 hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia patients treated with colchicine and 111 matched controls, showing lower mortality with colchicine treatment.

Mar 2023, Section 4: Clinical pharmacy services, https://ejhp.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/ejhpharm-2023-eahp.56, https://c19p.org/villamanan

351 patient colchicine late treatment study: 54% lower mortality (p=0.03).
Retrospective 450 late stage (median oxygen saturation 86%) COVID+ hospitalized patients in Peru, showing lower mortality with colchicine treatment.

Jun 2021, Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública, https://rpmesp.ins.gob.pe/rpmesp/article/view/7158, https://c19p.org/huedazavaleta

179 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 81% lower mortality (p=0.03), 87% lower ICU admission (p=0.002), and 35% shorter hospitalization (p<0.0001).
RCT 179 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing lower mortality, ICU admission, and hospitalization duration with colchicine plus phenolic monoterpenes compared to standard care alone. The intervention group received 0.8 mg/day colchicine and 45 mg/day phenolic monoterpenes extracted from nigella sativa and Trachyspermum ammi in addition to standard care (lopinavir/ritonavir). No serious side effects were reported. Baseline SpO2 was significantly lower in the control group, although there was no significant difference in severity according to NIH guidelines.

Mar 2024, Heliyon, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405844024034042, https://c19p.org/vaziri

68 patient colchicine late treatment study: 96% lower progression (p=0.0005).
Observational study in France with 28 hospitalized patients treated with prednisone/furosemide/colchicine/salicylate/direct anti-Xa inhibitor, and 40 control patients, showing lower combined mortality, ventilation, or high-flow oxygen therapy with treatment.

Jun 2021, J. Infection, https://www.journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-4453(21)00058-X/fulltext, https://c19p.org/kevorkian

100 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 23% shorter hospitalization (p=0.001).
Open label RCT with 100 hospitalized patients in Iran, 50 treated with colchicine, showing shorter hospitalization time with treatment. There were no deaths.

Sep 2020, Mediterranean J. Rheumatology, http://www.mjrheum.org/assets/files/792/file382_1566.pdf, https://c19p.org/salehzadeh

116 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 29% lower mortality (p=0.74), 17% lower progression (p=0.67), and 13% worse recovery (p=0.59).
Very late stage RCT with 56 colchicine and 60 control patients in Mexico, showing no significant differences.

Nov 2021, J. General Internal Medicine, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-021-07203-8, https://c19p.org/absalonaguilar

1,301 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 70% lower mortality (p=0.43), 30% higher combined mortality/hospitalization (p=0.66), and 6% worse recovery (p=0.67).
Late treatment RCT with 156 colchicine patients in the UK, showing no significant differences. ISRCTN86534580.

Sep 2021, British J. General Practice, https://bjgp.org/content/early/2022/03/23/BJGP.2022.0083.short, https://c19p.org/dorward

43 patient colchicine late treatment study: 50% improved recovery (p=0.06) and 26% shorter hospitalization (p=0.08).
Small trial with 21 colchicine patients and 22 control patients in Russia, showing improved recovery with treatment. The trial was originally an RCT, however randomization to the control arm was stopped after 5 patients, and 17 retrospective patients were added for comparison.

Feb 2021, Kardiologiia, https://lib.ossn.ru/jour/article/view/1560/0?locale=en_US, https://c19p.org/mareev2

209 patient colchicine late treatment study: 57% lower mortality (p=0.01).
Retrospective 209 hospitalized patients in Colombia, showing lower mortality with antibiotics + LMWH + corticosteroids + colchicine in multivariable analysis.

Mar 2021, J. Infection and Public Health, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876034121000575?via%3Dihub, https://c19p.org/garciaposada

38 patient colchicine early treatment RCT: 67% lower hospitalization (p=0.55) and 24% improved recovery (p=0.72).
RCT 38 low risk outpatients in Japan, showing no significant differences for colchicine and low-dose aspirin compared to loxoprofen. Hospitalization was lower, without statistical significance (4.3% vs. 13.3%, p=0.34). There were no critical cases, deaths, or severe adverse events in either group. Colchicine: 1.0mg loading dose, followed approximately half a day later by 0.5mg twice daily for 10 doses, and then 0.5 mg once daily for four doses. Aspirin: 100mg daily for 10 days. Both groups received probiotics and acetaminophen.

