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Zinc and COVID-19: Immunity, Susceptibility, Severity and Intervention

Wang et al., Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, doi:10.1080/10408398.2022.2119932
Sep 2022  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now with p = 0.00000064 from 45 studies, recognized in 17 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 81 treatments. c19early.org
Review summarizing the association between zinc deficiency and increased susceptibility, severity, and mortality from COVID-19, and the potential protective role of zinc supplementation in enhancing immunity, decreasing susceptibility, reducing illness duration, and lowering severity of COVID-19. Authors recommend monitoring zinc levels in COVID-19 patients and considering zinc supplementation for groups at risk of zinc deficiency to reduce susceptibility and disease severity.
Reviews covering zinc for COVID-19 include1-13.
Wang et al., 12 Sep 2022, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperZincAll
Zinc and COVID-19: Immunity, Susceptibility, Severity and Intervention
Fan Wang, Jiayi Zhong, Rui Zhang, Yongzhi Sun, Yingran Dong, Maoqing Wang, Changhao Sun
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, doi:10.1080/10408398.2022.2119932
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COviD-19) pandemic and continuing emergence of viral mutants, there has been a lack of effective treatment methods. Zinc maintains immune function, with direct and indirect antiviral activities. Zinc nutritional status is a critical factor in antiviral immune responses. importantly, COviD-19 and zinc deficiency overlap in high-risk population. Hence, the potential effect of zinc as a preventive and adjunct therapy for COviD-19 is intriguing. Here, this review summarizes the immune and antiviral function of zinc, the relationship between zinc levels, susceptibility, and severity of COviD-19, and the effect of zinc supplementation on COviD-19. existing studies have confirmed that zinc deficiency was associated with COviD-19 susceptibility and severity. Zinc supplementation plays a potentially protective role in enhancing immunity, decreasing susceptibility, shortening illness duration, and reducing the severity of COviD-19. we recommend that zinc levels should be monitored, particularly in COviD-19 patients, and zinc as a preventive and adjunct therapy for COviD-19 should be considered for groups at risk of zinc deficiency to reduce susceptibility and disease severity. COVID-19 The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has been caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (Huang et al. 2020) . Due to high transmissibility and morbidity, COVID-19 has become a serious public health threat and burden. More than 400 million people have been infected, with more than 5.78 million deaths worldwide by 11 February 2022. Most COVID-19 patients (81%) experience only mild symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat, impaired smell and taste, general weakness, pain such as aching limbs, runny nose, and in some cases diarrhea (Wu and McGoogan 2020; Hu et al. 2021) . Strikingly, SARS-CoV-2-infected patients demonstrate a high incidence of olfactory dysfunction (Lechien, Chiesa-Estomba, et al. 2020; Lozada-Nur et al. 2020) , which is distinct from other seasonal illnesses that share many of the same symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 infections challenge the immune system with ongoing inflammation. Classic serum proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor TNF-α, interleukin IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, and C-reactive protein (CRP) become elevated among COVID-19 patients, which can lead to cytokine storm syndrome (Huang et al. 2020; Ye, Wang, and Mao 2020; Hu et al. 2021) . This in turn may lead to death from subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, or other complications. However, treatment of the cytokine storm is complex and good therapeutic options remain limited (Saha et al. 2020; Ye, Wang, and Mao 2020) . The best option for reducing COVID-19 severity and mortality is to prevent the cytokine storm. To date, there remains no definitive curative therapy for COVID-19. Vaccines and reducing transmission in the community through..
Disclosure statement The authors declare no conflict of interest. Author contributions FW, MQW, and CHS: designed research and revised the paper; FW and MQW: wrote the paper; JYZ, RZ, YZS, YRD: research, collected, analyzed data,validation, drew figures and made tables; JYZ, RZ, YZS, YRD: revised the paper for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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