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Zinc against COVID-19? Symptom surveillance and deficiency risk groups
Joachimiak et al., PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008895 (Review)
Joachimiak et al., Zinc against COVID-19? Symptom surveillance and deficiency risk groups, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008895 (Review)
Jan 2021   Source   PDF  
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Literature review concluding that zinc should be included as part of preventative supplementation for COVID-19, in general for support of immune health, and should also be considered in the context of zinc deficiency acquired during a viral infection and host immune response.
Joachimiak et al., 4 Jan 2021, peer-reviewed, 1 author.
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Abstract: PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES REVIEW Zinc against COVID-19? Symptom surveillance and deficiency risk groups Marcin P. Joachimiak ID* Environmental Genomics and Systems Biology Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States of America * Abstract a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Joachimiak MP (2021) Zinc against COVID-19? Symptom surveillance and deficiency risk groups. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 15(1): e0008895. Editor: Susanna Kar Pui Lau, The University of Hong Kong, HONG KONG Published: January 4, 2021 Copyright: © 2021 Marcin P. Joachimiak. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: This work was supported by Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (to M.P.J). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. A wide variety of symptoms is associated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and these symptoms can overlap with other conditions and diseases. Knowing the distribution of symptoms across diseases and individuals can support clinical actions on timelines shorter than those for drug and vaccine development. Here, we focus on zinc deficiency symptoms, symptom overlap with other conditions, as well as zinc effects on immune health and mechanistic zinc deficiency risk groups. There are wellstudied beneficial effects of zinc on the immune system including a decreased susceptibility to and improved clinical outcomes for infectious pathogens including multiple viruses. Zinc is also an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress agent, relevant to some severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms. Unfortunately, zinc deficiency is common worldwide and not exclusive to the developing world. Lifestyle choices and preexisting conditions alone can result in zinc deficiency, and we compile zinc risk groups based on a review of the literature. It is also important to distinguish chronic zinc deficiency from deficiency acquired upon viral infection and immune response and their different supplementation strategies. Zinc is being considered as prophylactic or adjunct therapy for COVID-19, with 12 clinical trials underway, highlighting the relevance of this trace element for global pandemics. Using the example of zinc, we show that there is a critical need for a deeper understanding of essential trace elements in human health, and the resulting deficiency symptoms and their overlap with other conditions. This knowledge will directly support human immune health for decreasing susceptibility, shortening illness duration, and preventing progression to severe cases in the current and future pandemics.
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