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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 90% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 92% Zinc for COVID-19  Jothimani et al.  Sufficiency Are zinc levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Prospective study of 47 patients in India Lower ICU admission with higher zinc levels (p=0.015) Jothimani et al., Int. J. Infectious D.., Sep 2020 Favors zinc Favors control

COVID-19: Poor outcomes in patients with zinc deficiency

Jothimani et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.014
Sep 2020  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p = 0.0000013 from 44 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Prospective study of zinc levels in 47 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 45 healthy controls. COVID-19 patients had significantly lower zinc levels (74.5 vs. 105.8 median μg/dl, p < 0.001). 57.4% of COVID-19 patients were zinc deficient, and they had higher rates of complications, ARDS, prolonged hospital stay, and increased mortality.
risk of death, 89.7% lower, RR 0.10, p = 0.06, high zinc levels 0 of 20 (0.0%), low zinc levels 5 of 27 (18.5%), NNT 5.4, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of ICU admission, 92.4% lower, RR 0.08, p = 0.02, high zinc levels 0 of 20 (0.0%), low zinc levels 7 of 27 (25.9%), NNT 3.9, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Jothimani et al., 10 Sep 2020, prospective, India, peer-reviewed, 11 authors.
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COVID-19: Poor outcomes in patients with zinc deficiency
Dinesh Jothimani, Ezhilarasan Kailasam, Silas Danielraj, Balaji Nallathambi, Hemalatha Ramachandran, Padmini Sekar, Shruthi Manoharan, Vidyalakshmi Ramani, Gomathy Narasimhan, Ilankumaran Kaliamoorthy, Mohamed Rela
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.014
Background: Zinc is a trace element with potent immunoregulatory and antiviral properties, and is utilized in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 . However, we do not know the clinical significance of serum Zinc levels in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of serum zinc in COVID-19 patients and to establish a correlation with disease severity. Methods: This was a prospective study of fasting zinc levels in COVID-19 patients at the time of hospitalization. An initial comparative analysis was conducted between COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. COVID-19 patients with zinc deficiency were compared to those with normal zinc levels. Results: COVID-19 patients (n = 47) showed significantly lower zinc levels when compared to healthy controls (n = 45): median 74.5 (interquartile range 53.4-94.6) mg/dl vs 105.8 (interquartile range 95.65-120.90) mg/dl (p < 0.001). Amongst the COVID-19 patients, 27 (57.4%) were found to be zinc deficient. These patients were found to have higher rates of complications (p = 0.009), acute respiratory distress syndrome (18.5% vs 0%, p = 0.06), corticosteroid therapy (p = 0.02), prolonged hospital stay (p = 0.05), and increased mortality (18.5% vs 0%, p = 0.06). The odds ratio (OR) of developing complications was 5.54 for zinc deficient COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: The study data clearly show that a significant number of COVID-19 patients were zinc deficient. These zinc deficient patients developed more complications, and the deficiency was associated with a prolonged hospital stay and increased mortality.
Conflict of interest
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