Mar 2024, The Kurume Medical J., https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/kurumemedj/advpub/0/advpub_MS7012003/_article, https://c19p.org/inokuchi

120 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 83% lower mortality (p=0.11) and 35% shorter hospitalization (p=0.0001).
RCT with 60 patients treated with colchicine and phenolic monoterpenes and 60 control patients in Iran, showing lower mortality with treatment. NCT04392141.

Apr 2021, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04392141, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04392141, https://c19p.org/mostafaie

314 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 22% lower mortality (p=0.38).
RCT 633 hospitalized patients in Colombia, 153 treated with colchicine + rosuvastatin, not showing statistically significant differences in outcomes. Improved results were seen with the combination of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil + rosuvastatin + colchicine. NCT04359095.

Jul 2021, eClinicalMedicine, https://www.thelancet.com/journals/eclinm/article/PIIS2589-5370(21)00523-X/fulltext, https://c19p.org/gaitanduarte

65 patient colchicine ICU study: 23% lower mortality (p=0.6) and 40% shorter ICU admission (p=0.03).
Retrospective 65 ICU patients in the USA and Honduras, showing shorter ICU stay with combined treatment including colchicine, LMWH, tocilizumab, dexamethasone, and methylprednisolone.

Jan 2021, PLOS ONE, https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245025, https://c19p.org/valeriopascua

80 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 24% shorter hospitalization (p=0.009).
Open label RCT of colchicine showing improved recovery with treatment. Only the abstract is currently available. Colchicine 0.5mg bid for 14 days.

May 2022, Indian J. Rheumatology, http://www.indianjrheumatol.com/preprintarticle.asp?id=344591;type=0, https://c19p.org/jalal

52 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 33% lower mortality (p=0.54).
Open-label RCT with 52 severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients showing no significant differences in mortality with colchicine. All patients received infliximab and remdesivir.

Feb 2024, Coronaviruses, https://www.eurekaselect.com/223567/article, https://c19p.org/yadollahzadeh

1,279 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 12% lower mortality (p=0.3) and 17% lower combined mortality/intubation (p=0.08).
Very late stage RCT (O2 88%, 84% on oxygen) with 1,279 hospitalized patients in Argentina, showing lower mortality and lower combined mortality/ventilation, statistically significant only for the combined outcome and per-protocol analysis. NCT04328480. COLCOVID.

Dec 2021, JAMA Network Open, https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2787585, https://c19p.org/diaz2

341,398 patient colchicine prophylaxis study: 23% lower mortality (p=0.12).
UK Biobank retrospective showing a higher risk of COVID-19 cases and mortality for patients with gout. Among patients with gout, mortality risk was lower for those on colchicine, OR 1.06 [0.60-1.89], compared to those without colchicine, OR 1.38 [1.08-1.76].

Jan 2022, The Lancet Rheumatology, https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanrhe/article/PIIS2665-9913(21)00401-X/fulltext, https://c19p.org/topless

301 patient colchicine late treatment study: 35% lower mortality (p=0.18).
Retrospective 301 pneumonia patients in Colombia showing lower mortality with colchicine treatment.

Oct 2020, Research Square, https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-94922/v1, https://c19p.org/pinzon

110 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 7% lower mortality (p=1), 7% lower ventilation (p=1), 24% higher ICU admission (p=0.63), and 28% improved recovery (p=0.59).
Very late treatment (10 days from onset) RCT 110 patients in Iran, showing no significant difference in outcomes with colchicine. Colchicine 2mg loading dose followed by 0.5mg bid for 7 days.

Jan 2023, J. Investigative Medicine, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/10815589221141815, https://c19p.org/kasiri

336 patient colchicine late treatment study: 13% lower mortality (p=0.72), 16% lower ICU admission (p=0.5), and 25% shorter hospitalization (p=0.0001).
Retrospective 356 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, shorter hospitalization time with colchicine treatment. There were no statistically significant differences for mortality or ICU admission. Significantly lower mortality was seen with higher dosage (1mg/day vs 0.5mg/day). More control patients were on oxygen at baseline (65% vs. 54%).

