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Deficiency of antioxidants and increased oxidative stress in COVID-19 patients: A cross-sectional comparative study in Jigawa, Northwestern Nigeria

Muhammad et al., SAGE Open Medicine, doi:10.1177/2050312121991246
Feb 2021  
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Case control study with 50 symptomatic COVID-19 patients and 21 healthy controls in Nigeria, showing that COVID-19 patients had significantly lower levels of selenium and zinc, and vitamins A, C, and E. Control patients were younger than COVID-19 patients. The p value for zinc in Table 2 appears to be a typo.
Study covers selenium, zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin C.
Muhammad et al., 1 Feb 2021, Nigeria, peer-reviewed, 8 authors. Contact:
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Deficiency of antioxidants and increased oxidative stress in COVID-19 patients: A cross-sectional comparative study in Jigawa, Northwestern Nigeria
Yahaya Muhammad, Yamuna Aminu Kani, Sani Iliya, Jafaru Bunza Muhammad, Abubakar Binji, Abdurrahman El-Fulaty Ahmad, Muhd Bashir Kabir, Kabir Umar Bindawa, Armaya’u Ahmed
SAGE Open Medicine, doi:10.1177/2050312121991246
Introduction: The COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 which has infected over 74 million people, killing more than 1,600,000 million people around the world as of 17th December 2020. Accumulation of free radicals coupled by weakened antioxidant system leads to oxidative stress, which will further worsen respiratory diseases, COVID-19 inclusive. This study aimed to examine the levels of some antioxidants and oxidative stress markers in COVID-19 patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional comparative study in which 50 COVID-19 symptomatic patients who were on admission at the COVID-19 isolation center in Jigawa, Northwestern Nigeria, were recruited. Twenty one (21) apparently healthy individuals were included as controls. Levels of antioxidant trace elements (Se, Zn, Mg, Cu and Cr), 8-isoprostaglandin F2 alpha and malondialdehyde in the plasma and erythrocytes activity of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were determined. Results: The plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C and E were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in COVID-19 patients than controls. Activities of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were lower in COVID-19 subjects than controls (p < 0.001). The concentrations of Se, Zn, Mg and Cu were significantly lower (p < 0.001; p = 0.039; p < 0.001; and p < 0.001), respectively, in COVID-19 patients than controls, while chromium showed no significant difference (p = 0.605). Oxidative stress marker, 8-isoprostaglandin F2 alpha, was significantly higher (p = 0.049), while malondialdehyde was lower (p < 0.001) in COVID-19 patients than controls. Conclusion: In conclusion, COVID-19 patients are prone to depleted levels of antioxidant substances due to their increase utilization in counterbalancing the negative effect of free radicals. Furthermore, COVID-19 infection with other comorbidities, such as malaria, hypertension and diabetes, are at higher risk of developing oxidative stress.
Author contributions All authors contribute effectively in the development of the article; Y.M., Y.A.K., S.I. and M.B.K. designed the study, collected specimens and statistically analyzed the data. A.B., J.B.M., A.E.A., K.U.B. and A.Y.A. interpreted, discussed the findings and drafted the article. All authors reviewed and approved the article prior to submission Declaration of conflicting interests The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Ethical approval An ethical approval was waived by the HREC of Jigawa State department of infectious diseases, Rasheed Shekoni Specialist Hospital Dutse, as part of the isolation center policy to test patients on these parameters (Waiver No. RSSH/GEN/226/V.1/11). The research was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki concerning the ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Informed consent A written informed consent for inclusion into the study was obtained from each of the patients before participation in the study. They were made aware that all the information obtained will be treated confidential and would be used for research purpose only.
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