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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 77% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 71% Recovery time 68% Zinc for COVID-19  Vogel-González et al.  Sufficiency Are zinc levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 249 patients in Spain Lower mortality (p=0.00048) and ICU admission (p<0.0001) Vogel-González et al., Nutrients, October 2020 Favors zinc Favors control

Low Zinc Levels at Admission Associates with Poor Clinical Outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Vogel-González et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13020562 (date from preprint)
Oct 2020  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p = 0.0000027 from 43 studies, recognized in 10 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 249 PCR+ hospitalized patients in Spain, 58 with zinc levels on admission <50 μg/dL, showing higher mortality and ICU admission, and slower recovery with low zinc levels.
risk of death, 77.2% lower, RR 0.23, p < 0.001, high zinc levels 9 of 191 (4.7%), low zinc levels 12 of 58 (20.7%), NNT 6.3, ≥50 μg/dL.
risk of ICU admission, 71.3% lower, RR 0.29, p < 0.001, high zinc levels 34 of 191 (17.8%), low zinc levels 36 of 58 (62.1%), NNT 2.3, ≥50 μg/dL.
recovery time, 68.0% lower, relative time 0.32, p < 0.001, high zinc levels 191, low zinc levels 58, ≥50 μg/dL.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Vogel-González et al., 11 Oct 2020, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 16 authors.
This PaperZincAll
Low Zinc Levels at Admission Associates with Poor Clinical Outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Marina Vogel-González, Marc Talló-Parra, Víctor Herrera-Fernández, Gemma Pérez-Vilaró, Miguel Chillón, Xavier Nogués, Silvia Gómez-Zorrilla, Inmaculada López-Montesinos, Isabel Arnau-Barrés, Maria Luisa Sorli-Redó, Juan Pablo Horcajada, Natalia García-Giralt, Julio Pascual, Juana Díez, Rubén Vicente, Robert Güerri-Fernández
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13020562
Background: Zinc is an essential micronutrient that impacts host-pathogen interplay at infection. Zinc balances immune responses, and also has a proven direct antiviral action against some viruses. Importantly, zinc deficiency (ZD) is a common condition in elderly and individuals with chronic diseases, two groups with an increased risk for severe severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. We hypothesize that serum zinc content (SZC) influences COVID-19 disease progression, and thus might represent a useful biomarker. Methods: We ran an observational cohort study with 249 COVID-19 patients admitted in Hospital del Mar. We have studied COVID-19 severity and progression attending to SZC at admission. In parallel, we have studied severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) replication in the Vero E6 cell line modifying zinc concentrations. Findings: Our study demonstrates a correlation between serum zinc levels and COVID-19 outcome. Serum zinc levels lower than 50 µg/dL at admission correlated with worse clinical presentation, longer time to reach stability, and higher mortality. Our in vitro results indicate that low zinc levels favor viral expansion in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. Interpretation: Low SZC is a risk factor that determines COVID-19 outcome. We encourage performing randomized clinical trials to study zinc supplementation as potential prophylaxis and treatment with people at risk of zinc deficiency.
Institutional Review Board Statement: The study was conducted according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki, and was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB; the Institutional Ethics Committee of the Hospital del Mar of Barcelona (CEIm-2020/9352)). Due to the nature of the retrospective data review, the IRB waived the need for informed consent from individual patients. Informed Consent Statement: Due to the nature of the retrospective data review, the IRB waived the need for informed consent from individual patients. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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