Jan 2022, The J. Infection in Developing Countries, https://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/14924, https://c19p.org/karakas

1,047 patient colchicine prophylaxis study: 4% fewer cases (p=0.72).
Prospective analysis of 1,047 Behçet’s syndrome patients in Turkey, showing no significant difference in cases with colchicine use.

Nov 2021, Rheumatology Int., https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00296-021-05056-2, https://c19p.org/ozcifci

313 patient colchicine late treatment study: 6% lower mortality (p=0.87).
Retrospective 313 patients, mostly critical stage and mostly requiring respiratory support. Confounding by indication likely.

Nov 2020, Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2542454820302071, https://c19p.org/rodrigueznavao

917,198 patient colchicine late treatment study: 13% higher mortality (p<0.0001).
Retrospective study of 917,198 hospitalized COVID-19 cases covered by the Iran Health Insurance Organization over 26 months showing that antithrombotics, corticosteroids, and antivirals reduced mortality while diuretics, antibiotics, and antidiabetics increased it. Confounding makes some results very unreliable. For example, diuretics like furosemide are often used to treat fluid overload, which is more likely in ICU or advanced disease requiring aggressive fluid resuscitation. Hospitalization length has increased risk of significant confounding, for example longer hospitalization increases the chance of receiving a medication, and death may result in shorter hospitalization. Mortality results may be more reliable. Confounding by indication is likely to be significant for many medications. Authors adjustments have very limited severity information (admission type refers to ward vs. ER department on initial arrival). We can estimate the impact of confounding from typical usage..

Dec 2023, Frontiers in Public Health, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2023.1280434/full, https://c19p.org/mehrizio

134 patient colchicine late treatment study: 7% higher mortality (p=0.83).
Retrospective 134 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in India, showing no significant difference with colchicine treatment in unadjusted results.

Dec 2020, Indian J. Critical Care Medicine, https://www.ijccm.org/doi/pdf/10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23599, https://c19p.org/mahale

100 patient colchicine early treatment RCT: 40% higher hospitalization (p=0.76) and 4% improved recovery (p=1).
RCT 150 patients in Egypt showing no significant difference in outcomes with colchicine. SOC included vitamin C, D, and zinc. Colchicine 0.5mg tid days 1-3, bid days 4-7.

Jun 2023, Research Square, https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-3049708/v1, https://c19p.org/hassano

1,213 patient colchicine prophylaxis study: 28% higher mortality (p=0.54) and 8% lower hospitalization (p=0.83).
Retrospective 1,213 rheumatic disease patients in France, showing no significant difference with colchicine use in univariate analysis.

Mar 2023, Frontiers in Medicine, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2023.1152587/full, https://c19p.org/chevaliero

200 patient colchicine ICU study: 33% higher mortality (p=0.33).
Retrospective 200 patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 on invasive mechanical ventilation, showing no significant difference in mortality with colchicine treatment. The Cox proportional hazards result is from [journals.plos.org].

Dec 2022, PeerJ, https://peerj.com/articles/14290, https://c19p.org/huedazavaleta2

59 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 4% higher hospitalization (p=0.98), 5% higher need for oxygen therapy (p=0.97), 40% improvement (p=0.97), and 11% improved viral clearance (p=0.77).
Early terminated RCT with 14 colchicine, 13 edoxaban, 16 colchicine+edoxaban, and 16 control patients, showing no significant difference in outcomes with treatment up to 7 days after PCR diagnosis.

May 2024, J. Cardiovascular Medicine, https://journals.lww.com/10.2459/JCM.0000000000001639, https://c19p.org/landi

86,692 patient colchicine prophylaxis study: 8% higher hospitalization (p=0.68) and 12% more cases (p=0.68).
Retrospective 86,652 patients in Spain, showing no significant difference in cases and hospitalization with colchicine use. The different risk for patients prescribed colchicine may not be fully adjusted for. See [onlinelibrary.wiley.com].

Jan 2023, J. Medical Virology, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmv.28496, https://c19p.org/saenzaldea

2,611 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 8% higher mortality (p=0.38) and 4% higher progression (p=0.58).
RCT very late stage (baseline SpO2 80%) patients, showing no significant differences with colchicine treatment.

Oct 2022, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213260022002983, https://c19p.org/eikelboom

1,278 patient colchicine prophylaxis study: 406% higher hospitalization (p=0.12), 73% more symptomatic cases (p=0.07), and 24% more cases (p=0.35).
Retrospective 635 HCQ users and 643 household contacts, showing higher risk with colchicine in unadjusted results. Patients with conditions leading to the use of colchicine may have significantly different baseline risk, e.g. [Topless].

Mar 2022, J. Medical Virology, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmv.27731, https://c19p.org/oztaso

colchicine prophylaxis study: 37% higher mortality (p=0.57) and 137% higher hospitalization (p=0.2).
Retrospective 9,379 patients attending a rheumatology outpatient clinic in Spain, showing higher mortality and hospitalization with colchicine use, without statistical significance.

Jan 2021, Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1759720X211002684, https://c19p.org/madridgarcia

11,340 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 1% higher mortality (p=0.77), 18% higher ventilation (p=0.06), 2% higher combined mortality/intubation (p=0.47), and 2% lower hospital discharge (p=0.44).
RCT with 5,610 colchicine and 5,730 control patients showing mortality RR 1.01 [0.93-1.10]. Very late stage treatment, median 9 days after symptom onset, baseline 32% ventilation (5% invasive). ISRCTN 50189673. Dose frequency was halved for patients receiving a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 30 mL/min per 1·73m², and those with an estimated bodyweight of less than 70kg.

May 2021, Recovery Collaborative Group, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213260021004355, https://c19p.org/recoveryc

152 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 36% higher mortality (p=0.77), 7% higher progression (p=1), 76% lower ICU admission (p=0.21), and 4% shorter hospitalization (p=0.69).
RCT 152 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing no significant difference in outcomes with colchicine treatment. Table 2 shows 13% of patients treated with antivirals in the colchicine arm, however 16.9% were treated with one specific antiviral (HCQ).

Oct 2022, European J. Internal Medicine, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0953620522003739, https://c19p.org/perricone

244 patient colchicine prophylaxis study: 150% higher need for oxygen therapy (p=1), 150% higher hospitalization (p=1), 7% improved recovery (p=1), and 1% fewer cases (p=1).
Retrospective 244 Behçet disease patients in Spain, showing no significant difference in outcomes with colchicine treatment. Confounding by indication may significantly affect results - colchicine may be prescribed more often for more serious cases, which may have a higher baseline risk for COVID-19.

Sep 2022, Medicina Clínica, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S238702062200417X, https://c19p.org/correarodriguez

250 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 75% higher mortality (p=0.54), 200% higher ventilation (p=0.28), and 46% higher severe cases (p=0.34).
RCT 250 late stage (80% on oxygen) hospitalized patients in the USA, showing no significant differences with combined colchicine/rosuvastatin treatment. There was a trend towards increased risk, which authors note may be due to chance because the patients enrolled in the treatment arm were in more serious condition, for example, patients in the treatment arm were more frequently on oxygen, more frequently on HFNC/NIV, and had higher mean SOFA scores. Colchicine 0.6mg two times daily for 3 days followed by 0.6mg daily, and high-intensity rosuvastatin 40mg daily.

Feb 2023, BMJ Open, https://bmjopen.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjopen-2022-067910, https://c19p.org/shah6

3,881 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 9% higher mortality (p=0.84), 2% higher combined mortality/hospitalization (p=0.93), and 2% higher hospitalization (p=0.92).
Late (5.4 days) outpatient RCT showing no significant difference in outcomes with colchicine treatment. Authors include a meta analysis of 6 colchicine RCTs, however there were 19 RCTs as of the publication date [c19colchicine.com].

Oct 2022, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213260022002995, https://c19p.org/eikelboom2

105 patient colchicine late treatment RCT: 7% improved recovery (p=0.21).
RCT 122 hospitalized patients in India, showing improved recovery with colchicine treatment. All patients received aspirin. There was one death and higher progression in the colchicine arm, however 3 patients in the colchicine arm had baseline ordinal scores ≥5, while no patients in the control arm did.

Jan 2023, Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2451865423000169, https://c19p.org/sunilnaik
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