Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All zinc studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchZincZinc (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Olfactory Disturbances as Presenting Manifestation Among Egyptian Patients with COVID-19: Possible Role of Zinc

Abdelmaksoud et al., Biological Trace Element Research, doi:10.1007/s12011-020-02546-5
Jan 2021  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now with p = 0.00000064 from 45 studies, recognized in 17 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19early.org
134 COVID-19 patients, 49 treated with zinc, showing faster recovery of olfactory function in patients treated with zinc (median 7 vs. 18 days). There was no difference in overall recovery time. There were 4 deaths but authors do not indicate zinc treatment status. There was no significant difference in zinc levels based on severity. SVU-MED-MBC004-2020-04.
Abdelmaksoud et al., 7 Jan 2021, peer-reviewed, 9 authors, study period 1 May, 2020 - 31 August, 2020.
This PaperZincAll
Olfactory Disturbances as Presenting Manifestation Among Egyptian Patients with COVID-19: Possible Role of Zinc
Aida A Abdelmaksoud, Ali A Ghweil, Mohammed H Hassan, Alaa Rashad, Ashraf Khodeary, Zaky F Aref, Mennatallah Ali Abdelrhman Sayed, Mahmoud K Elsamman, Shamardan E S Bazeed
Biological Trace Element Research, doi:10.1007/s12011-020-02546-5
COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Deficiency of zinc has been supposed to contribute to loss of smell and taste in COVID-19 patients. Our study aimed to assess the serum zinc levels among patients with COVID-19 of various severities, with and without olfaction dysfunction, and to evaluate the effect of zinc therapy in recovery of smell dysfunction among such patients. This study included 134 patients; real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) proved SARS-CoV-2. Serum zinc levels were measured for all infected patients. One hundred and five patients were detected to have anosmia and/or hyposmia and were categorized randomly into 2 groups; the first group included 49 patients who received zinc therapy and the second group included 56 patients who did not received zinc. All patients were followed up for the recovery duration of olfactory and gustatory symptoms and duration of complete recovery of COVID-19. Olfactory dysfunction was reported in 105 patients (78.4%). Serum zinc levels were not significantly different between the patient subgroups regarding disease severity or the presence or absence of olfactory and/or gustatory dysfunction (p ˃ 0.05). The median duration of recovery of gustatory and/or olfactory function was significantly shorter among patients who received zinc therapy than those who did not received zinc (p < 0.001), while the median duration of complete recovery from COVID-19 was not significantly different among the two groups (p ˃ 0.05). Although the zinc status of COVID-19 patients did not exhibit a significant role in development of anosmia and/or hyposmia or disease severity, zinc therapy may have a significant role in shortening the duration of smell recovery in those patients without affecting the total recovery duration from COVID-19.
Authors' Contributions Study concept and design: AAA, MHH, AAG, ZFA, and SESB; patient selection and clinical evaluation and follow-up of patients: AAA, ZFA, AR, and MKE; blood sampling, molecular and biochemical assays: MHH and AK; statistical analysis: AAA, MHH, SESB, AR, MKE, and MAAS; literature research: AAA, SESB, MHH, MAAS, AR, and ZFA; first manuscript drafting: AAA, SESB, and MHH. The authors approved the final version of the manuscript. Competing Interests The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Medical Research of the Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt (ethical approval code: SVU-MED-MBC004-2020-04), and was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Informed written consent was obtained from every participant who was anonymously enrolled.
References
Ahmed, Abd-Elmawgood, Hassan, Circulating protein carbonyls, antioxidant enzymes and related trace minerals among preterms with respiratory distress syndrome, J Clin Diagn Res
Ahmed, Hassan, Rashwan, Sayed, Meki, Myocardial injury induced by scorpion sting envenoming and evidence of oxidative stress in Egyptian children, Toxicon
Akira, Uematsu, Takeuchi, Pathogen recognition and innate immunity, Cell, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.015
Aly, Rahman, Alghamedi, Shehri, Alkalkami et al., Indicators of critical illness and predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients, Infect Drug Resist, doi:10.2147/IDR.S261159.
Berg, Bolt, Andersen, Owen, Zinc potentiates the antiviral action of human IFN-alpha tenfold, J Interf Cytokine Res, doi:10.1089/10799900152434330
Braun, Rosenfeldt, Pharmaco-nutrient interactions -a systematic review of zinc and antihypertensive therapy, Int J Clin Pract, doi:10.1111/ijcp.12040
Cai, Chen, Wang, Luo, Liu et al., Obesity and COVID-19 severity in a designated hospital in Shenzhen, China, Diabetes Care, doi:10.2337/dc20-0576
Cai, Cui, Zhu, Zhou, A hint on the COVID-19 risk: population disparities in gene expression of three receptors of SARS-CoV, Preprints, doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0408.v1
Cai, Zhang, Ma, Sun, Liang et al., Zinc binding activity of human metapneumovirus M2-1 protein is indispensable for viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo, J Virol, doi:10.1128/JVI.03488-14
Cain, Gent, Goodspeed, Leonard, Evaluation of olfactory dysfunction in the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center, Laryngoscope
Cakman, Kirchner, Rink, Zinc supplementation reconstitutes the production of interferon-alpha by leukocytes from elderly persons, J Interf Cytokine Res, doi:10.1089/jir.1997.17.469
Devaux, Rolain, Colson, Raoult, New insights on the antiviral effects of chloroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for COVID-19?, Int J Antimicrob Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105938
El-Masry, Sadek, Hassan, Ameen, Ahmed, Metabolic profile of oxidative stress and trace elements in febrile seizures among children, Metab Brain Dis
Eurosurveillance, Updated rapid risk assessment from ECDC on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: increased transmission in the EU/EEA and the UK, Euro Surveill, doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2003121
Gammoh, Rink, Zinc in infection and inflammation, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu9060624
Garg, Kim, Whitaker, 'halloran, Cummings et al., Hospitalization rates and characteristics of patients hospitalized with laboratoryconfirmed coronavirus disease 2019 -COVID-NET, 14 States, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6915e3
Ghweil, Hassan, Khodeary, Mohamed, Mohammed et al., None
Guan, Ni, Hu, Liang, Ou et al., China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19 (2020) Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China, N Engl J M e d, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
Haase, Rink, Multiple impacts of zinc on immune function, Metallomics, doi:10.1039/c3mt00353a
Huang, Tepaamorndech, The SLC30 family of zinc transporters -a review of current understanding of their biological and pathophysiological roles, Mol Asp Med, doi:10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.008
Ishida, Review on the role of Zn2+ ions in viral pathogenesis and the effect of Zn2+ Ions for host cell-virus growth inhibition, AJBSR, doi:10.34297/AJBSR.2019.02.000566
Jeong, Eide, The SLC39 family of zinc transporters, Mol Asp Med, doi:10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011
Kumar, Kubota, Chernov, Kasuya, Potential role of zinc supplementation in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19, Med Hypotheses, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109848.
Li, Li, Wu, Yang, Zhao et al., Therapeutic strategies for critically ill patients with COVID-19, Ann Intensive Care, doi:10.1186/s13613-020-00661-z
Lian, Zang, Wei, Ye, Hu et al., The zinc-finger protein ZCCHC3 binds RNA and facilitates viral RNA sensing and activation of the RIG-I-like receptors, Immunity, doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2018.08.014
Liu, Chen, Lin, Han, Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: a comparison with young and middle-aged patients, J Inf Secur, doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.005
Lowe, Fekete, Decsi, Methods of assessment of zinc status in humans: a systematic review, Am J Clin Dermatol, doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27230G
Lozada-Nur, Chainani-Wu, Fortuna, Sroussi, Dysgeusia in COVID-19: possible mechanisms and implications, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
Lyckholm, Heddinger, Parker, Coyne, Ramakrishnan et al., A randomized, placebo controlled trial of oral zinc for chemotherapy-related taste and smell disorders, J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother, doi:10.3109/15360288.2012.676618.
Mahase, Covid-19: death rate is 0.66% and increases with age, study estimates, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1327
Malik, Taneja, Devasenapathy, Rajeshwari, Zinc supplementation for prevention of acute respiratory infections in infants: a randomized controlled trial, Indian Pediatr, doi:10.1007/s13312-014-0503-z
Marhl, Grubelnik, Magdič, Markovič, Diabetes and metabolic syndrome as risk factors for COVID-19, Diabetes Metab Syndr, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.013
Mayor-Ibarguren, Busca-Arenzana, Robles-Marhuenda, A hypothesis for the possible role of zinc in the immunological pathways related to COVID-19 infection, Front Immunol, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.01736
Maywald, Wessels, Rink, Zinc signals and immunity, Int J Mol Sci, doi:10.3390/ijms18102222
Medicine, Goonhcoosaotc, of a program for the diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (
Miwa, Furukawa, Tsukatani, Costanzo, Dinardo et al., Impact of olfactory impairment on quality of life and disability, Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
Olechnowicz, Tinkov, Skalny, Suliburska, Zinc status is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid, and glucose metabolism, J Physiol Sci, doi:10.1007/s12576-017-0571-7
Pisano, Hilas, Zinc and taste disturbances in older adults: a review of the literature, Consult Pharm, doi:10.4140/TCP.n.2016.267
Prasad, Discovery of human zinc deficiency: its impact on human health and disease, Adv Nutr, doi:10.3945/an.112.003210
Sakhr, Hassan, Desoky, Possible associations of disturbed neurometals and ammonia with glycaemic control in type 1 diabetic children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Biol Trace Elem Res
Saleem, Okasha, Ibrahim, El-Hamd, Fayed et al., Biochemical assessments of seminal plasma zinc, testis-expressed sequence 101 and free amino acids and their correlations with reproductive hormones in male infertility, Biol Trace Elem Res, doi:10.1007/s12011-020-02310-9
Sandstead, Zinc deficiency. A public health problem?, Am J Dis Child, doi:10.1001/archpedi.1991.02160080029016
Seiden, Duncan, The diagnosis of a conductive olfactory loss, Laryngoscope
Singh, Gupta, Ghosh, Misra, Diabetes in COVID-19: prevalence, pathophysiology, prognosis and practical considerations, Diabetes Metab Syndr, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.004
Skalny, Rink, Ajsuvakova, Aschner, Gritsenko et al., Zinc and respiratory tract infections: perspectives for COVID-19 (review), Int J Mol Med, doi:10.3892/ijmm.2020.4575.
Speth, Carrera, Baptiste, Linares, Concentration dependent effects of zinc on angiotensinconverting enzyme-2 activity (1067.4), FASEB J, doi:10.1096/fasebj.28.1_supplement.1067.4
Temmel, Quint, Schickinger-Fischer, Klimek, Stoller et al., Characteristics of olfactory disorders in relation to major causes of olfactory loss, Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
Vaira, Salzano, Deiana, Riu, Anosmia and ageusia: common findings in COVID-19 patients, Laryngoscope, doi:10.1002/lary.28692
Vardavas, Nikitara, COVID-19 and smoking: a systematic review of the evidence, Tob Induc Dis, doi:10.18332/tid/119324
Velthuis, Van Denworm, Sims, Baric, Snijder et al., Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture, PLoS Pathog, doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001176
Wang, Jin, Ren, Li, Zhang et al., of Wuhan University Novel Coronavirus Management and Research Team (2020) Updating the diagnostic criteria of COVID-19 "suspected case" and "confirmed case" is necessary, Mil Med Res, doi:10.1186/s40779-020-00245-9
Wessels, Maywald, Rink, Zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu9121286
Wu, Chen, Cai, Xia, Zhou et al., Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China, JAMA Intern Med, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994.
Wu, Mcgoogan, Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26
Xue, Moyer, Peng, Wu, Hannafon et al., Chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109180
Yang, Zheng, Gou, Pu, Chen et al., Prevalence of comorbidities and its effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Int J Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.017.
Yasuda, Tsutsui, Infants and elderlies are susceptible to zinc deficiency, Sci Rep, doi:10.1038/srep21850
Zhang, Wang, Jia, Li, Hu et al., Risk factors for disease severity, unimprovement, and mortality in COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, China, Clin Microbiol Infect, doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2020.04.012.
Zhou, Yu, Du, Fan, Liu, Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 5, 11]], 'date-time': '2024-05-11T02:37:09Z', 'timestamp': 1715395029040}, 'reference-count': 62, 'publisher': 'Springer Science and Business Media LLC', 'issue': '11', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 7]], 'date-time': '2021-01-07T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1609977600000}, 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.springer.com/tdm'}, { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 7]], 'date-time': '2021-01-07T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1609977600000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.springer.com/tdm'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': ['link.springer.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 11]]}, 'DOI': '10.1007/s12011-020-02546-5', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 7]], 'date-time': '2021-01-07T03:03:16Z', 'timestamp': 1609988596000}, 'page': '4101-4108', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/springer_crossmark_policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 36, 'title': 'Olfactory Disturbances as Presenting Manifestation Among Egyptian Patients with COVID-19: ' 'Possible Role of Zinc', 'prefix': '10.1007', 'volume': '199', 'author': [ {'given': 'Aida A.', 'family': 'Abdelmaksoud', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ali A.', 'family': 'Ghweil', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2698-9438', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Mohammed H.', 'family': 'Hassan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Alaa', 'family': 'Rashad', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ashraf', 'family': 'Khodeary', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Zaky F.', 'family': 'Aref', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'given': 'Mennatallah Ali Abdelrhman', 'family': 'Sayed', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Mahmoud K.', 'family': 'Elsamman', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Shamardan E. S.', 'family': 'Bazeed', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '297', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 7]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': '2546_CR1', 'unstructured': 'WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. Available ' 'https://covid19.who.int/. Accessed October 11, 2020'}, { 'key': '2546_CR2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2003121', 'DOI': '10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2003121', 'volume': '25', 'author': 'ET Eurosurveillance', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Eurosurveillance ET (2020) Updated rapid risk assessment from ECDC on ' 'coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: increased transmission in ' 'the EU/EEA and the UK. Euro Surveill 25:2003121. ' 'https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2003121', 'journal-title': 'Euro Surveill'}, { 'key': '2546_CR3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Wu Z, McGoogan JM (2020) Characteristics of and important lessons from ' 'the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a ' 'report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and ' 'Prevention. JAMA. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.26', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.26'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '2546_CR4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '83', 'DOI': '10.1288/00005537-198801000-00017', 'volume': '98', 'author': 'WS Cain', 'year': '1988', 'unstructured': 'Cain WS, Gent JF, Goodspeed RB, Leonard G (1988) Evaluation of olfactory ' 'dysfunction in the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center. ' 'Laryngoscope 98(1):83–88', 'journal-title': 'Laryngoscope'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': '2546_CR5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '497', 'DOI': '10.1001/archotol.127.5.497', 'volume': '127', 'author': 'T Miwa', 'year': '2001', 'unstructured': 'Miwa T, Furukawa M, Tsukatani T, Costanzo RM, DiNardo LJ, Reiter ER ' '(2001) Impact of olfactory impairment on quality of life and disability. ' 'Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 127(5):497–503', 'journal-title': 'Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '2546_CR6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '9', 'DOI': '10.1097/00005537-200101000-00002', 'volume': '111', 'author': 'AM Seiden', 'year': '2001', 'unstructured': 'Seiden AM, Duncan HJ (2001) The diagnosis of a conductive olfactory ' 'loss. Laryngoscope 111(1):9–14', 'journal-title': 'Laryngoscope'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '2546_CR7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '635', 'DOI': '10.1001/archotol.128.6.635', 'volume': '128', 'author': 'AF Temmel', 'year': '2002', 'unstructured': 'Temmel AF, Quint C, Schickinger-Fischer B, Klimek L, Stoller E, Hummel T ' '(2002) Characteristics of olfactory disorders in relation to major ' 'causes of olfactory loss. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 128(6):635–641', 'journal-title': 'Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg'}, { 'key': '2546_CR8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1286', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu9121286', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'I Wessels', 'year': '2017', 'unstructured': 'Wessels I, Maywald M, Rink L (2017) Zinc as a gatekeeper of immune ' 'function. Nutrients 9:1286. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121286', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': '2546_CR9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '344', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.oooo.2020.06.016', 'volume': '130', 'author': 'F Lozada-Nur', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Lozada-Nur F, Chainani-Wu N, Fortuna G, Sroussi H (2020) Dysgeusia in ' 'COVID-19: possible mechanisms and implications. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral ' 'Pathol Oral Radiol 130(3):344–346', 'journal-title': 'Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol'}, { 'key': '2546_CR10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '624', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu9060624', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'NZ Gammoh', 'year': '2017', 'unstructured': 'Gammoh NZ, Rink L (2017) Zinc in infection and inflammation. Nutrients ' '9:624. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060624', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients'}, { 'key': '2546_CR11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2222', 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms18102222', 'volume': '18', 'author': 'M Maywald', 'year': '2017', 'unstructured': 'Maywald M, Wessels I, Rink L (2017) Zinc signals and immunity. Int J Mol ' 'Sci 18:2222. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102222', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci'}, { 'key': '2546_CR12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '548', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.008', 'volume': '34', 'author': 'L Huang', 'year': '2013', 'unstructured': 'Huang L, Tepaamorndech S (2013) The SLC30 family of zinc transporters – ' 'a review of current understanding of their biological and ' 'pathophysiological roles. Mol Asp Med 34:548–560. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.008', 'journal-title': 'Mol Asp Med'}, { 'key': '2546_CR13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '612', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011', 'volume': '34', 'author': 'J Jeong', 'year': '2013', 'unstructured': 'Jeong J, Eide DJ (2013) The SLC39 family of zinc transporters. Mol Asp ' 'Med 34:612–619. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2012.05.011', 'journal-title': 'Mol Asp Med'}, { 'key': '2546_CR14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '19', 'DOI': '10.1007/s12576-017-0571-7', 'volume': '68', 'author': 'J Olechnowicz', 'year': '2018', 'unstructured': 'Olechnowicz J, Tinkov A, Skalny A, Suliburska J (2018) Zinc status is ' 'associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid, and glucose ' 'metabolism. J Physiol Sci 68:19–31. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1007/s12576-017-0571-7', 'journal-title': 'J Physiol Sci'}, { 'key': '2546_CR15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '717', 'DOI': '10.1111/ijcp.12040', 'volume': '67', 'author': 'LA Braun', 'year': '2013', 'unstructured': 'Braun LA, Rosenfeldt F (2013) Pharmaco-nutrient interactions - a ' 'systematic review of zinc and antihypertensive therapy. Int J Clin Pract ' '67:717–725. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.12040', 'journal-title': 'Int J Clin Pract'}, { 'key': '2546_CR16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2040S', 'DOI': '10.3945/ajcn.2009.27230G', 'volume': '89', 'author': 'NM Lowe', 'year': '2009', 'unstructured': 'Lowe NM, Fekete K, Decsi T (2009) Methods of assessment of zinc status ' 'in humans: a systematic review. Am J Clin Dermatol 89:2040S–2051S. ' 'https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.27230G', 'journal-title': 'Am J Clin Dermatol'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': '2546_CR17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '438', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.immuni.2018.08.014', 'volume': '49', 'author': 'H Lian', 'year': '2018', 'unstructured': 'Lian H, Zang R, Wei J, Ye W, Hu MM, Chen YD, Zhang XN, Guo Y, Lei CQ, ' 'Yang Q, Luo WW, Li S, Shu HB (2018) The zinc-finger protein ZCCHC3 binds ' 'RNA and facilitates viral RNA sensing and activation of the RIG-I-like ' 'receptors. Immunity 49(3):438–448.e5. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2018.08.014', 'journal-title': 'Immunity'}, { 'key': '2546_CR18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '783', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.015', 'volume': '124', 'author': 'S Akira', 'year': '2006', 'unstructured': 'Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O (2006) Pathogen recognition and innate ' 'immunity. Cell 124:783–701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.015', 'journal-title': 'Cell'}, { 'key': '2546_CR19', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '21850', 'DOI': '10.1038/srep21850', 'volume': '6', 'author': 'H Yasuda', 'year': '2016', 'unstructured': 'Yasuda H, Tsutsui T (2016) Infants and elderlies are susceptible to zinc ' 'deficiency. Sci Rep 6:21850. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep21850', 'journal-title': 'Sci Rep'}, { 'key': '2546_CR20', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '853', 'DOI': '10.1001/archpedi.1991.02160080029016', 'volume': '145', 'author': 'HH Sandstead', 'year': '1991', 'unstructured': 'Sandstead HH (1991) Zinc deficiency. A public health problem? Am J Dis ' 'Child 145:853–859. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.1991.02160080029016', 'journal-title': 'Am J Dis Child'}, { 'key': '2546_CR21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '176', 'DOI': '10.3945/an.112.003210', 'volume': '4', 'author': 'AS Prasad', 'year': '2013', 'unstructured': 'Prasad AS (2013) Discovery of human zinc deficiency: its impact on human ' 'health and disease. Adv Nutr 4:176–190. ' 'https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.003210', 'journal-title': 'Adv Nutr'}, { 'key': '2546_CR22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1175', 'DOI': '10.1039/c3mt00353a', 'volume': '6', 'author': 'H Haase', 'year': '2014', 'unstructured': 'Haase H, Rink L (2014) Multiple impacts of zinc on immune function. ' 'Metallomics. 6:1175–1180. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3mt00353a', 'journal-title': 'Metallomics.'}, { 'key': '2546_CR23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '780', 'DOI': '10.1007/s13312-014-0503-z', 'volume': '51', 'author': 'A Malik', 'year': '2014', 'unstructured': 'Malik A, Taneja DK, Devasenapathy N, Rajeshwari K (2014) Zinc ' 'supplementation for prevention of acute respiratory infections in ' 'infants: a randomized controlled trial. Indian Pediatr 51:780–784. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1007/s13312-014-0503-z', 'journal-title': 'Indian Pediatr'}, { 'key': '2546_CR24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '6', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.ppat.1001176', 'volume': 'e1001176', 'author': 'AJ te Velthuis', 'year': '2010', 'unstructured': 'te Velthuis AJ, van denWorm SH, Sims AC, Baric RS, Snijder EJ, van ' 'Hemert MJ (2010) Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA ' 'polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication ' 'of these viruses in cell culture. PLoS Pathog e1001176:6. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001176', 'journal-title': 'PLoS Pathog'}, { 'key': '2546_CR25', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e109180', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0109180', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'J Xue', 'year': '2014', 'unstructured': 'Xue J, Moyer A, Peng B, Wu J, Hannafon BN, Ding WQ (2014) Chloroquine is ' 'a zinc ionophore. PLoS One 9:e109180. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109180', 'journal-title': 'PLoS One'}, { 'key': '2546_CR26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '105938', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105938', 'volume': '55', 'author': 'CA Devaux', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Devaux CA, Rolain JM, Colson P, Raoult D (2020) New insights on the ' 'antiviral effects of chloroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for ' 'COVID-19? Int J Antimicrob Agents 55:105938. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105938', 'journal-title': 'Int J Antimicrob Agents'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '2546_CR27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1067', 'DOI': '10.1096/fasebj.28.1_supplement.1067.4', 'volume': '28', 'author': 'R Speth', 'year': '2014', 'unstructured': 'Speth R, Carrera E, Jean-Baptiste JA, Linares A (2014) Concentration ' 'dependent effects of zinc on angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 activity ' '(1067.4). FASEB J 28(1):1067. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1096/fasebj.28.1_supplement.1067.4', 'journal-title': 'FASEB J'}, { 'key': '2546_CR28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '267', 'DOI': '10.4140/TCP.n.2016.267', 'volume': '31', 'author': 'M Pisano', 'year': '2016', 'unstructured': 'Pisano M, Hilas O (2016) Zinc and taste disturbances in older adults: a ' 'review of the literature. Consult Pharm 31:267–270. ' 'https://doi.org/10.4140/TCP.n.2016.267', 'journal-title': 'Consult Pharm'}, { 'key': '2546_CR29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1787', 'DOI': '10.1002/lary.28692', 'volume': '130', 'author': 'LA Vaira', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Vaira LA, Salzano G, Deiana G, De Riu G (2020) Anosmia and ageusia: ' 'common findings in COVID-19 patients. Laryngoscope 130:1787. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1002/lary.28692', 'journal-title': 'Laryngoscope'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '2546_CR30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '17', 'DOI': '10.1186/s40779-020-00245-9', 'volume': '7', 'author': 'YY Wang', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Wang YY, Jin YH, Ren XQ, Li YR, Zhang XC, Zeng XT, Wang XH, Zhongnan ' 'Hospital of Wuhan University Novel Coronavirus Management and Research ' 'Team (2020) Updating the diagnostic criteria of COVID-19 “suspected ' 'case” and “confirmed case” is necessary. Mil Med Res 7(1):17. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1186/s40779-020-00245-9', 'journal-title': 'Mil Med Res'}, { 'key': '2546_CR31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Medicine. GOoNHCOoSAoTC. Notice on the issuance of a program for the ' 'diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected ' 'pneumonia (trial sixth edition). (2020-02-19) [EB/OL] ' 'http://yzssatcmgovcn/zhengcewenjian/2020-02-19/13221html', 'DOI': '10.1148/radiol.2020200257'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '2546_CR32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '45', 'DOI': '10.1186/s13613-020-00661-z', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'L Li', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Li L, Li R, Wu Z, Yang X, Zhao M, Liu J, Chen D (2020) Therapeutic ' 'strategies for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Ann Intensive Care ' '10(1):45. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13613-020-00661-z', 'journal-title': 'Ann Intensive Care'}, { 'key': '2546_CR33', 'unstructured': 'COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) ' 'Treatment Guidelines. National Institutes of Health. Available at ' 'https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/. Accessed [17 July, ' '2020]'}, { 'key': '2546_CR34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2375', 'DOI': '10.2147/IDR.S263489', 'volume': '13', 'author': 'AA Ghweil', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Ghweil AA, Hassan MH, Khodeary A, Mohamed AO, Mohammed HM, Abdelazez AA, ' 'Osman HA, Bazeed SES (2020) Characteristics, outcomes and indicators of ' 'severity for COVID-19 among sample of ESNA Quarantine Hospital’s ' 'Patients, Egypt: a retrospective study. Infect Drug Resist 13:2375–2383', 'journal-title': 'Infect Drug Resist'}, { 'key': '2546_CR35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1509', 'DOI': '10.1007/s11011-018-0258-7', 'volume': '33', 'author': 'HMA El-Masry', 'year': '2018', 'unstructured': 'El-Masry HMA, Sadek AA, Hassan MH, Ameen HH, Ahmed HA (2018) Metabolic ' 'profile of oxidative stress and trace elements in febrile seizures among ' 'children. Metab Brain Dis 33:1509–1515', 'journal-title': 'Metab Brain Dis'}, { 'key': '2546_CR36', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '68', 'DOI': '10.1007/s12011-020-02063-5', 'volume': '198', 'author': 'HM Sakhr', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Sakhr HM, Hassan MH, Desoky T (2020) Possible associations of disturbed ' 'neurometals and ammonia with glycaemic control in type 1 diabetic ' 'children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Trace Elem ' 'Res 198:68–76', 'journal-title': 'Biol Trace Elem Res'}, { 'key': '2546_CR37', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '72', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.08.008', 'volume': '153', 'author': 'AE Ahmed', 'year': '2018', 'unstructured': 'Ahmed AE, Hassan MH, Rashwan NI, Sayed MM, Meki AMA (2018) Myocardial ' 'injury induced by scorpion sting envenoming and evidence of oxidative ' 'stress in Egyptian children. Toxicon 153:72–77', 'journal-title': 'Toxicon'}, { 'key': '2546_CR38', 'first-page': '17', 'volume': '11', 'author': 'AE Ahmed', 'year': '2017', 'unstructured': 'Ahmed AE, Abd-Elmawgood EA, Hassan MH (2017) Circulating protein ' 'carbonyls, antioxidant enzymes and related trace minerals among preterms ' 'with respiratory distress syndrome. J Clin Diagn Res 11:17–21', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Diagn Res'}, { 'key': '2546_CR39', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Saleem TH, Okasha M, Ibrahim HM, Abu El-Hamd M, Fayed HM, Hassan MH ' '(2020) Biochemical assessments of seminal plasma zinc, testis-expressed ' 'sequence 101 and free amino acids and their correlations with ' 'reproductive hormones in male infertility. Biol Trace Elem Res. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02310-9', 'DOI': '10.1007/s12011-020-02310-9'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '2546_CR40', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '767', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cmi.2020.04.012.', 'volume': '26', 'author': 'J Zhang', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Zhang J, Wang X, Jia X, Li J, Hu K, Chen G, Wei J, Gong Z, Zhou C, Yu H, ' 'Yu M, Lei H, Cheng F, Zhang B, Xu Y, Wang G, Dong W (2020) Risk factors ' 'for disease severity, unimprovement, and mortality in COVID-19 patients ' 'in Wuhan, China. Clin Microbiol Infect 26(6):767–772. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.04.012.', 'journal-title': 'Clin Microbiol Infect'}, { 'issue': '7', 'key': '2546_CR41', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '934', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994.', 'volume': '180', 'author': 'C Wu', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, Xia J, Zhou X, Xu S, Huang H, Zhang L, Zhou X, Du ' 'C, Zhang Y, Song J, Wang S, Chao Y, Yang Z, Xu J, Zhou X, Chen D, Xiong ' 'W, Xu L, Zhou F, Jiang J, Bai C, Zheng J, Song Y (2020) Risk factors ' 'associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in ' 'patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA ' 'Intern Med 180(7):934–943. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994.', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Intern Med'}, { 'issue': '18', 'key': '2546_CR42', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1708', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2002032', 'volume': '382', 'author': 'WJ Guan', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, Liu L, Shan H, Lei CL, DSC ' 'H, Du B, Li LJ, Zeng G, Yuen KY, Chen RC, Tang CL, Wang T, Chen PY, ' 'Xiang J, Li SY, Wang JL, Liang ZJ, Peng YX, Wei L, Liu Y, Hu YH, Peng P, ' 'Wang JM, Liu JY, Chen Z, Li G, Zheng ZJ, Qiu SQ, Luo J, Ye CJ, Zhu SY, ' 'Zhong NS, China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19 (2020) ' 'Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J ' 'Med 382(18):1708–1720. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2002032', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'key': '2546_CR43', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Liu K, Chen Y, Lin R, Han K (2020) Clinical features of COVID-19 in ' 'elderly patients: a comparison with young and middle-aged patients. J ' 'Inf Secur. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.005', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.005'}, { 'key': '2546_CR44', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '91', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.017.', 'volume': '94', 'author': 'J Yang', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Yang J, Zheng Y, Gou X, Pu K, Chen Z, Guo Q, Ji R, Wang H, Wang Y, Zhou ' 'Y (2020) Prevalence of comorbidities and its effects in patients ' 'infected with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J ' 'Infect Dis 94:91–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.017.', 'journal-title': 'Int J Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '2546_CR45', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'm1327', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.m1327', 'volume': '369', 'author': 'E Mahase', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Mahase E (2020) Covid-19: death rate is 0.66% and increases with age, ' 'study estimates. BMJ 369:m1327. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1327', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'issue': '10229', 'key': '2546_CR46', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1054e62', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3', 'volume': '395', 'author': 'F Zhou', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y (2020) Clinical course and risk factors ' 'for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a ' 'retrospective cohort study. Lancet 395(10229):1054e62. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3', 'journal-title': 'Lancet'}, { 'issue': '7', 'key': '2546_CR47', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1392', 'DOI': '10.2337/dc20-0576', 'volume': '43', 'author': 'Q Cai', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Cai Q, Chen F, Wang T, Luo F, Liu X, Wu Q, He Q, Wang Z, Liu Y, Liu L, ' 'Chen J, Xu L (2020) Obesity and COVID-19 severity in a designated ' 'hospital in Shenzhen, China. Diabetes Care 43(7):1392–1398. ' 'https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-0576', 'journal-title': 'Diabetes Care'}, { 'key': '2546_CR48', 'unstructured': 'Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Coronavirus disease 2019 ' '(COVID-19): people who are at higher risk for severe illness. 2020. ' 'Available at: ' 'https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-at-higher-risk.html. ' 'Accessed April 8, 2020'}, { 'issue': '15', 'key': '2546_CR49', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '458', 'DOI': '10.15585/mmwr.mm6915e3', 'volume': '69', 'author': 'S Garg', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Garg S, Kim L, Whitaker M, O’Halloran A, Cummings C, Holstein R, Prill ' 'M, Chai SJ, Kirley PD, Alden NB, Kawasaki B, Yousey-Hindes K, Niccolai ' 'L, Anderson EJ, Openo KP, Weigel A, Monroe ML, Ryan P, Henderson J, Kim ' 'S, Como-Sabetti K, Lynfield R, Sosin D, Torres S, Muse A, Bennett NM, ' 'Billing L, Sutton M, West N, Schaffner W, Talbot HK, Aquino C, George A, ' 'Budd A, Brammer L, Langley G, Hall AJ, Fry A (2020) Hospitalization ' 'rates and characteristics of patients hospitalized with ' 'laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 - COVID-NET, 14 States, ' 'March 1-30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 69(15):458–464. ' 'https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6915e3', 'journal-title': 'MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep'}, { 'key': '2546_CR50', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1995', 'DOI': '10.2147/IDR.S261159.', 'volume': '13', 'author': 'MH Aly', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Aly MH, Rahman SS, Ahmed WA, Alghamedi MH, Al Shehri AA, Alkalkami AM, ' 'Hassan MH (2020) Indicators of critical illness and predictors of ' 'mortality in COVID-19 patients. Infect Drug Resist 13:1995–2000. ' 'https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S261159.', 'journal-title': 'Infect Drug Resist'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '2546_CR51', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '671', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.013', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'M Marhl', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Marhl M, Grubelnik V, Magdič M, Markovič R (2020) Diabetes and metabolic ' 'syndrome as risk factors for COVID-19. Diabetes Metab Syndr ' '14(4):671–677. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.013', 'journal-title': 'Diabetes Metab Syndr'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '2546_CR52', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '303', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.004', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'AK Singh', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Singh AK, Gupta R, Ghosh A, Misra A (2020) Diabetes in COVID-19: ' 'prevalence, pathophysiology, prognosis and practical considerations. ' 'Diabetes Metab Syndr 14(4):303–310. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.004', 'journal-title': 'Diabetes Metab Syndr'}, { 'key': '2546_CR53', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Cai G, Cui X, Zhu X, Zhou J (2020) A hint on the COVID-19 risk: ' 'population disparities in gene expression of three receptors of ' 'SARS-CoV. Preprints, 2020020408. ' 'https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202002.0408.v1', 'DOI': '10.20944/preprints202002.0408.v1'}, { 'key': '2546_CR54', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '20', 'DOI': '10.18332/tid/119324', 'volume': '18', 'author': 'CI Vardavas', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Vardavas CI, Nikitara K (2020) COVID-19 and smoking: a systematic review ' 'of the evidence. Tob Induc Dis 18:20. ' 'https://doi.org/10.18332/tid/119324', 'journal-title': 'Tob Induc Dis'}, { 'key': '2546_CR55', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '28', 'DOI': '10.34297/AJBSR.2019.02.000566', 'volume': '2', 'author': 'T Ishida', 'year': '2019', 'unstructured': 'Ishida T (2019) Review on the role of Zn2+ ions in viral pathogenesis ' 'and the effect of Zn2+ Ions for host cell-virus growth inhibition. AJBSR ' '2:28–37. https://doi.org/10.34297/AJBSR.2019.02.000566', 'journal-title': 'AJBSR'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '2546_CR56', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '17', 'DOI': '10.3892/ijmm.2020.4575.', 'volume': '46', 'author': 'AV Skalny', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Skalny AV, Rink L, Ajsuvakova OP, Aschner M, Gritsenko VA, Alekseenko ' 'SI, Svistunov AA, Petrakis D, Spandidos DA, Aaseth J, Tsatsakis A, ' 'Tinkov AA (2020) Zinc and respiratory tract infections: perspectives for ' 'COVID-19 (review). Int J Mol Med 46(1):17–26. ' 'https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4575.', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Med'}, { 'key': '2546_CR57', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '6391', 'DOI': '10.1128/JVI.03488-14', 'volume': '89', 'author': 'H Cai', 'year': '2015', 'unstructured': 'Cai H, Zhang Y, Ma Y, Sun J, Liang X, Li J (2015) Zinc binding activity ' 'of human metapneumovirus M2-1 protein is indispensable for viral ' 'replication and pathogenesis in vivo. J Virol 89:6391–6405. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03488-14', 'journal-title': 'J Virol'}, { 'key': '2546_CR58', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '109848', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109848.', 'volume': '144', 'author': 'A Kumar', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Kumar A, Kubota Y, Chernov M, Kasuya H (2020) Potential role of zinc ' 'supplementation in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. Med Hypotheses ' '144:109848. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109848.', 'journal-title': 'Med Hypotheses'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '2546_CR59', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '111', 'DOI': '10.3109/15360288.2012.676618.', 'volume': '26', 'author': 'L Lyckholm', 'year': '2012', 'unstructured': 'Lyckholm L, Heddinger SP, Parker G, Coyne PJ, Ramakrishnan V, Smith TJ, ' 'Henkin RI (2012) A randomized, placebo controlled trial of oral zinc for ' 'chemotherapy-related taste and smell disorders. J Pain Palliat Care ' 'Pharmacother 26(2):111–114. ' 'https://doi.org/10.3109/15360288.2012.676618.', 'journal-title': 'J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother'}, { 'key': '2546_CR60', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '471', 'DOI': '10.1089/10799900152434330', 'volume': '21', 'author': 'K Berg', 'year': '2001', 'unstructured': 'Berg K, Bolt G, Andersen H, Owen TC (2001) Zinc potentiates the ' 'antiviral action of human IFN-alpha tenfold. J Interf Cytokine Res ' '21:471–474. https://doi.org/10.1089/10799900152434330', 'journal-title': 'J Interf Cytokine Res'}, { 'key': '2546_CR61', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '469', 'DOI': '10.1089/jir.1997.17.469', 'volume': '17', 'author': 'I Cakman', 'year': '1997', 'unstructured': 'Cakman I, Kirchner H, Rink L (1997) Zinc supplementation reconstitutes ' 'the production of interferon-alpha by leukocytes from elderly persons. J ' 'Interf Cytokine Res 17:469–472. https://doi.org/10.1089/jir.1997.17.469', 'journal-title': 'J Interf Cytokine Res'}, { 'key': '2546_CR62', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1736', 'DOI': '10.3389/fimmu.2020.01736', 'volume': '11', 'author': 'A Mayor-Ibarguren', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Mayor-Ibarguren A, Busca-Arenzana C, Robles-Marhuenda Á (2020) A ' 'hypothesis for the possible role of zinc in the immunological pathways ' 'related to COVID-19 infection. Front Immunol 11:1736. ' 'https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01736', 'journal-title': 'Front Immunol'}], 'container-title': 'Biological Trace Element Research', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s12011-020-02546-5.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12011-020-02546-5/fulltext.html', 'content-type': 'text/html', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s12011-020-02546-5.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 9, 24]], 'date-time': '2021-09-24T09:43:00Z', 'timestamp': 1632476580000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12011-020-02546-5'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 7]]}, 'references-count': 62, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '11', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 11]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['2546'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02546-5', 'relation': { 'has-preprint': [ { 'id-type': 'doi', 'id': '10.21203/rs.3.rs-107577/v1', 'asserted-by': 'object'}]}, 'ISSN': ['0163-4984', '1559-0720'], 'subject': [], 'container-title-short': 'Biol Trace Elem Res', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 7]]}, 'assertion': [ { 'value': '9 November 2020', 'order': 1, 'name': 'received', 'label': 'Received', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '13 December 2020', 'order': 2, 'name': 'accepted', 'label': 'Accepted', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '7 January 2021', 'order': 3, 'name': 'first_online', 'label': 'First Online', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'order': 1, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Compliance with Ethical Standards'}}, { 'value': 'The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.', 'order': 2, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Competing Interests'}}, { 'value': 'The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Medical Research of the ' 'Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt (ethical approval ' 'code: SVU-MED-MBC004-2020-04), and was conducted in accordance with the ' 'Declaration of Helsinki. Informed written consent was obtained from every ' 'participant who was anonymously enrolled.', 'order': 3, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate'}}, { 'value': 'This content has been made available to all.', 'name': 'free', 'label': 'Free to read'}]}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit