Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All zinc studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchZincZinc (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Prediction of Survival Odds in COVID-19 by Zinc, Age and Selenoprotein P as Composite Biomarker

Heller et al., Redox Biology, doi:10.1016/j.redox.2020.101764
Oct 2020  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p = 0.0000027 from 43 studies, recognized in 10 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Analysis of 35 COVID-19 patients showing a significant correlation for serum zinc levels between COVID-19 patients and controls, and between COVID-19 survivors and non-survivors.
Heller et al., 20 Oct 2020, peer-reviewed, 14 authors.
This PaperZincAll
Prediction of survival odds in COVID-19 by zinc, age and selenoprotein P as composite biomarker
Raban Arved Heller, Qian Sun, Julian Hackler, Julian Seelig, Linda Seibert, Asan Cherkezov, Waldemar B Minich, Petra Seemann, Joachim Diegmann, Maximilian Pilz, Manuel Bachmann, Alireza Ranjbar, Arash Moghaddam, Lutz Schomburg
Redox Biology, doi:10.1016/j.redox.2020.101764
SARS-CoV-2 infections cause the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and challenge the immune system with ongoing inflammation. Several redox-relevant micronutrients are known to contribute to an adequate immune response, including the essential trace elements zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that COVID-19 patients are characterised by Zn deficiency and that Zn status provides prognostic information. Serum Zn was determined in serum samples (n = 171) collected consecutively from patients surviving COVID-19 (n = 29) or non-survivors (n = 6). Data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were used for comparison. Zn concentrations in patient samples were low as compared to healthy subjects (mean ± SD; 717.4 ± 246.2 vs 975.7 ± 294.0 μg/L, P < 0.0001). The majority of serum samples collected at different time points from the non-survivors (25/34, i.e., 73.5%) and almost half of the samples collected from the survivors (56/137, i.e., 40.9%) were below the threshold for Zn deficiency, i.e., below 638.7 μg/L (the 2.5th percentile in the EPIC cohort). In view that the Se status biomarker and Se transporter selenoprotein P (SELENOP) is also particularly low in COVID-19, we tested the prevalence of a combined deficit, i.e., serum Zn below 638.7 μg/L and serum SELENOP below 2.56 mg/L. This combined deficit was observed in 0.15% of samples in the EPIC cohort of healthy subjects, in 19.7% of the samples collected from the surviving COVID-19 patients and in 50.0% of samples from the non-survivors. Accordingly, the composite biomarker (SELENOP and Zn with age) proved as a reliable indicator of survival in COVID-19 by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, yielding an area under the curve (AUC) of 94.42%. We conclude that Zn and SELENOP status within the reference ranges indicate high survival odds in COVID-19, and assume that correcting a diagnostically proven deficit in Se and/or Zn by a personalised supplementation may support convalescence.
We acknowledge funding received towards the doctoral thesis of RAH from the Oskar-Helene-Heim Foundation, Berlin, Germany. Declaration of competing interest LS holds shares and PS serves as CEO of selenOmed GmbH, a company involved in Se status assessment and supplementation. The other authors declare no competing interest.
Akaike, Likelihood of a model and information criteria, J. Econom
Alker, Haase, Zinc and sepsis, Nutrients
Andreou, COVID-19: the potential role of copper and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in a combination of candidate antiviral treatments against SARS-CoV-2, Vivo
Barman, Reference value for serum zinc level of adult population in Bangladesh, EJIFCC
Becker, Hypoxia reduces and redirects selenoprotein biosynthesis, Metallomics
Beigmohammadi, Impact of vitamins A, B, C, D, and E supplementation on improvement and mortality rate in ICU patients with coronavirus-19: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial, Trials
Bermano, Selenium and viral infection: are there lessons for COVID-19?, Br. J. Nutr
Besecker, A comparison of zinc metabolism, inflammation, and disease severity in critically ill infected and noninfected adults early after intensive care unit admission, Am. J. Clin. Nutr
Bettinger, Selenium levels in patients with hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma: a pilot study, Hepatology
Boschloo, Raised conditional level of significance for the 2 × 2-table when testing the equality of two probabilities, Stat. Neerl
Buljevac, Serum selenium concentration in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, Acta Med. Croat
Burk, Hill, Regulation of selenium metabolism and transport, Annu. Rev. Nutr
Burk, Plasma selenium in patients with cirrhosis, Hepatology
Calder, Optimal nutritional status for a well-functioning immune system is an important factor to protect against viral infections, Nutrients
Chakhtoura, Napoli, Hajj Fuleihan, Commentary: myths and facts on vitamin D amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, Metabolism
Cvijanovich, Zinc homeostasis in pediatric critical illness, Pediatr. Crit. Care Med
Dalamaga, Karampela, Mantzoros, Commentary: could iron chelators prove to be useful as an adjunct to COVID-19 Treatment Regimens?, Metab., Clin. Exp
Delong, Delong, Clarke-Pearson, Comparing the areas under two or more correlated receiver operating characteristic curves: a nonparametric approach, Biometrics
Derwand, Scholz, Does zinc supplementation enhance the clinical efficacy of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine to win today's battle against COVID-19?, Med. Hypotheses
Dhillon, Breuer, Hirst, COVID-19 breakthroughs: separating fact from fiction, FEBS J
Eby, Zinc lozenges as cure for the common cold -a review and hypothesis, Med. Hypotheses
Enzmann, Treatment and preliminary outcomes of 150 acute care patients with COVID-19 in a rural health system in the Dakotas, Epidemiol. Infect
Fakhrolmobasheri, Selenium supplementation can relieve the clinical complications of COVID-19 and other similar viral infections, Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res
Finzi, Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 with high dose oral zinc salts: a report on four patients, Int. J. Infect. Dis
Fisher, XV.-the correlation between relatives on the supposition of Mendelian inheritance, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh
Florea, Changes in zinc status and zinc transporters expression in whole blood of patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol
Forceville, Selenium, systemic immune response syndrome, sepsis, and outcome in critically ill patients, Crit. Care Med
Gao, The role of zinc and zinc homeostasis in macrophage function, J Immunol Res
Gasmi, Micronutrients as immunomodulatory tools for COVID-19 management, Clin. Immunol
Gombart, Pierre, Maggini, A review of micronutrients and the immune system-working in harmony to reduce the risk of infection, Nutrients
Grandjean, Reference intervals for trace elements in blood: significance of risk factors, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest
Grant, Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients
Guillin, Selenium, selenoproteins and viral infection, Nutrients
Haase, Flow cytometric measurement of labile zinc in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Anal. Biochem
Haase, Schomburg, You'd better zinc-trace element homeostasis in infection and inflammation, Nutrients
Haase, Zinc signals are essential for lipopolysaccharide-induced signal transduction in monocytes, J. Immunol
Hasan, Rink, Haase, Zinc signals in neutrophil granulocytes are required for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, Innate Immun
Heller, Zinc concentration dynamics indicate neurological impairment odds after traumatic spinal cord injury, Antioxidants
Henrina, Lim, Pranata, COVID-19 and misinformation: how an infodemic fueled the prominence of vitamin D, Br. J. Nutr
Hiffler, Rakotoambinina, Selenium and RNA virus interactions: potential implications for SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19), Front Nutr
Hughes, Selenium status is associated with colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation of cancer and nutrition cohort, Int. J. Canc
Hunter, Rapid review protocol: zinc for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 and other coronavirus-related respiratory tract infections, Integr Med Res
Ischia, Bolton, Patel, Why is it worth testing the ability of zinc to protect against ischaemia reperfusion injury for human application, Metallomics
Kang, Rhie, Practice considerations on the use of investigational anti-COVID-19 medications: dosage, administration and monitoring, J. Clin. Pharm. Therapeut
Kieliszek, Lipinski, Selenium supplementation in the prevention of coronavirus infections (COVID-19), Med. Hypotheses
Kijima, The acute phase serum zinc concentration is a reliable biomarker for predicting the functional outcome after spinal cord injury, EBioMedicine
Kow, Hadi, Hasan, Vitamin D supplementation in influenza and COVID-19 infections comment on: "evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients
Kuhn, Package 'caret, Rice J
Kumar, Potential role of zinc supplementation in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19, Med. Hypotheses
Laird, Rhodes, Kenny, Vitamin D and inflammation: potential implications for severity of covid-19, Ir. Med. J
Lu, SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, N. Engl. J. Med
Martineau, Forouhi, Vitamin D for COVID-19: a case to answer?, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
Martineau, Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ
Mayor-Ibarguren, Busca-Arenzana, Robles-Marhuenda, A hypothesis for the possible role of zinc in the immunological pathways related to COVID-19 infection, Front. Immunol
Mcmaster, Serum copper and zinc in random samples of the population of Northern Ireland, Am. J. Clin. Nutr
Mitchell, Vitamin-D and COVID-19: do deficient risk a poorer outcome?, Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Moghaddam, Selenium deficiency is associated with mortality risk from COVID-19, Nutrients
Prasad, Duration of symptoms and plasma cytokine levels in patients with the common cold treated with zinc acetate. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Ann. Intern. Med
Razzaque, COVID-19 pandemic: can maintaining optimal zinc balance enhance host resistance?, Tohoku J. Exp. Med
Read, The role of zinc in antiviral immunity, Adv Nutr
Reider, Inadequacy of immune health nutrients: intakes in US adults, the 2005-2016 NHANES, Nutrients
Renko, Down-regulation of the hepatic selenoprotein biosynthesis machinery impairs selenium metabolism during the acute phase response in mice, Faseb. J
Robin, pROC: an open-source package for R and S+ to analyse and compare ROC curves, BMC Bioinf
Roy, Can concomitant use of zinc and curcumin with other immunityboosting nutraceuticals be the arsenal against COVID-19?, Phytother Res
Sazawal, Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of acute lower respiratory infections in infants and preschool children: a double-blind, controlled trial, Pediatrics
Schomburg, The other view: the trace element selenium as a micronutrient in thyroid disease, diabetes, and beyond, Hormones (Basel)
Schulte-Schrepping, Severe COVID-19 is marked by a dysregulated myeloid cell compartment, Cell
Shankar, Prasad, Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection, Am. J. Clin. Nutr
Sheikh, Zinc influences innate immune responses in children with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-induced diarrhea, J. Nutr
Sies, Jones, Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as pleiotropic physiological signalling agents, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol
Singh, Jain, Singh, Vitamin D deficiency in patients with diabetes and COVID-19 infection, Diabetes Metab Syndr
Sobocinski, Canterbury, Hepatic metallothionein induction in inflammation, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci
Spearman, The proof and measurement of association between two things, Am. J. Psychol
Stepien, Pre-diagnostic copper and zinc biomarkers and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, Carcinogenesis
Stoedter, Selenium controls the sex-specific immune response and selenoprotein expression during the acute-phase response in mice, Biochem. J
Team, R: a language and environment for statistical computing, R. Found. Stat. Comput
Walson, Berkley, The impact of malnutrition on childhood infections, Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis
Weir, Does vitamin D deficiency increase the severity of COVID-19?, Clin. Med
Wessels, Rolles, Rink, The potential impact of zinc supplementation on COVID-19 pathogenesis, Front. Immunol
Wickham, Dplyr: A Grammar of Data Manipulation, R Package Version
Wickham, Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis
Wickham, Wickham, Package 'tidyr'. Easily Tidy Data With'spread'and'gather ( )'Functions
Wong, Genome-level expression profiles in pediatric septic shock indicate a role for altered zinc homeostasis in poor outcome, Physiol. Genom
Wu, Mcgoogan, Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese center for disease control and prevention, Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Wu, Nutritional modulation of immune function: analysis of evidence, mechanisms, and clinical relevance, Front. Immunol
Yao, The Minimal Effect of Zinc on the Survival of Hospitalised Patients with COVID-19: an Observational Study
Youden, Index for rating diagnostic tests, Cancer
Zhang, Association between regional selenium status and reported outcome of COVID-19 cases in China, Am. J. Clin. Nutr
Zhang, Selenium and selenoproteins in viral infection with potential relevance to COVID-19, Redox Biol
Zhang, Variable selection with stepwise and best subset approaches, Ann. Transl. Med
Zhou, Prevention of keshan disease by selenium supplementation: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Biol. Trace Elem. Res
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop